Tài liệu Sách tham khảo-phân loại và phương pháp giải nhanh bài tập hóa học vô cơ 12- bản full

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CU T H A N H T O A N ; (I I & PhUdng phdp gial nhanh BAI TAP • -•««>•' « loral NHAXUATBAN Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang YTel ChirongS. D A I Clfdll^G KIM M A I Cdc em hoc sinh Idp 12 than md'n! nam vChig kiS'n thiic va c6 the dat ket qua cao nha't trong cac k i thi, cac em hoc sinh c^n ren luyfin giai nhanh cac dang bai tap thucmg xuyfen, lifin tuc trong qua trinh hoc tap ciia minh. Di cac em c6 th6m tai Vitu tu ren luyfin cac k l nang giai bai tap, chupg t6i xin tran trong gioi thidu h6 sach: "Phdn loai vd phuong phdp giai nhanh bai tap hod hoc 12". ' •• PMn V6 CO g6m 5 chuong: ^ Chuong 5: Dai cuong \i kim loai Chuong 6: Kim loai k\6m - Kim loai ki^m th6 nh6m Chuong 7: Crom - Sat - D6ng Chiromg 8: Nhan bie't mot s6' chat v6 co va chu^n d6 dung djch Chuong 9: Hoa hoc vdri va'n d^ kinh i6, xa h6i va m6i trucmg Trong m6i chuong duoc trinh bay: A. Ly thuyd't co ban B. Phuong phap giai cac dang bai tap 1. Cau tao nguyen tiir: Nguyen tir ciia hSu hd't cac kim loai co s6' electron b Idp ngoai cung it (1, 2, 3 e). 2. Cau tao tinh the: Trong tinh th^ kim loai, nguydn tir va ion kim loai nlm a nhiJng niit ciia mang tinh th6', cac electron hoa tri chuyen dong tu do trong mang tinh the. 3. Lien ket kim loai: La lien ket duoc hinh thanh giOa cac qguySn ttr va ion kim loai trong mang tinh the do sir tham gia ciia cac electron tu do. I I . TINH C H A T CUA K I M L O A I 1. Tinh chat vat ly chung Cac kim loai deu dSn didn, dSn nhiet, deo, co anh kim la do cac electron tu do M6i bai tap trong sach duoc tac gia chon loc k l cang, la sir k6't tinh ciia kifi'n thiic CO tinh chat t6ng hop kd't hop v6i kinh nghidm nhilu nam luy6n thi. Cac bai tap nay co gia tri rat cao v^ n6i dung, co d6 tin cay rat 16n trong ki^m tra, danh gia. Cac bai tap duoc n6u ra trong tap sach d^u duoc giai chi tifi't, d^y dii, d6 hi^u va theo cac phuong phap giai nhanh. Tac gia xin b^y to long bid't on sau sSc su gop y chan thanh ciia cac ban d6ng nghifip va cac em hoc sinh. Chuc cac em dat kd't qua cao trong hoc tap. I. CAU T A O CUA K I M L O A I ' Tac gia trong kim loai gay ra. 2. Tinh chat vat ly rieng M6t !6' tinh chat vat ly nhu kh6'i luong riSng, nhiet d6 nong chay, tinh ciifng phu thu6c vao do b^n ciia lien ket kim loai, nguySn tir khdi, ki^u mang tinh th^,... ciia kim loai 3. Tinh that hoa hoc chung cua kim loai. Cac kim loai deu CO tinh khir: M > M"" + ne Nguyt n nhan: Cac electron hoa trj ciia nguydn tir kim loai lien k6't yd'u vdi hat nhan nguydn tii, do do cac kim loai co kha nang nhuong electron de tao thanh ion duong. a. Tac dung v&i phi kim Hdu hift cac kim loai khir duoc phi kim thanh ion am. Thf du: Mia sach Khang Vi^t xin tran trgng giai thi$u tai Quy dgc gid vd xin idng nghe mgi y kim dong gop, decuon sack ngdy cdng hay han, botch han. Thu xin giti ve: Cty T N H H Mpt Thanh Vien - Djch Van hoa Khang Vi$t. 71, Dinh Tien Hoang, P. Dakao, Quan 1, TP. H C M Tel: (08) 39115694 - 39111969 - 39111968 - 39105797 - Fax: (08) 39110880 Ho|c Email: khangvietbookstore@yahoo.com.vn 4A1 + 3 0 , — ^ Hg + S 2A1A > HgS : . . h. Tac dung vdi axit * D6'i y&i dung dich HCl, H:S04 loang: Cac kiin loai dung trudc H trong day hoat d6ng hod hoc (day dien hoa) khir duoc ion (H3O*) ciia cac axit nay thanh H2: M + nH* > M"" + - H , t * D6'i v5i H2SO4 dac, nong; HNO3: nau ha cac kim loai (triT Au, Pt) khii duoc N va- S trong cac axit nay xu6ng s<3 oxi hoa thap hon. Thi du: 3Cu + 8HNO,(l) - The' dien cue chu£n cua k i m loai cdn do duoc cha'p nhan bang sua't difen dOng ciia pin tao bcri dien cue hidro chudn va diSn cue chudn cua k i m loai cSn do. > 3Cu(NO,)2 + 2NO + 4 H , 0 2Fe + 6H3S04(d) c. Tac dung vdi H2O '" > Fe2(S04)3 + SSO, + 6H3O t - Cac k i m loai c6 tinh khir manh nhir k i m loai kiem, k i m loai kidm tho (Ca, Sr, Ba, truofc M g trong day dien hoa) khir H^O d6 dang 6 nhiet do thircmg. Thi du: 2Na + 2H.O po „+ M - Mot s6' kim loai khac (nhu M g , Zn, Fe,...) khir duoc hoi nuoc d nhiet d6 cao: MgO + H , Fe + Cu-" > > * 6 catot (cue - ) : Xay ra sU khir: M hoac X" hoac Quyudrc: E ^ H ' / H ^ < = 0,00 V. > 2W +2e 2H2O X + me — > 4 H ' + O , + 4e - Neu anot (cue +) kh6ng tro thi anot bj an mon (tan ddn): A >A"" + ae - Tinh khoi luong cac chat thoat ra 6 didn cue: > 0 (luon diromg) - Dien cue hidro chudn : Pt ( H , , 1 a t m ) / H " ( I M ) : 20H" + H . 2 H , 0 + 2e * d anot (cue +): Xay ra sU oxi hoa: - Sua't dien dong ciia pin dien hoa: La hieu ciia the didn cue duong (E,+)) v6i th6' dien cue am (£,.,): 5. The dien circ chuan ciia kim loai M M " " + ne Xay ra su oxi hoa chat khir. E ° pi„) = E V ) - E V , > 0 (sua't dien dong chuan) E,pi„), E ° p | , „ phu thuoc vao ban chat ciia k i m loai lam dien cue, n6ng d6 dung dich va nhiet do. V: - Phan ling hoa hoc or cac dien cUc trong binh dien phan: • 6 cue duong (catot): Xay ra sir khu chat oxi hoa. H, [kh] - Sir dien phan la qua trinh oxi hoa - khijf xay ra 0 be mat cac didn cue khi c6 dong - Pin dien hoa tao bdi hai cap oxi hoa - khu, trong do: E,-, > [oxh]j4„ + dien mot chi6u di qua chat dien l i nong chay hoac dung dich chat dien l i . - Pin d'ltn hoa la thiet bi trong do nang lugng ciia phan ling oxi hoa - khir (hoa nang) chuyen thanh dien nang. - - E IV. S l T B I E N PHAN 2. Pin dien hoa. = H2+/H2 (Dill) [oxh|„,„h + [kh] ,„,„h Dang oxi hoa (M"*) va dang khu ( M ) ciia ciing m6t k i m loai tao nen m6t cap oxi hoa - khu ( M " 7 M ) , giOa chung c6 m6'i quan hd: E(pi,„ (pill) hoa chat khir manh hon sinh ra chat oxi hoa yeu hon va chat khu yeu hon: Cui 1. Cap oxi hoa - khurcua kim loai • O cue am (anot): ^ — Phan ling giOa hai cap oxi hoa - khir xay ra theo chieu chat oxi hoa manh hon se oxi Fe-" + Cu ( po /M oxi hoa - khir theo quy tac a. III. DAY D I E N HOA C U A K I M L O A I M " " +ne — 4. Quy tac anpha (a ) 1 Day didn hoa ciia k i m loai cho phep d u doan chieu eua phan ling giCra hai cap K i m loai manh hon (khong tac dung v6'i H^O) day duoc k i m loai y€u hon ra khoi dung djch mu6'i. > FeSO, + (p,„) (Neu M diing truoc H trong day dien hoa). 3Fe + 4 H . O — ^ Fe304 + 4 H : d. Tac dung vai dung dich niuoi cua kim loai Thi du: Fe + CuSO^Cdd) C (Neu M durng sau H trong day dien hoa). > 2NaOH + H.T M g + H^O.h, — ^ — m = i Trong do A.I.t n.F m : Khoi lugng chat thu dugc 6 dien cue, ti'nh bang gam. A : K h o i lugng mol cua chat thu dugc 6 dien cue. n: 56' electron ma nguyen t u hoac ion da nhan. I: Cuong do dong dien ( A ) . ,. t: Thoi gian dien phan (s). F: Hang so Faraday (F = 96500 C/ mol). . - Tinh s6' mol electron trao d 6 i : n . trao ddi = I t / F (mol) r 1" Phdn locii va pluMni^ phc'ip f-idi BT H6a hoc 12 -Cu Thanh Toan HgS + O . V . Sir A N M O N K I M L O A I 1 . S u an mon hoa hoc va su an mon dien hoa -Giong nhau: -Khdc nhau: i D^u c6 ban chat la phan ung oxi hoa - khir. * Trong an mon hoa hoc khdng hinh thanh dong dien. * Trong an mon dien hoa c6 hinh thanh dong electron (cac electron dirac di chuyen thanh dong, tir cue am d6n cue duong => tao pin difin hoa). 2. C a c dieu kien xay ra an mon dien hoa hoc - Cac difin cue phai khae nhau ban chat. - Cac didn cue phai tid'p xiic true tiep hoac gian tiS'p vdi nhau qua day dSn. - Cac dien cue cung tiep xuc vdri dung dich chat dien l i . Chu y; Thie'u 1 trong 3 dieu kifen tren se khdng xay ra an mon dien hoa hoc, ma se xay ra an mon hoa hoc. > H g + SO, Ag,S + O , — ^ 2 A g + SO, Fe^Oj + 3CO *Thidu: CrA " " ' 2Fe + 3CO, + 2A1 '" ZnO + C > 2Cr + A U O j Z n + CO Chu v; K h i CO nong chi khir duoc cac ion k i m loai trong cac oxit diing sau kem trong day dien hoa, thi du FeO, PbO, C u O , . . . 3. Phuomg phap dien phan * Casa: Dung dong didn m6t chieu de khir cac ion k i m loai. r, * Phqm vi dp dung: Co the diSu che duoc hdu het cac k i m loai. - Dieu che' k i m loai c6 tinh khir manh nhu L i , Na, K , A l , . . . bang each dien phan nhung hop chat (mud'i, baza, oxit) nong chay ciia chiing. - Dieu che' k i m loai c6 tinh khir trung binh va k i m loai c6 tinh khir yeu nhu Z n , 3. Chong an mon kim loai - Bi6n phap bao \t be mat: scm, trang, ma, b6i diu m5, phii chat deo,... \tn hi C u , . . . bang each dien phan dung djch mu6'i cua chiing. > 2Na+ *r/(/c/M.-2NaCl mat k i m loai. - Bidn phap bao vt ditn hoa: Diing k i m loai c6 tfnh khir manh hom d^ bio vfi ^n"^.^""i" ) 4 A I 2AI3O3 (anot hi sinh). Q, 2CUSO4 + 2 H , 0 +30, 2Cu + 2H,S04 + O^ ^ VI. PHUONG PHAP D I E U C H E K I M L O A I 1 . Phuofng phap thuy luyen (phuong phap udt) * Ca Dung nhOng dung dich thich hop, nhu dung djch H 2 S O 4 , N a O H , sff: NaCN,... de hoa tan k i m loai hoac hop chat ciia k i m loai va tach ra khoi phan khong C-Ac B . P H U C M ( 5 P H A P GJAO 'D:^Na BAO T^P Dang 1 : Bai tap k i m loai tac dung vol dung djch muo'i, axit va phi kim tan CO trong quang. Sau do cac ion k i m loai trong dung djch duoc khir bang k i m loai c6 tinh khir 1 . Kh6'i luong la kem giam khi ngam la kem vao dung dich (gia thie't khi k i m loai manh hem. thoat ra bam he't vao la kem, kem chi bi oxi hoa boi ion k i m loai) * Phant vi dp dung: Duoc diing de' dieu che nhOng k i m loai c6 tinh khir yS'u nhu Cu, H g , A u , . . . . A. CdCl,. Di6u che bac tir quang chira bac sunfua: * Thi du: Ag.S + 4NaCN 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn > 2Ag + Na.[Zn(CN)4] x nhiet do cao bang cac chat k h u manh nhu C, CO, H , hoac A l , k i m loai k i ^ m , k i m loai kiem th6. vi dp dung: Uhg dung r6ng rai trong cong nghiep de di^u che' nhffng kim loai c6 d6 hoat dong trung binh n h u Z n , Fe, Sn, Pb, Cr,... V 6 i k i m loai kern hoat dong nhu A g , Hg thi chi cin dot chay quang cung da thu duoc k i m loai ma khdng phai khiJr bang cac tac nhan khac. D . CUSO4. gidi Cac PTPU" xay ra: Zn * Ca sa: Khir nhUng ion k i m loai trong cac hop chat thucmg la exit kim loai o C. PbCNOj),. Hu&ng ddn > 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Na,S 2. Phuong phap nhiet luyen * Phqm B. A g N O j . Am +CdCl, = 112x > Cdi +Zna, ^'f- X (mol) «>•:"' - 65x > 0 => kh(5i luong la Z n tang. Z n + PbCNO,), X A m = 207x - 65x > 0 Zn + 2AgN03 X „ •,, i > Pbl X --^ ; , kh6'i luong la Z n tang. 2x ' ;; + ZnCNOj), (mol) > 2Agi ' + Zn(N03), • Am=:2.108x-65x>0=>kh6'iluonglaZntang. ' " , ^ , :^ ' ' ^ , . Phan loai va phirati}> phi'ip i^iai BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cu Thanh Toan Z n + CUSO4 PTPlT: > Cu 4^ + ZnS04 X M + Cd(N03), > Cdi X +M(N03)2 X (ii2-M).x x(mol) 0,47 ' A m = 64x - 65x < 0 => kh6'i lirong l a kem g i a m . Dap an dung la D. M + PbCNOj), > P b i + M(N03)2 2. Cho a gam h6n hop bot cac kim loai N i va Cu vao dung djch A g N O , dir, khuS'y k l m6t thofi gian cho den khi phan ling k^'t thiic, thu duoc 54 gam k i m loai. Mat khac, cung cho a gam h6n hop bot cac k i m loai tren vao dung djch CUSO4 du, khua'y kT cho den khi phan ling ket thuc, thu duoc k i m loai c6 khoi luong bang (a + 0,5) gam. Gia trj cua a la A . 13,5 g. B. 15,5 g. C. 18,6 g. D . 20,4 g. Goi X, y \&n luot la s6' mol N i , Cu trong h6n hgfp. Ta c6: a = 59x + 64y Cu + 2 A g N 0 , X „: "AgNO., = 0 , 1 . X (mol). => A g N O j phan iJng het, va mot phSn Cu(N03)2 da phan iJng: Fe + Cu(N03)2 64x + 64y = a + 0,5 = 59x + 64y + 0,5 ' =:>5x = 0,5 = > x = 0 , l (2) K h i 1 mol Fe T i r ( l , 2 ) ^ x = 0 , l ; y = 0,15. > Cu i + Fe(N03)2 > 1 mol Cu => kh6'i luong tang 8 gam K h i khoi luong tang 1,72 - 1,6 = 0,12g => so mol Fe da phan ung la Vay a = 59. 0,1 + 64.0,15 = 15,5 Dap an diing la B. = 0 , 0 1 5 (mol) < 0,02. 3. Hai la k i m loai ciing chat, c6 khoi luong bang nhau: M o t duoc ngam vao dung dich Cd(N0,)2; mot duoc ngam vao dung djch PbCNO,),. K h i phan ling, k i m loai diu bj oxi hoa thanh ion k i m loai 2+. Sau mot thai gian, la'y cac la k i m loai ra 8 Vay tong khoi luong Fe da phan irng la mp, = (0,01 + 0,015). 56 = 1,40 (gam) khoi dung djch thi tha'y kh6'i luong la k i m loai duoc ngam trong mu6'i cadimi tang them 0,47%; con khoi luong la kim loai kia tang them 1,42%. Gia thiet rang, trong hai phan ung tren khoi luong kim loai tham gia phan ufng la nhu nhau. C. Cu. lirnmfr M h;in rtaH 5. De khir ion Cu"* trong dung djch CUSO4 c6 the diing k i m loai B. K. C. Fe. D . Na. Huong dan gidi D. Mg. De khCr ion Cu-* trong dung djch CUSO4 c6 the dung k i m loai Fe: Hu&ng dan gidi K l hifiu k i m loai do la M , s6' mol M phan ume la x: khA'i Dap an diing la A . A. Ba. K i m loai da diing la B.Fe. 0,2 = 0,02 0,02. 108 - 0,01. 56 = 1,6 (gam) < 1,72 (gam). y A.Zn. D . 1,72 gam. Truofctien: Fe + 2 A g N 0 3 > 2 A g i + Fe(N03)2 ' K h i 0,02 m o l A g N O j phan ling het thl khoi luong thanh k i m loai se tang: ' ' + NiS04 Cu + C u S 0 4 - ^ Taco: 100 gam vao 100 m l dung djch h6n hop g6m Theo bai ra: ncu(N03)2 = 0 , 1 . 0,2 = 0,02 (mol); (1) 108 * PTPU" xay ra khi cho N i , Cu + CuS04(dd, dir): > Cui Dap an dung la A . Hu&ng dan gidi =>x + y = 0,25 N i + CUSO4 2 112-M 0,47 = 3 3 6 - 3 M = > 2 M = 129=^M«65(Zn) 2y 2x + 2y = ^ vao thanh sdt). K h o i luong sat da phan ung la A . 1,40 gam. B. 0,84 gam. C. 2,16 gam. 54 Tac6: 1,42 sach lam kh6 can duoc 101,72 gam (gia thiet cac k i m loai tao thanh deu bam het > 2 A g l +Cu(N03)2 y = [2) Cu(N03)2 0,2M va A g N O j 0,2M. Sau mot thdi gian lay thanh k i m loai ra, rua +Ni(N03). 2x X 'y'^' 207-M 4. Nhiing mot thanh sdt nang * PTPU" xay ra khi cho N i , Cu + AgNO^Cdd, du): > 2Ag>l (207-M).x^M2 Uy(2):(l)taduoc: =>207-M Hu&ng dan gidi N i + 2AgNO., Taco: la m tn\ Phdn loai va phuang phdp gidi BT Hoa hoc 12 - CM TIU. Fe + 6. ! an ncu(N03)2 = 0 , l m o l > Cu + FeS04 CUSO4 Dap an dung la C . khu ion Fe'* trong dung dich thanh ion Fe'* c6 ths' diing m6t lugng du A. kim loai Cu. B. kim loai Ba. C. kim loai Ag. D. kim loai Mg. Hu&ng ddn gidi Thii tu phan iJng: Fe + 2AgN03 ^ Fe(N03)2 + 2Ag 40,01 ^ 0 , 0 2 Fe D6' khii ion Fe'* trong dung dich thanh ion Fe"* c6 the dung m6t luong dir kim loai Cu: Cu + 2Fe'* > Cu"* + 2Fe-* 7;; 0,02 , + Cu(N03)2 - > C u 4 + Fe(N03)2 ,< • ; >I (0,05-0,01)-^ 0,04 ^ 0 , 0 4 Vay m - m^g + ' = 0,02.108 + 0,04.64 = 4,72 g Dap an dung la D. Dap an dung la A. 7. Cho day cac kim loai: Cu, Ni, Zn, Mg, Ba, Ag. S6' kim loai trong day phan ting ducfc vdi dung djch FeCl, la A. 5. B.4. C. 3. Hu&ng ddn gidi 10. Cho m gam b6t sat vao dung dich h6n hcfp gom 0,15 mol CuS04va 0,2 mol HCl. Sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu duoc 0,725m gam h6n hop kim loai. Gia tri cua m la D.6. A. 16,0. B. 18,0. PTHH: => Fe du => C U S O 4 va HCl 2) Ni + 2FeCl3 ^ NiCl2 + 2FeCl2 h6i. Fe + CUSO4 - > F e S 0 4 + C u i 3 Z n C l 2 + 2Fe 4) 3 M g + 2FeCl3 ^ 3 M g C l 2 + 2Fe 5) 3Ba + 6 H 2 O + 2FeCl3 ^ 3BaCl2 + 2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2 8. Cho h6n hop gom Fe va Mg vao dung dich AgN03, khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu duoc dung dich X (g6m hai muoi) va chat rSn Y (gom hai kim loai). Hai mu6'i trong X la A. M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 v a Fe(N03)2. B. Fe(N03)3va M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 C. Fe(N03)3 va AgNOj D. AgN03 va M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 . 0,15 <-0,15 ^ Fe -> F e C l 2 + H 2 t + 2HC1 0,1 <- Dap an dung la A. 0,2 Theo bai ra: mp^ ,d^) + m^u = 0,725m => m - 56. (0,15 + 0,1) + 0,15.64 = 0,725m =>0,275m =4,4 ^ m = 16,0 A. 10,95 B. 13,20 (Vi Fe con du nen AgNO, het, khong the sinh ra FeCNO,),) AgNO3 0 , l M va C U ( N O 3 ) 2 0,5M; khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu duoc m gam cha't ran X. Gia trj cua m la C. 4,48. Huong ddn gidi Theo bai ra: np, =0,05mol; n^gNOj =0,02mol D. 15,20 . nFe(N03)3 -0,15.1 =0,15(mol);nc„(NO3)2 =0,15.1 =0,15(mol) Dap an dung la A. B.3,20. C. 13,80 Huong ddn gidi Theobaira: n^, = 5,4/27 = 0,2(mol) - X gom hai mu6'i => Hai mu6'i la MgCNOj)! va FeCNOj), A-4,08. Dap an dung la A. Cu(N03)2 I M . Ket thuc phan feg thu duoc m gam ran. Gia tri ciia m la - Y gom hai kim loai => Hai kim loai la Ag, Fe du b6t sat vao 200 ml dung dich gdm 0,15 11. Hoa tan 5,4 gam bot A l vao 150 ml dung djch A chiia Fe(N03)3 I M va Huong ddn gidi 9. Cho 2,8 gam D. 11,2. VI sau phan ling thu duoc h6n hop kim loai (Cu, Fe du) 1) Cu + 2FeCl3 ^ C U C I 2 + 2 F e C l 2 3) 3 Z n + 2FeCl3 C. 16,8. Huong ddn gidi D. 4,72. V Thirtutrong day dian hoa: Al^+ /A^Fe^* /Fe;Cu^^ /Cu;Fe^^ /Fe^^ Dovay,thiirtircacPTHH: Al + 3Fe^^^Al^^+3Fe2+ 0,05 -> 0,15-^ 2A1 " + 3Cu2+ 0,1 <-0,15 0,15(mol) 3Cui+2Al^+ 0,15(mol) 11 Phan loai vaphifcfn^phiip fiidi />/ //oti hoc 12 -Cii ' h.i / )/; 2A1 + SFe^"" ^ 3Fe i +2A\^^ 0,05 0,075 ^ 0,075(mol) Vay m = mcu+ mp, =0,15.64+ 0,075.56 = 13,80(g) » a p an dung la C. 12. Cho a mol bot kem vao dung djch c6 hoa tan b mol Fe(NO,),. Tim dieu kien lien he giOa a va b de sau khi ket thiic phan ung khong c6 kim loai. A. a > 2b B. b > 3a C. b > 2a D. b = 2a/3 Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet 14. Cho 29,8 gam h6n hcrp bot gom Zn va Fe vao 600ml dung djch CUSO4 0,5M. Sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu dugc dung dich X va 30,4 gam h6n hop kim loai. Ph^n tram vd khdi lucmg ciia Fe trong h6n hop ban ddu la A. 43,63%' B. 56,37% C. 64,42% D. 37,58% Huong ddn gidi ,. Theobaira: ncu,so4 =0'60,5 = 0,3(mol) Vi khdi luong hdn hop kim loai sau phan ling lodi hon khdi luong hdn hop tru6c phan ling (30,4g > 29,8g) => Fe da phan ling mot phdn. Do do, CUSO4 da phan Huong ddn gidi Di sau phan ung khong c6 kim loai thi luomg Zn (phan ung het) chi khu ling het, hdn hop kim loai sau phan ling gdm Cu va Fe dir. Fe-^^-^Fe^^ Goi X , y, z Idn lirot la sd mol Zn, Fe phan ling, Fe con du. Zn + CUSO4 -> ZnS04 + Cu i PTHH: Zn + 2 F e ( N 0 , ) , -> Z n ( N 0 , ) 2 + 2Fe(N03)2 Ban ddu: a b (mol) X Phan ung: a 2a (mol) Fe + CUSO4 -> FeS04 + Cu i Do do b > 2a thi Zn phan ling het (bj tan het) va Fe'^^ 13. Cho h6n hop kim loiii Mg, Zn, Fe vao dung dich chiia AgNO, va CuCNO,),. Sau khi phan ling xay ra hoiin toan thu duoc dung dich X g6m 3 muoi va chat rSn Y gom ba kim loai. Ba mudi trong X la A. Mg(N03)3, Fe(N03),, AgNO., B. Mg(N03)„ Zn(NO.,)„ Cu(N03), C. Mg(N03),, Zn(N03),, Fe(NO,,), D. Mg(NO.,):, Zn(NO,,)., Fe(NO,). Hu&ng ddn gidi Thu" tir cac kim loai nay trong day dien hoa: Mg2+ /Mg;Zn2^ / Z n ; Fe^^ /FeiCu^^ /Cu;(Fe-'^ /Fe2+);Ag^ / A g => Kha nang phan ling ciia cac kim loai: Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu > Ag Do do 3 kim loai sau phan ling la: Ag;Cu;Fe . Vi Fe con du nen: + Mg, Zn phan ling het => c6 mu6'i Mg(N03)2 '^"(^^^.Oi + Mu6'i Cu(N03)2;AgNO, het => khong c6 cac mu6'iCu(N03)2 ,AgN03 - > X - > y ^ y x + y=0,3 Fe^^ (dd) Dap an diing la C. ,. ^ Taco: X -> y 65x + 56.(y + z) = 29,8 56z + 64.(x + y) = 30,4 Giai ra ta dugc: x =0,2;y = 0,l;z = 0,2 56.(y + z).100% 56.(0,1 + 0,2). 100% vay: %mp, = — ^ '=— — = 56,37% 29,8 29,8 Dap an dung la B. 15. Cho a mol A l vao dung dich chiia b mol Fe"* va c mol Cvr*. Ket thiic phan ling thu duoc dung djch chiia 2 loai ion kim loai. Ket lufln nao sau day la diing? , 2b 2(b + c) A. — < a < — ^ 3 3 3 3 2(b + c) 2(b + c) C.^ Cu-' het (Cu-* phan ling trudc Fe*); A l het (vi Fe"* con du). trong dung dich sau phan umg. + Kh6ng tao ra muoi Fe(N03)^ ma tao ra mu6'i Fe(NO,)2 ' 2A1 + 3Cu2^ PTPlT: j,.,,. , (D , — <— c(mol) vay 3 mu6'i trong X la Mg(N03)2 ;Zn(N03)2 ;Fe(N03)2 • '' ' ' > 3Cu I +2A1^+ Dap an dung la D. > 3Fe i + 2A13+ 2A1 + 3Fe^^ ( a 2c 1 3 3 2 a 20 3 (2) hu>'A Cty TNHH Phdii locii vu pliif plu'ip i^idi BT Hoa hoc 12 — Cu Thanh Toan (I) - V i Fe-* con dir (phan irng 2) nfen: 3a => 2 - . a-- 2c ^ 3 18. Cho m gam bot sat tac dung vdi 175 gam dung djch AgN03 34%, sau phan ling Fe(N03)3 trong dung dich X la ; C. 17,6 D. 114,8 Hu&ng ddn gidi Theobaira: D.9,81% . - Trong dung djch sau phan irng khdng c6 A g N O j => A g N O j da phan ting het. So 66 phan ling: = 0,35(mol) V i dung djch X khdng con A g N O j => A g N O , het => n^g - nAgN03 = 0,35(mol)=>mAg = 0,35.108 = 37,8 (gam) => 37,8 = 4,5m =:>m = 8,4(gam)=>np^ = 8 , 4 / 5 6 = 0,15(mol) Goi X, y \k\t la sd mol Fe(N03)2 va Fe(N03)3 Ta c6: 2x + 3y = 0,35 (bao toan electron) y = 0,15 (bao toan nguyen t d sat) Giai ra ta duoc: - V i dung djch sau phan ling thu duoc 3 muoi => Fe, Cu phan ung het Ta c6: n AgN03 = " J ^ ^ X + nAgN03 =0>6(mol) Fe,Cu + A g N O j ^ C. 8,31% (11) 16. Cho m gam h6n hop bot X gom Fe, Cu vao 600ml dung djch A g N O , I M . Sau B. 14,8 B. 12,36% Hu&ng ddn gidi 3 A . 64,8 ^'4* thu duoc dung djch X chi chiia 2 mudi sat va 4,5m gam cha't ran. Ndng d6 ciJa ^ 3a \b + c) c < b = > — < b + c =J'a<-— 2 3 2c 2 ( b + c) Tir(I),(II) Khans Con lai Ag khdng phan ung, luong con lai dung bang luong ban ddu. Dap an dung la B. - V i A l phan utig vijfa du hoac con dir b phan utig (1) n6n: ^2c a > — 3 MTV DVVH vay C,,,o •^ x = 0,1; y = 0,05 ) ="'"^•^^^•'"'^^-8,31% Fe(N03)3 DapandanglaC. 175 + 8 , 4 - 3 7 , 8 Chu V. K h d i luong phdn dung dicll sau phan ling: Fe (NO3 \u (NO3 \(NO3 )3 + A g i •"dd = ""ddAgNOj + "Ipe - "lAg4. m + m ddAgN03 ""^Ag"^ """"^ddsau 19. Cho m , gam A l vao 100ml dung dich gdm Cu(N03)2 0,3M va A g N O , 0,3M. Sau khi cac phan ung xay ra hoan toan thi thu duoc m j gam chat ran X. Neu cho ^ m + mddAgN03 =0,6.108 + (m,dAgNO3 " ^ ^ j m j gam X tac dung vdi luong du dung djch HCl thi thu duoc 0,336 lit khi (o = > m = 0 , 6 . 1 0 8 - 5 0 = 14,8(gam) CM Dap an diing la B . v: Cac PTPLT xay ra: Fe + 2 A g N 0 3 -> F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + dktc). Gia trj ciJa m , va m^ Mn luot la A.0,54va5,16 B. I , 0 8 v a 5 , 4 3 Theo bai ra: ncu(N03)2 " ^ ' ' -^'^ " 0 , 0 3 m o l ; "AgNOj = 0,1.0,3 = 0,03mol;nH2 = 0 , 3 3 6 / 2 2 , 4 = 0,015mol Ag F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + A g N 0 3 -> F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 + ^ 8 ^ 17. Ngam h6n hop 3 kirn loai Fe, Cu, A g trong luong d u dung djch cha't X , khua'y So dd phan ung xay ra: A l ^l^ff^ ky cho den khi phan iJng ket thiic thi cha't rSn thu duoc chi c6 A g va c6 khdi lugng bang khdi luong ciJa no trong hdn hop dSu. Vay X la B.Fe(N03)3 C.HC1 D. I,08va5,16 Hu&ng ddn gidi ^ Cu + 2 A g N 0 3 ^ C u ( N 0 3 \ 2 A g I A.CUSO4 C.8,10va5,43 D. AgNOj Huong ddn gidi X phai la Fe(N03)3, that vay: > \u •iiMi'rtu > H2 t Al PTHH: Al + 3AgN03 0,01 < - 0,03 -> -> 3Agi +A1(N03)3 0,03 Fe + 2Fe(N03)3 ^ 3Fe(N03)2 2A1 + 3 C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 - ^ 3 C u i + 2 A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 Cu + 2Fe(N03)3 ^ 2Fe(N03), + CuCNOj), 0,02 <- 0,03 0,03 Cty TNHH MTV~DWH 2A1 + 6HCI -> 2 A I C I 3 + 3H2 t 0,01 <- 0,015 Vay:m, =(0,01 + 0,02 + 0,0l).27 = l,08(g) „ ^, Hu&ng ddn gidi Trat tir day didn hoa: Fe'V Fe; Cu'V Cu ; Fe'7 Fe'^; AgV Ag nen trinh tir cac phan ling xay ra nhu sau: Fe + 2AgNO, -> Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g i m2 = m c u + m A j , =0,03.64+0,03.108=5,16(g) Dap an diing la D. 0,02 20. Day nao sau day chi gom cac chat vira tac dung duoc vdi dung djch HCl, vira tac dung duofc vorj dung djch AgNO,? A. Hg,Na,Ca B. A l , Fe, CuO C. Fe, Ni, Sn D. Zn, Cu, Mg. Huong ddn gidi Day gom cac chat vira tac dung v6i dung djch HCl, vira tac dung v6i dung dich AgNO, la Fe, Ni, Sn. Fe + 2HC1 FeCl2+H2 Fe + 2AgN03 Fe(N03)2+2Ag Ni + 2HC1 Ni + 2AgN03 -> Sn + 2HC1 Sn + 2AgN03 ^ S6' mol AgNO., con lai 0,065 - (0,04 + 0,02) = 0,005 (mol) Fe(N03), + AgNO, -> Fe(N03)3 + A g i 0,02 0,005 (banddu) <- = ^ = 0'025 (M) 23. Hoa tan h6n hop chiJa dong thai 0,15 mol m6i kim loai Fe va Cu trong 675ml dung djch A g N O j l M , khoi luong chat rSn thu duoc khi ke't thiic phan dng la Sn(N03)2 + 2Ag A. 75,3 C. Fe D. Zn B.64,8 Theo bai ra: nAgN03 =0,675(mol) Thiitutrong day dien hoa: Fe^+/Fe; Cu^^/Cu; Fe^+/Fe^+; A g + / A g Fe + 2AgN03 -> Fe(N03)2 + 2 A g ^ 0,15^0,3 Gia sir M la kim loai Zn (kim loai c6 phan tiJr khoi Idn nha't => c6 s6' mol nho nhat) thi n^, = 50/65 = 0,77mol >0,1 => Kim loai M con du, AgNOj phan linghet. -)• 0,15 ^ 0,3 / -> 0,3 Fe(N03)2 +AgN03 -->• A g i + Fe(N03)3 0,075 < - 0,075 -> 0,075 vay m,i„ = m^gi = 0,675. 108 = 72,9 (gam) TheoPTHH=>n^NO^)^=0,l(mol) M M = 188 - 62.2 = 64(Cu) Vay M la kim loai Cu. Dap an diing la B. 22. Cho h6n hop gom 0,02 mol Fe vii 0,01 mol Cu vao dung djch chiia 0,065 mol AgNO,, sau cac phan ung hoan toan thu duoc 200 ml dung djch X. N6ng do cua Fe(N03), trong dung djch.X la C. 0,025M D. 72,9 Cu + 2AgN03 ^ C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 2 A g i 0,1 '£pa;075r^», C. 70,2 Hu&ng ddn gidi 0,15^0,075 M + 2AgN03 ^ M ( N 0 3 ) 2 + ^Ag 4- =>MM(NO3)2 = ' 8,8/0,1 = 188 0,005 ^ 0,005 (mol) Dap an dung la C. Theobai ra: n^^j^^^ =0,2.1 =0,2 (mol) A.0,05M.. 0,01 -> 0,02 CFe(N03), Huong ddn gidi ^ ' Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i Ni(N03)2+2Ag B. Cu 0,1 <-0,2 ' vay nong do Fe(N03)3 trong dung djch X: Dap an diing la C. 21. Nhung mot la kim loai M (chi c6 hoa trj hai trong hop chat) c6 khoi lirong 50 gam vao 200ml dung dich AgNO, I M cho den khi phan iJng xay ra hoan toan. Loc dung djch, dem c6 can thu duoc 18,8 gam muoi khan. Kim loai M la A. Mg Cu + 2AgN03 0,005 SnCl2+H2 -> ' 0,04 -> 0,02 (mol) NiCl2+H2 ^ Khang Viet D.O.IOM Dap an dung la D. 24. Cho 1,76 gam h6n hop bot X gom Cu, Fe c6 ti 16 mol tuong ling la 1: 2 vao 100ml dung djch AgNO, I M , khua'y k l d^ cac phan urng xay ra hoan toan. Khd'i luong Ag thu duoc la A. 6,48 gam B. 8,56 gam C. 10,8 gam D. 8,64 gam. Hu&ng ddn gidi Theo bai ra: nAgN03 =^'1 ('"°') Goi X la s6' mol Cu => s6' mol Fe 1^ 2x. fH'J VI^N Tl'.MH «iNH THl.'ANJ ——— ^—— :L Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Via Ta c6: 64x + 56. 2x = 1,76 => x = 0,01 (mol) n c u ( N O 3 ) 2 - 0 ' 1 0 ' 3 = 0,03mol Vi thiJ t u trong day di6n hoa: Fe-'/Fe; Cu'VCu; Fe-*/Fe'"; A g V A g So d6 phan ling: Nen thii tix phan ung xay ra: Fe + 2 A g " Fe-" + 2 A g > l 0,02^0,04-^0,02^0,04 ' Cu + 2 A g " C u - " + 2 A g i 0,01 ->0,02 Fe-" + + , Suy ra: Al X Dap an dung la D . 25. Hoa tan 5,4 gam b6t A l vao 150 m l dung dich h6n hop Fe(N03)3 I M va A . 13,80. B. 10,95. C. 15,20. y Hu&ng dan gidi Al-''+ + 3e -> X -> 3x(mol) -> y ^ 2y ( m o l ) 0,01 - > 0 , 0 1 Cu^+ "Cu(N03)2 + 2e ^ Cu i 0,03 - > 0,06 Thu- t u cac P T H H xay ra: =^3x + 3y = 0,01+0,06 = 0 , 0 7 A l + 3Fe ( N O , \ A l ( N O , \ 3Fe ( N O , \ 0,05<-0,15 ^ 0,1 < - 0 , 1 5 Z n ^ ^ + 6NH3 + 3 H 2 0 - > [ Z n ( N H 3 ) ^ ] ( O H ) 2 + 2 N H ; - > 0,075 Dap an dung la A . 26. Hoa tan 1,57 gam h6n hop b6t k i m loai gom A l , Z n vao 100 m l dung djch h6n hop A g N O , 0 , 1 M va Cu(N03)2 0 , 3 M . Sau k h i phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu diroc chat ran X va dung dich Y chi chiJa hai mudi. Ngam X trong dung djch H2SO4 loang kh6ng tha'y c6 k h i thoat ra. Cho dung dich NH3 dir vao Y thi thu dugc bao nhieu gam ket tua? B. 2,74 gam C. 1,56 gam Hu&ng dan gidi T h e o b a i r a : n ^ g N O j =0,1.0,1 = 0 , 0 1 mol (2) Al-^^+3NH3+3H20->Al(OH)3 i + 3 N H ; 2A1 + 3 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 ^ 3Fe i + 2 A 1 ( N 0 3 ) 3 Vay m = 0,15.64+ 0,075.56 = 13,80(g) > T i r ( l , 2 ) ^ x = 0 , 0 1 ; y = 0,02 -^0,15 0,05-> 0,075 (l) Mat khac: 27x + 65y = 1,57 0,15 2Al+3Cu(N03)2->3Cui+2Al(N03)3 [ . Ag"^ + le - > A g i D . 13,20. T h e o b a i r a : n ^ , = 0 , 2 m o l ; np^ =0,15mol A . 1,96 gam , ;j Z n - > Z n ^ ^ + 2e Cu(N03)2 JM- Sau k h i phan ihig xay ra hoan loan thu duoc m (gam) chat ran. * , • • Qua trinh cho - nhan electron: = n ^ + (Pu) = 0,08 (mol) Gia tri cua m la ^ Do do, A l va Z n phan ung vijfa dii vori A g N O , va Cu(N03)2 = 0,04 + 0,02 + 0,02 = 0,08 < 0,1 => A g " con d u " " ' '^^ => X chura A g va Cu ( A l , Zn deu het) 0,02 => m^g = 0,08. 108 = 8,64 (gam) ' ' + Hai mudi la A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 , Z n ( N 0 3 ) 2 => A g N 0 3 , C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 he't + Chat ran X khdng tac dung vdi H2SO4 loang Fe'* + A g i 0,02 - > 0,02 ^ => n '\h 0,02 Ag" ^ ' A l , Z n + AgN03,Cu(N03)2 ^ X^^^ + 2 mudi (dd) D . 0,78 gam K h d i luong ket tiia thu dirge: m i= 78x = 78.0,01 = 0,78(g) D a p an dung la D . 27. Cho m gam bdt sat vao dung dich chiia 0,2 m o l A g N O j va 0,1 m o l Cu(N03)2, khua'y deu den khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan thu dugc 19,44 gam chat ran. Gia tri ciia m la A . 5,6 ^^ B.5,04 C.3,36 Hu&ngddngidi Gia siJr A g N 0 3 phan lifng het thi tao ra 0,2 mol A g m^g = 0,2.108 = 21,6(g) > 19,44(g) D . 8,4 ^ ,1 i Plum loai vci phifcmij phop i^icii BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cu Thanh Toan => AgNOj con du, Cu(N03)2 chua phan irng, Fe phan iJng het: Cac qua trinh xay ra: M Fe + 3AgNOj (dif) ^ Fe (NO3 )^ + 3Ag i m/56 3m/56(mol) Taco: —.108 = 19,44 =:>m=3,36(g) 56 Dap an diing la C. Chu y: Fe + 2AgNO, -> Fe(NO3 )^ + 2Ag i ^ > M"* + ne 16,2.n 16,2 (mol) (mol) M M 16,2.n^ e (cho) = . . (mol) . . m O, + 4e 0,15 Fe(NO,)2 + AgNO, ->• Fe(NO,), + Ag i => Fe + 3AgNO, (du) -> Fe + 2AgNO, 0,1-> 0,2 i 0,2 (mol) + AgNO, ^ 0,05 (0,75-0,7)->• = 1,8 =^ 16,2n = 1,8M ^ 9n = M Fe(NO,)^ + A g i 0,05 (mol) m ^ g ^ (0,2+ 0,3+ 0,2+ 0,05). 108 = 81(g) Dap an dung la C. 29. Cho 16,2 gam kim loai M c6 hoa tri n tac dung vdi 0,15 mol O,. Chat ran thu duorc sau phan urng dem hoa tan vao dung djch HCl du tha'y thoat ra 13,44 lit H , Of dktc. Kim loai M la B. A l . ' Sad6phaniJng: M 27 (Al) Thoa man kh6ng c6 kim loai nao thoa man). Mg2VMg;Ar^VAI;Cu2VCu;AgVAg Chat ran thu duoc chi c6 Ag A. Be. = l,8(mol) 22,4 Dap an dung la B. Vay M la A l . 30. Cho hiin hop gom 0,15 mol Mg va 0,1 mol A l vao dung djch chira dong thdi 0,2 mol A^ NO, va 0,25 mol Cu(N03)2, sau phan ihig hoan toan thu duoc dung dich X. Cho NaOH du vao dung djch X thi khoi lirong ket tiia tao ra la A. 21,4 gam B. 18,4 gam C. 8,4 gam D. 13,6 gam Huong ddn gidi Thu' tuirong day dien hoa: Fe(N0,)2 + 2Ag i Fe(NO,)3 2.13,44 >Ie(nhan) =0,15.4 + (n =2, M = 18 0,3(mol) -> 22,4 18 9(Be) M Loai Loai Kl (n = 1, M = 9 (Be)=> loai vi Be hoa tn n = 2). 0,2 (mol) ^ 13,44 22,4 Ta CO bang: Al + 3AgNO, ^ A l ( N O , ) 3 + 3Ag i 0,l-).0,3 > M Mg + 2AgNO, ^ M g ( N 0 , ) 2 + 2Ag i 0,2 2e 2.13,44 Do do, ta c6: ^ 24x + 27x + 56x = 10,7 => X = 0,1 (mol) 0,1 ^ + Fe (NO, )^ + 3Ag i Huong dan gidi So mol moi kim loai Mg, Al, Fe la x 20"- 0,15. 4 (mol) 2H" 28. Cho 10,7 gam h6n hcrp kim loai g6m Mg, A l , Fe (c6 d 16 mol 1: 1: 1) vao dung djch chiia 0,75 mol AgNO, den khi cac phan li-ng xay ra hoan toan thu duoc bao nhieu gam chat rSn? A. 59,6 B. 32,6 C. 81 D. 75,6 > C. Ca. Huong dan gidi ) M,0,,; M —tS^iiiHL^ MCL D. Mg. ' ,, , . => Thu" ir phan ling hoa hoc xay ra: Mg + 2 A g N 0 , 0,1<- 0,2 Mg + (0,,5-0,1) 2A1 + -> M g ( N O , ) ^ + 2Ag I 0,1 Cu(NO,)2 0,05 Mg(NO,)2 + C u i 0,05 3Cu(N03)2 -> 2 A l ( N 0 3 ) 3 + 3 C u i " "2 0,1 ^ 0,15 ' ' ' '' -> 0,1 '• ' . ,. _ => Dungdjch X c o : 0,15 mol MgCNO,),; O.lmolAl(N03)3 ; Dung djch thu duoc chura 3 ion kim loai ' i=> 3 ion do phai la Mg"* , Zn"* va Cu"* (du). Vi Cu"* con du => Mg va Zn phan xing het. Cac qua trinh phan ling xay ra: 0,25-0,05-0,15 = 0,05mol Cu(N03)2 (du) X + dd NaOH (du): Mg(N03)2 + 2NaOH-^Mg(OH)2 4+2NaN03 0,15 ^0,15 . • i7 Cu(N03)2+2NaOH^Cu(OH)2i+2NaN03 0,05 -> , Mg , 1,2 (. Zn 0,05 Al(N03),+4NaOH->NaAl(OH)^+3NaN03 Huong ddn gidi a) PTHH: Cu + Chat khu 2AgN03 Mg 22 Zn C. 2,0. Huong ddn gidi Cu + 1 le > Cu-* 2 Zn 2+ + > Agi > Cui 1 (mol) 2e > 4 (mol) Vi Cu-*c6ndunen: 2,4 + 2x < 1 + 4 => x < 1,3. Trong cac gia tn da cho thi x = 1,2 < 1,3 thoa man y6u ciu bai toan. Dap an dung la D . gam chat ran Z. Gia trj ciia m la A. 6,40. B. 5,76. Theo bai ra: 0,017mol Thuf tir trong cac day dien hoa: Mg-^ Zn'' Cu-* 2e Ag* Ag C. 3,84. Hu&ng ddn gidi D. 5,12. Cdch 1: Kh6'i luong cua vat sau phan img (gia thid't Ag sinh ra bam h6't trdn vat): m,i, = 10 + (108 . 0,017) - (64 . 0,0085) = 10,536 g 32. Cho h6n horp gdm 1,2 mol Mg va x mol Zn vao dung djch chiia 2 mol Cu""^ va 10.536 mol Ag"^ den khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan, thu dugc m6t dung dich chua ba ion kim loai. Trong cac gia trj sau day, gia tri nao ciia x thoa man trucmg hoj. tren? B. 1,8. - thdm 5,85 gam bot Zn vao Y , sau khi phan umg xay ra hoan toan thu duoc 10,53 S6'mol AgNO, tham gia phan ling = = 0,01mol ^ 100.100 Cu + 2AgN03 > Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i A. 1,5. > > 2,4 (mol) ling thu duoc 7,76 gam h6n hop chat rdn X va dung dich Y . Loc tach X, roi b) Kh6'i luong AgNOj c6 trong dung dich ban ddu: m^gN03 - ^^^'^ = 10(g) 100 > Mg' 33. Cho m gam bot Cu vao 400 ml dung djch AgNO, 0,2M, sau m6t thcri gian phan > CU(N03)2 + 2Ag i chat oxi hoa 0,0085 <- 0,017 > 2x (mol) Ag* Khoi luomg ket tua thu duoc: m 1=0,15.58 + 0,05.98 = 13,6(g) b) Xac dinh kh6'i luong cua vat sau phan ung. 2e x ' 'H:. Dap an dung la D. 31. Ngam m6t vSt bang dong c6 kh6'i luong 10 gam trong 250 gam dung dich AgNOj 4%. Khi la'y vat ra thi khoi lirgng AgNO, trong dung djch giam 17%. a) Viet phiromg trinh hoa hoc cua phan ling va cho biet vai tro cac chat tham gia phan urng. - D. 1,2. "AgNOj = 0,4.0,2 = 0,08(mol) = 5,85/65 = 0,09(mol) V I 2nz„ >nAgN03 (20,09>0,08) =>Zn con du sau khi cac phan ling xay ra hoan toan. Cu + 2AgN03 ^ Cu(N03)2 + 2Ag i => X (ran): Ag, Cu (chua phan ting) , ,; Y (dung djch): AgNOj (chua phan ling), CU(N03)2 Zn + 2AgN03 -> Zn (NO3)^ + 2Ag i , :. : Zn + Cu(N03)2-> Cu >l+Zn(N03)2 => Z (ran): Ag, Cu, Zn (du) Vay thuc chat ciia thi nghiem tran la: ; - i .JiJ 23 Zn + 2AgNOj ^ Zn (NO, \ 2Ag i 0,04«-0,08^ Dodo: mx + 0,08(mol) (• , . = m + m^g + m^n (dir) ' => 7,76 + 10,53 = m + 0,08.108 + (0,09-0,04).65 => m = 6,40 Dap an dung la A. Cdch 2: r i A g N o , =0.08mol;n5,„ 2. Tinh dSn dien ctia kim loai phu thu6c vao A. do dac kbit cua kim loai. B. mat d6 electron tu do. C. kieu mang tinh the kim loai. D. mat do ion kim loai. Hu&ng ddn gidi , \ Tinh dSn dien ciia kim loai phu thuoc vao mat do electron tir do. Dap an dung la B. 3. Cho cac kim loai: Cr, W, Fe, Cu, Cs. Sap xep theo chieu tang ddn do cung tir trai =0,09(mol) sang phai la Vi 2nz„ =0,18>nAgNO3 =0,08=>Zn (du) A. Cu < Cs < Fe < W < Cr C. Cu < Cs < Fe < Cr < W So d6 torn tat: AgNO, ) AgN03,Cu(N03)2 - i | j ^ Z n ( N 0 3 ) 2 D6 ciJng: Cs < Cu < Fe < W < Cr + Zn Chu y; 2AgN03 + Zn -> Zn(N03)2 + 0,08 B. Cs < Cu < Fe < W < Cr D. Cs < Cu < Fe < Cr < W Hu&ng ddn gidi ^ Dap an dung la B. Kim loai cumg nha't la crom (Cr); Kim loai mem nha't la cac kim loai kiem. ->. 0,04(mol) Dang 3: Bai tap ve pin dien hoa Theo djnh luat bao loan khdi lirong, ta c6: 'nAgN03 + "^Zn + "^Cu = + + mzn(N03)2 L Trong pin difen hoa Zn - Cu, qua trinh khir trong pin la mcu = m = m x + m z + m^^^f^Q^)^ - mAgN03 - m = 7,76 + 10,53 + 0,04.189 - 0,08.170 - 5,85 =>m = 6,4(gam) Dap an diing la A. A. Zn — ^ Zn-" + 2e. B. Cu C. Zn-" + 2e D. Cu"" + 2e > Zn. > Cvr* + 2e. > Cu. Hu&ng ddn gidi 34. Cho 6,4 gam bot Cu vao V ml dung dich AgNOa 0,2M, sau m6t then gian phan Trong pin Zn - Cu, phan urng xay ra khi pin boat d6ng la: ling thu duoc 7,92 gam h6n hop r i n X va dung dich Y. Loc tach X, r6i them 10,35 gam bot Pb vao Y, sau mot thori gian phan ling thu duoc 10,44 gam h6n Zn + Cu-" > Cu + Zn-" Cu"" + 2e > Cu. hop rdn Z va dung dich A. Loc tach Z, r6i them 5,85 gam b6t iZn vao A, sau khi Phan ii-ng khiJr Cu"": phanchat ling tan. xay Gia ra hoan toan thu duoc 10,28 gam chat xkn B va dung dich chi chiJa mot tri ciia V la A. 200. B. 400. C. 600. D. 150. Phan ling oxi hoa Zn: Zn Dap an dung la B. > Zn"" + 2e. r Dap an dung la D. 2. Cho m6t pin difn hoa duoc tao boi cac cap oxi hoa - khir Fe""/ Fe va Ag"/ Ag. Phan ling xay ra d cue am ciia pin dien hoa (o didu kien chudn) la Dang 2: Bal tap tinh chat vat If cua kim loai A. Fe L Cho cac kim loai: Cu, Ag, Fe, A l , Au. Day cdc kim loai duoc xd'p theo chieu giam ddn do dSn dien la A. A l , Fe, Cu, Ag, Au. C. Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, A l . B. Ag, Cu, Au, A l , Fe. D. Ag, Cu, Fe, A l , Au. Hu&ng dan gidi D6 dSn dien giam dan theo Ag > Cu > Au > A l > Fe. Dap an dung la B. Chu V. Ag dSn difin t6't nha't, r6i d^'n Cu. B. Ag" + le >Fe-"+2e. > Ag. B. Fe"" + 2e D. Ag > Fe. > Ag" + le. Hu&ng ddn gidi Pin Fe - Ag: Cue am la Fe, cue duong la Ag. Cue am xay ra qua trinh: Fe ^ . , , > Fe"" + 2e Dap an diing la A. 3. Mot pin didn hoa c6 didn cue Zn nhung trong dung djch ZnS04 va dien cue Cu nhung trong dung dich CuSO^. Sau m6t thori gian pin do phong didn thi khoi luong Phdn loai ra pliironi; jilu'ip t^liii /IT 116a hoc 12 -Cu Thanh Toan Huong ddn A . ca hai dien circ Zn va Cu dfiu giam. gidi Sua't dien d6ng E^,,, phu thuoc vao: B. dien cue Zn tang con khd'i luomg dien eirc Cu giam. C. dien circ Z n giam con khoi lucmg dien cue Cu tang. -Ban D . ca hai didn cue Zn va Cu d^u tang. - Ndng d6 cua cac ion k i m loai (dung djch mudi). Huong dan Sod6ciiapin: 0 Zn / ZnS04 // gidi CUSO4/ Cu Khong phu thu6c vao khoi lugfng cae dien cue. Suy ra, khd'i luong la Zn ngay cang giam (Zn la Cu cang tang (Cu'^dd) + 2e > Cu - ,• Dap an diing la D. 7. Cho E°z„ 2* /7.„ = - 0,76V; E\+ /p, = - 0,13V. + Zn-' (dd) > Cui . ! , ' > , -Nhietdd. @ Phan ling xay ra khi pin phong dien: Z n + Cu-* (dd) chat cae k i m loai lam dien cue. , / Phat bieu diing la: > Z n ' * (dd) + 2e), kh6'i lucmg • A. K h i hinh thanh pin dien hoa, anot la cue Z n . B. Sua't dien d6ng chuc4n ciia pin dien hoa Zn - Pb bang 0,89V. i). Dap an dung la C. C. Phan ling xay ra khi pin dien hoa Zn - Pb phong dien ( d dieu kien chuan): Pb + Zn-* 4. K h i pin didn hoa Zn - Cu phong di6n thi ndng do > Zn + Pb'* A . cua Cu"* giam, ciia Zn"* tang. B. ciia Cu'"^ giam, ciia Z n ' * giam. D. Trong pin dien hoa Zn - Pb, nd'u sii dung cdu mudi la dung dich NH4NO3. C. ciia Cu-* tang, ciia Zn"* tang. D. ciia Cu"* tang, ciia Zn"* giam. K h i pin hoat d6ng thi ion N O 3 di ehuye'n ve phia cue Pb. Huong ddn gidi Huong ddn Phan ling xay ra khi pin Z n - Cu phong dien: Zn + Cu-* Pin dien hoa Z n - Pb. > Cu + Zn-* - Phan umg xay ra trong pin: => n6ng d6 Cu"* giam, n6ng d6 ciia Zn"* tang. Dap an diing la A . 5. Trong qua trinh hoat dong ciia pin didn hoa Zn - Cu thi > Pb + Zn-*. => Zn CO tinh khii manh hon Pb => Z n la cue am (anot), Pb la cue duong (catot). B. kh6'i luong ciia didn cue Zn tang. ^ pin(Zn-Pb) C. ndng do ciia ion Cu'* trong dung djch tang. — Pb-* /Pb = -0,13 D. ndng d6 ciia ion Zn"* trong dung dich tang. gidi ^ Zn Do dd, ion NH4 /Zn - ( - 0 , 7 6 ) = 0,63V. - d cue Pb (cue duong, catot): Phan ling hoa hoc xay ra: Z n + Cu^"^ ^ Cu i + Zn^"^ Suy ra: - Z n + Pb-* - V i E°z„ 2+ ^„ < E°pb 2+ A . kh6'i luong ciia dien cue Cu giam. Huong ddn gidi Pb"* + 2e > ?hi. se di chuyen ve phia cue Pb de trung hoa dien tich. + Kh6'i luong cue Zn giam. Dap an dung la A . + Khdi luong cue Cu tang. 8. Trong qua trinh pin dien hoa Zn - A g hoat dong ta nhan tha'y + Nong d6 ion Cu"* giam. (cho biet E°z„ 2+ ^ = - 0,76V; E ^ * + Nong do ion Z n ' * tang. Dap an dung la D . 6. Sua't dien d6ng (Ej,J cua pin didn hoa khong phu thuoc vao A. ban chat ciia k i m loai lam dien cue. B. ndng do ciia cae dung dich mudi. C. nhiet d6. D . khdi luong cae dien cue. * = "t" 0,80V, cSu mudi la dung djch KNO3) A . khdi luong ciia dien cue A g giam. B. ndng do ciia ion Zn"* tang. C. ion K* di chuyen v^ phia anot. D. sua't dien d6ng chudn cua pin bang 0,80 - 0,76 = 0,04V. Hu&ng ddn gidi ,. Phan umg xay ra khi pin dien hoa Zn - A g hoat d6ng: Z n + 2Ag* > Zn-* + 2 A g i Ph.'in Ji'.ii V,) n!i /»/; ... Cr'* + ... Sn. C. 0,60V. (Pin Z n - Cu: E°pi„ = + 1,1OV). C. Fe^* + 2e - > Fe Bia't E°c,^+,c, = - 0,74V. Sua't dien ddng chu^n ciia pin dien hoa nay la • 0,8 E\„ 2+ ^„ Vay chi C O 1 pin c6 k i hieu dung va E°p|„ dung. C. lam chat xiic tac cho phan iJng oxi hoa - khii xay ra khi pin boat ddng. B. 0,88V. D.4. - Pin A g - Cu (ma phai la pin Cu - A g ) Dap an dung la B. ' A.-0,60V. C. 3. Huong ddn gidi - Suat dien dong chudn E ^ , , , z „ . ^g, = E^g + /^g " E°z„ /z,, EV.z„-Ag, = ^ B. 2. > Agi Do do 6 catot thieu dien tich duong (do Ag* bj dien phan) ndn K* {cAu mu6'i) di chuy^n do (chii khong anot). ... Cr + ... Sn-* = + 1,56V. ( c h o b i e t E ^ g \ A g = +0,80V; E^cu 2 + = + 0,34V; E°z„ 2 + = - 0,76V) ^ Zn"* + 2e d catot (cue Ag): Ag*^ + le Zn - A g Pin Sd pin dien hoa chudn khong c6 chd nao sai la - Trong pin Z n - A g thi anot la A g , catot la Zn. d anot (cue Zn): Zn Pin V TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet B. N i ^ N i ^ * + 2e f^' c.y D. N i ^ * + 2e Ni Huong ddn gidi Ca'u taopin: ( - ) F e / F e 2 + / / N i ^ + / N i ( + ) Phan utig xay ra of cue am (anot): Fe > Fe^*" + 2e Phan lirng xay ra 6 cue duong (catot): N i ^ ^ + 2e >Ni - V I Epi„ lu6n duong => loai phuong an A va D . Phan ling tdng eong: Fe + Ni^"^ - VI Cr C O tinh khij manh hon Sn ndn: ^•Fe^^'+Ni Dap an dung la A . " ^ (Cr - Sn) - S.I ASii ^ Cr /Cr Chu v; Trong pin dien hoa: = E''s„2+,s„ - ( - 0 , 7 4 ) I - d cue am (anot): = E°s,.2^s„ + 0 , 7 4 ( V ) . Xay ra oxi hoa - d cue duong (catot): Xay ra su khir •, - Vi Sn diing tru6c H trong day dien hoa nen E^s,, ^+ ys, < 0. ' 13. M d t pin dien hoa gdm dien cue la s d day bac nhiing vao dung dich A g N O j va Dap an diing la C . dien cue kia la mot sgi day platin nhiing vao dung dich chiia ddng thdi Fe(N03)3 11. Co mot hoc sinh viet kf hieu ciia pin va tinh sua't dien ddng chu^n tuong ling ciia pin nhu sau: va Fe(N03)2. Phan ung xay ra d dien cue duong ciia pin dien ( d dieu kidn chu^n) Do do EV-S,) < 0,74V => E°,a-s,) = 0,60V r PinZn-Cu : E % , = + 1,10V. Pin A g - C u : E''pi„ = + 0 , 4 6 V . la (cho E " ^ =+0,8;E° Ag+/Ag ,+ =+0,77V) Fe-'+/Fe2+ ,. j A. Fe2+ - > Fe-^* + le B. Fe-''^ + le - > Fe^* C. A g * + le - > A g D . A g ^ Ag"" + le [ '^ : • ' ' urn loai va phifcfnij phcip }>idi BT Hoa hoc 12 - Cii Thanh Toan Huong ddn gidi Pin GPt Ag^ Ag e Huong ddn gidi Taco: Phan ihig xay ra b cue duong (catot): Ag"^ + le Ag i Dap an diing la C. CM VdiE° ^ V. - Phan iJng xay ra trong pin (hoat d6ng): AgN03 + Fe (NO3 \e (NO3 )3 + Ag - Cue duomg cua pin (E° , Mn /M =0,8V. Ag+/Ag . ; T t r ( 2 ) = > E ° ^ , , ^ ^ ^ = -H0,34V. Tir(l)^E" - Cue am ciia pin lu6n xay ra su oxi hoa. ^ Zn Dang 4: Bai tap tinh SDD chuan cua pin; tinh the dien cue chuan = 0 , 3 4 - 1 , 1 = - 0 , 7 6 (V). va E % ^ Zn2+/Zn 1. Biet sua't dien dong chua'n cua pin Zn - Cu la 1,10V, the dien cue chudn ciia didn cue Zn la - 0,76V, the dien cue chu^n cua dien cue Cu la B. - 0,34V. => 1,10 ^ E°c„2+/cu =E°c„2^eu 1,10 4. Cho cac the'dien cue chu^n: - A. P i n P b - C u . E°,„2+,,„ B. + 1,44V B. Pin Zn - Cu. C. Pin Zn - Pb. (-0,76) 0,76 = + 0,34(V). C. + 0,76V D. -1,44V D. Pin Al - Zn. Huong ddn gidi Pin CO sua't dien dong chudn 1dm nha't khi pin tao ra tir cap dien cue each xa nhau nha't trong day dien hoa. Do do, trong cac pin da cho thi pin Zn - Cu (vi tri ciia cap Zn'V Zn va Cu'V Cu each xa nhau nha't) c6 SDD chu^n 16n nha't. E ; , „ ( Z n - C u ) = E « ^ 2 . , , „ - E^^2.,,„ = Hu&ng ddn gidi Ta CO E°P i n , z n - C .= „,- E I^^^2+/Cu Theo bai ra: 0,34 - ^Zn2+/zn E^__2,^^_^ =1,10 ^zn^^/Zn = "^'^^^^ ^Pb2+/Pb E°,+3/A, = " = - 0,13V; E° 2+^^ = + 0,34V. Trong cac pin sau day, pin nao c6 sua't dien d6ng chudn Idm nha't? - Dap an diing la C. D. + 1,86V. Dap an dung la A. 2. Biet rang E ^ ,z„.c„) = i,10V va E^Cu'VCu) = +0,34V. The'dien cue chu^n cua cap oxi hoa khir Zn'^/Zn la A. - 0,76V ' ' '' Huong ddn gidi =E°c„2^eu - = C. - 1,86V. iSn luot la - 0,76 V va + 0,34 V. Cu^+ZCu ' ' Tac6:EV„,„.c„, , /Zn Vay E ° 2+ A. + 0,34V. . be hon) lu6n xay ra su khu. +0,34 - (-0,76) = 1,1 V. Dap an dung la B. 5. Cho biet phan ihig oxi hoa - khir xay ra trong pin dien hoa Fe - Cu la: E^^^.^^^ =0,34 -1,10 = - 0 , 7 6 V Fe + Cu-* ^ Fe-" + Cu E" (Fe-7 Fe) = - 0,44V, E° (Cu'V Cu) = + 0,34V. Sua't dien d6ng chudn cua pin Dap an diing la A. 3. Cho sua't dien dong chua'n cua cac pin dien hoa: Zn - Cu la 1,1V; Cu - Ag la dien hoa Fe - Cu la A. 0,10 V. B. 0,78 V. 0,46V. Biet the' dien cue chudn E V / A g = + 0,8V. The' difin cue chu^n C. - 0,76V va + 0,34V. B. -1,46V va - 0,34V. ,. . ; ,(j D. - 1,56V va + 0,64V. D. 1,66 V. Huong ddn gidi E''pin(Fe-Cu) = A. + 1,56V va + 0,46V. C. 0,92 V. E''cu2+/cu- = 0,34 - E^^+ZFe (-0,44) " . ' ;,i = 0,78 V. Dap an diing la B. •^1 fhan loai vd phUang phap nidi til Hoa hoc 12 - Cii Thanh Todn 6. Cho th6' dien cue chu£n cua cac cap oxi hoa - khu A g ^ / A g , Cu^^/Cu, Pb^^ /Pb, Zn^"^ / Z n c6 gia tri Idn lucrt la: +0,80V; + 0,34V; -0,13V; -0,76V. Huong ddn gidi Ti'nh sua't dien d6ng chuSn E° ciia cac pin: -•(;'> Epe-Ni Trong cac pin sau, pin nao c6 suS't didn dong chudn Idti nha't? A. PinPb-Cu B. P i n Z n - A g C. P i n Z n - C u E-;0z n - F e = - 0 ' 4 4 - ( 0 , 7 6 ) = 0 , 3 2 V D. P i n P b - A g Hu&ng dan gidi kh6ng xay ra. Thii tu trong day dien hoa: M -> X -> R 8. Cho bifl: E ; , , ^ =-2,36V; E » , , , ^ , =^,76V; E»_,.^^ =^,3V; =^J,V Pin dien hoa c6 sua't dien dong chudn bang 1,61V duoc ca'u tao bai hai cap oxi hoa - khii A. Zn^^ / Z n va Pb^^ /Pb B. Pb^^ /Pb va Cu^^ /Cu C. Mg2+ / M g D. Z n ' " / Z n va Z n ' " / Z n va C u ' " /Cu Huong ddn gidi Theo bai ra: vay Eji„M-x = E " ^ „ . ^ ^ - ( - 0 , 7 6 ) =0,63 E;,,X_. =E»2.^, - E ^ „ , ^ ^ =0,34-(-0,13) = 0.47V Dap an dung la A. 11. Trong cac cap oxi hoa - khu: Zn""/ Zn; Cu""/ Cu; Ag"/ Ag; Ni""/ Ni thi pin dien Bie'u thiic tinh SDD chudn (E^. ,): E°., = Ef,, - hoa CO sua't dien d6ng 1dm nha't la pin tao bai cap oxi hoa - khu =>1,61 = ( _ 0 , 7 6 ) - ( - 2 , 3 7 ) = . E ° 2, - E % , Vay pin diroc ca'u tao boi hai cSp M g ' " / M g va Z n ' " / Z n B.Zn-Fe C. Zn - Cu B. Zn""/Zn va Cu""/Cu. C.Cu-"/CuvaAg"/Ag. D. Zn""/Zn va Ni""/Ni. i Hu&ng ddn gidi Dap an diing la C. 9. Cho the' dien circ chuan: Zn""/ Zn = - 0,76V; Fe'V Fe = - 0,44V; Ni'V Ni = 0,26V; Cu-7 Cu = + 0,34V. Pin dien hoa c6 sua't dien d6ng chudn nho nha't la pin tao bai hai dien cue A. F e - N i A.Zn-"/ZnvaAg"/Ag. D. Ni - Cu Thur tu cac cap oxi hoa - khir trong day dien hoa: Z n ' " / Z n ; N i ' " / N i ; C u ' " /Cu;Ag" / Ag Pin CO SDD chudn Idn nha't khi tao bai cap oxi hoa - khijf c6 the' dien cue ehu^n tha'p nha'tIdn ( Znha't n'"/Z ) va g "n/ A =>Epi„ lanpin taocao bcrinha't Z n '("A/ Z vag )Ag" / Ag . Dap an dung la A. /'//(/// lixii \ i^icJFBT H6(i hoc 12 -Cii Thanh Toan pJicij) 1 2 . Cho cac the' dien circ chudn: E° didn dong chuiiin ciia pin: Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khcms- Viet = - 1 , 6 6 V ; E ° 2+ ,^ = + 0 , 3 4 V . Bifi't suS't = M ^ ' E ^ p - A i = 0 , 7 1 V . Vay sua't dien d6ng E"„_CU E° D. 1,81V Y Z < c h u d n c i i a p i n Mg-Zn|^E^^g_^„j la A. 2 V E^v y+/Y > E " T T i n h khu T > Y . trai sang phai la =-2,37V vay E^g_y„ = - 0 , 7 6 - ( - 2 , 3 7 ) = 1 , 6 1 V Dap an dung la B . ' A.Z,Y,Cu,X. B.X,Cu,Z,Y. C. Y, Z , Cu, X. D. X, Cu, Y, Z . Huong ddn gidi V I E V „ - X. = 0,46V ^ E"c„ 2 - /cu < E ^ x « ' => Tinh k h u X < C u . Dang 5: Bai tap so sanh tinh ox! hoa - khiir, xac dmh c h i l u cua phan ihig oxi hoa - khiir 1. Cho E",,, 2+ = - 0,76V; E"c„ 2+ = + 0 , 3 4 V ; E\, 2+ ^ , = - 0 , 2 3 V . Cac cation CO tinh oxi hoa giam d i n theo thii tir C. Cu-^ Nr\^ D. Nr\^ Cu-\ Sapthu-tir E ' ' M " ^ M :E''cu^^cu>EV^%i E^X-T => T r i h k h u C u < Z . -i. F " (' - C i i ) F ° (3) —> E, , x _ C u ) ^ ^ _ pO y+ 2+ F " Cu /Cu C Y -' ^ /Y I - Cu l* - pO 7,+ 2+ F " /Cu E\+ /Y < E"z ^+ r,, => Tinh khijf Y > Z . ^ Z /Z- » (4) Dap an diing la B, E x _ Y - l , l V ; E x _ z = 0 , 7 8 V ; E " _ Z = 0 , 4 6 V (X, Y, Z , T la bon k i m loai). Day cat: k i m loai xep theo c h i l u tang ddn tinh khCr tir tnii sang phai la A. Y , Z , T , X B.T,Z,X,Y C. Z , T, X, Y D. T, Z , Y , X Huong ddn gidi = + 0,32V. Tinh k h u ciia k i m loai X, Y, Z , T tang ddn theo thi} t u - K i m loai viet truoc la cue am (anot), kim loai viet sau la cue duong (kim loai A . X, T, Y , Z . B. Z , Y, T, C. T, Y , Z , X. D. X, Y, Z , T. X. dong vai tro la cue am eo tinh khu manh hoii kim loai dong vai tro cue ducfng) => Tinh khu: X>Y;X>Z;T>Z Hu&ng ddn gidi Nhan xet. - Pin CO E° cang lorn thi tinh khiJf cQa cac k i m loai cang chenh lech nhau nhifiu (hay noi each khac chiing cang xa nhau tren day dien hoa). - Trong cac pin tren, X ddu dong vai tro cue am => X CO tinh k h u manh hem cac k i m loai Y, Z va T . - VI E^x-V < E ^ x - z > E^x-T (1) E ° v y - / Y - E ' ' x ^ ^ « < E»,^V " E°x^"/x E ° Y y + ; y > E " z ' + / - ^ = ^ Tinh k h u Y > Z . - V I E-'x-V (2) 4 . Cho su£ t dien dong chuan E° ciia cac pin dien hoa: >^\„^' Dap an dung la C, = + 1,1V; E\y^^ V i E V - c u , = 0,47V :=> E " c . 2 ^ c u > E'V/^/z ^ 2 . Cho sua't dien dong chudn ciia cac pin dien hoa: E\.^ E ^ - C U , = 1 , 1 V = ^ E"e,2+^,„ > T u ( l , 2, 3,4) t a c o : X < C u < Z < Y . => Cac cation c6 tinh oxi hoa Cu"* > N i " * > Zn^* E°x-Y = + 0 , 6 2 V ; (1) => Tinh k h u C u < Y. * ' Huong ddn gidi • Vi Vi A . Ni-\^ Zn'\. Cii'\^ N i " * . >> ^ E%y+;v - E ° x ^ V > E \ > V - E ^ x ^ V ; - Do do, thu tu tren day dien hoa ciia cac k i m loai: X > T > Z > Y. > ' / vay tinh khir tang ddn theo thii tu Y , Z , T, X. Dap an diing la A . (2) 5. Trong day the dien cue chuan ciia k i m loai, vj tri mot so cap oxi hoa - khu duoc sdp xep nhu sau: ' • ' • ' " A l ' V A l , Fe-^/Fe, Ni=*/Ni, Cu'VCu, Fe'^/^e=^ A g V A g , Hg=*/Hg. , /'/(,/(/ \ p/i(/p gidi BT Hoa hoc 12 -Ci) Thanh Toan T r o n g so c a c k i m loai A l , F e , N i , C u , A g , H g , so k i m loai khi tac dung v6i dung djch F e ' * chi khCr duoc F e ' * Fe"* la A. 1. Al'* Al B. 2. Fe-* Ni-* C. 3. Hu&ng dan gidi ,. Cu-* Fe'* Ni Fe D.4. Ag* ^ • Hg-* (2) Mn + 2H* > Mn-* + H , z=> Tmh oxi hoa Mn"* < H*. Do do Mn'* < H* < Fe'* < Ag*. Chii v: Day dien hoa: Mn Fcr* Ag Hg Dira vao day dien hoa trSn va qui tdc a ta bid't duoc cac kim loai trong doan Fe-*/Fe va Fe'*/ Fe"* se chi khiJr diroc Fe'* f)ap an dung la C. 6. Day cac ion xep theo chilu giam ddn tinh oxi hoa la (biet trong day dien hoa, cap Fe'*/ Fe-* diJng trirorc cap Ag*/Ag) B. Ag*, Fe'*, Cu"*, Fe"*. D. Ag*, Cu"*, Fe'*, Fe"*. Dap an dung la B. 7. Mdnh d^ khong dung la Dap an diing la D. H* Fe'* Ag* H, Fe-* Ag 9. Cho cac phan ling sau: Fe + 2Fe(NO,)^ -> 3Fe(NO3 )^ > Fe"*. Do do CO 3 kim loai Fe, Ni, Cu. Mn"* -) — \> • Cu A. Fe'*, Ag*, Cu-*, Fe-*. C. Fe'*, Cu-*, Ag*, Fe-*. Ti'nh oxi hoa Fe'* < Ag*. '' :v ( AgNO, + Fe(NO,)2 ^ Fe(N03)3 + Ag Day sdp x6'p theo thii tu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa cua cac ion kim loai Id A. Ag^Fe2^Fe^+ B. Fe2^Fe•'^Ag+ C. Fe2+,Ag",Fe-'" D. Ag",Fe"'",Fe^" ' • Hu&ng ddn gidi Suy ra thu tu trong day dien hoa: Fe^"/Fe;Fe-'"/Fe2";Ag"/Ag A. Fe khij duqfc Cu"* trong dung dich. B. tmh oxi hoa cua cac ion tang theo thir tir: Fe"*, H*, Cu"*, Ag*. C. Fe'* CO tinh oxi hoa manh hon Cu"*. D. Fe-* oxi hoa duoc Cu. Vay tinh oxi hoa: Fe^" < Fe"*" < A g " Dap an dung la B. 10. Thii tu m6t s6' cSp oxi hoa - khCr trong day dien hoa nhu sau: Hu&ng dan gidi Fe-*/Fe; Cu'*/Cu; Fe'*/Fe"*. • Xet cac phuong an sau: A. Dung. Fe-*/Fe + Cu-*/Cu Cap chat khong phan ung vori nhau la (quy tdc a): A. Fe va dung djch FeClj. Fe + Cu-* > Fe-* + Cu. B. dung dich FeCK va dung dich CuQi. B. Dung. Tinh oxi hoa Fe'* < H* < Cu"* < Ag*. C. Dung. 2Fe'* + Cu D. Sal. D. Cu va dung djch FeClj. Dap an dung la D. (2) AgNOj + Fe(NO_,)3 Mn + 2HC1 > Fe(N03)3 + Ag i B. > MnCK C. Fe + CuCU Day cac ion sdp x6'p theo chidu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa la A. Ag*, Fe'*, H*, Mn=*. B. Ag*, Mn"*, H*, Fe'*. C. Mn-*, H*, Ag*, Fe'*. D. Mn"*, H*, Fe'*, Ag*. Hu&ng dan gidi - Ta c6: (1) Ag* +Fe-* > Fe'* + Ag .j,,' X^t cdc phuofng an: A. Fe + 2FeCl3 +H.t ! . Huong ddn gidi Fe'* c6 tinh oxi hoa yeu hcfn Cu"* ntn Cu + Fe"* khong xay ra. 8. Cho cac phan ung xay ra sau day. (1) C. Fe va dung djch CuCl.. > Cu"* + 2Fe-*. FeCU + CuCK D. Cu + 2FeCl3 > 3FeCi2 > khong xay ra. ) - // i ; > Cu + F e d . > 2FeCl, + CuCl, ' Dap an dung la B. 11. Cho cac cap oxi hoa - khiJ duoc sdp xep theo chieu tang ddn tinh oxi hoa ciia dang oxi hoa nhu sau: Fe^" / F c C u ^ " /Cu,Fe''" /Fe^". Phat b'iiu nao sau day la dung? 37 A. Cu klurduDC Fe'* th;uih Fe . B. Cu"^^ oxi hodduoc Fe^"^ thanh Fe^^ j C. Dung. C Fe'* oxihoaduDC Cu thiuih Cu^* . D. Fe"* oxi hoadiioc Cu thaiih Cu^* . D. Sai, VI tfnh oxi hoa Fe'* > Huong dan gidi ; 2Fe-'* +21' .2Fe2*+Io Dap an dung la C. Ta c6: Cu + 2Fc^^ ^ Cu'+ + 2Fe^+ Cu^* + Fe^"" Chit y: * Chung minh tfnh khir: Cu > I > Fe^* Khoiig xay ra 2Fe^*+Cu^2Fe'*+Cu'* -.^^ (Fe'* oxi hoa duoc Cu thanh Cu'*) Fe'^* + Cu -> Khong xay ra Cu + 1, -> Cu^* + 2r ; Tfnh oxi hoa: I j > Cu^* • => Phat bieu diing la C. ' Dap an diing la C. 12. Cho cac ion kim loai: Zir*, Svr*, Ni"*, Fe"*, Pb"*. Tlii} tir tinh oxi hoa giam diln la A. B. C. D. Zn-* > Sn=* > Ni"* > Fe"* > Pb'*. Pb-*>Sn-*>Ni-*>Fe-*>Zn-*. Sn-*>Ni-*>Zn-*>Pb-*>Fe-*. Pb-* > Sn-* > Fe-* > Ni'* > Zn"*. Huong dan gidi ThiJ tir tfnh oxi hoa giam dSn: Pb"* > Sn'* > Ni"* > Fe"* > Zn"*. Dap an dung la B. 13. Cho day cac ion: Fe"*, Ni"*, Cu"*, Sn"*. Trong cung dieu kien, ion c6 tinh oxi hoa manh nhat trong day la A. Sn-*. (Cu'*/Cu;l2/r;Fe'VFe2*) . B. Cu-*. C. Fe-*. D. Ni"*. Huong dan gidi Trong cling dieu kiSn (nhiet d6, nong do), thu- tir tfnh oxi hoa ciia cac ion la: Fe-* Ion CO tfnh oxi hoa manh nhat la Cu"*. 14. Qion phat bieu dung; A. Tfnh oxi hoa cua Ag* > Cu"* > Fe'* > Ni"* > Fe"* Dap an diing la B. 2Fe-^* + 2r->2Fe^*+l2 =^TfnhkhiJf: F >Fe^*; Tfnh oxi hoa: Fe'* > I , ^ Ul^^l^ * Cac the dien circ chuilin E " Oxi Mg-*/Mg K*/K hoa/Kh -2,36 -2,92 E°(V) Zn-*/Zn s/s-' Fe-*/Fe Ni-*/Ni -0,76 -0,51 -0,44 -0,25 Oxi hoa/Kh Cu-*/Cu Fe'*/Fe-* Ag*/Ag 0,77 0,80 H*/H. Cu-*/Cu 0,54 0,52 0,34 0,00 15. Day gon1 cac ion deu oxi hoa duoc kim loai Fe la E"(V) A. Cr^*, Au-'*,Fe-'* B. Cr2*,Cu2*,Ag* C. Fe'*, Cu^\Ag\. Zn^^Cu2*,Ag^ Huong dan gidi Cac ion oxi hoa dugc Fe (cac ion ciia cac kim loai dung sau Fe trong day dien hoa va ion Fe''* : B. Tfnh klur ciia K > Mg > Zn > Ni > Fe > Hg 2Fe'* + Fe-^3Fe2* •, C. Tfnh khir ciia K > Fe > Cu > f > Fe"* > Ag C u - * + F e ^ C u + Fe^^ D. Tfnh oxi hoa ciia Ag* > I . > Fe'* > Cu"* > S"- 2Ag*+ F e ^ F e ^ * + 2 A g Huong dan gidi Xet cac phuong an: 16. Day gom cac kim laii ddu tac dung duoc vol dung djch FcQ, la: g A. Sai, VI tfnh oxi hoa Fe'*>Cu^* 2Fe'* + Cu ^ 2Fe-+ + Cu^* B. Sai, VI tfnh k h u F o N i Dap an dung la C. . Fe + Ni^* ^ N i + Fe^+ A. Fe, Mg, Cu, Ag, Al B. Fc, Zn, Cu, Al, Mg C.Cu,Ag,Au,Mg,Fc D.Au,Cu,AI,Mg,Zn , ,. Huong dan gidi Cac kim loai tac dung vai FeCl,: Fe + 2FeCl3->3FeCl2 38 ,. ,/ ^ " - • 39
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