Tài liệu Reduced clauses

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REDUCED CLAUSES Mã: A14 I. Sentences, clauses and phrases a. Sentences Sentences are made of two parts: the subject and the predicate. The subject is the person or thing that acts or is described in the sentence. The predicate, on the other hand, is that action or description. Complete sentences need both the subject and the predicate. b. Clauses Sentences can be broken down into clauses. For example: The boy is going to the school, and he is going to eat there. This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: independent clauses and subordinate clauses. Independent clauses act as complete sentences, while subordinate clauses cannot stand alone and need another clause to complete their meaning. For example: Independent clause: “The boy went to the school.” Subordinate clause: “After the boy went to the school…” c. Phrases A group of two or more grammatically linked words that do not have subject and predicate is a phrase. For example: The girl is at home, and tomorrow she is going to the amusement park. You can see that “the amusement park” is a phrase located in the second clause of the complete sentence above. Phrases act like parts of speech inside clauses. That is, they can act as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and so on. $ A clause contrasts with a sentence. Except in the case of a whole sentence, which is technically said to be also a clause, a clause is always smaller than the sentence that contains it. $ A clause also contrasts with a phrase. Clauses contain phrases. Clauses are bigger than the simple phrases they contain. The crucial characteristic of a clause, which is lacking from a phrase, is that a clause normally has its own verb and all or many of the other basic ingredients of a whole sentence. II. Reduced clauses to phrases In order to write concise sentences, use only the words necessary to achieve meaning and coherence. Unnecessary words should be eliminated. One way to achieve this is to reduce clauses to phrases when a phrase can do the work of a clause. Only subordinate clauses can be reduced. Reducing Clauses to Phrases REDUCING CLAUSES TO PHRASES • Clause is a group of related words that contain a subject and a verb. • Phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. In English, a clause can be reduced to a phrase by modifying certain forms. Adjective clause → Adjective phrase Adverb clause → Adverb phrase 2.1. Adjective Clause Reduction An adjective clause, also called a relative clause, is a group of words that modify or describe a noun. Remember that adjective clauses contain a subject and a verb, begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which), and are dependent clauses, which means that they cannot stand alone because they have no meaning without an independent (main) clause. She is the woman (Independent clause) + who works at the bakery. (Adjective clause) Relative Clause Reduction Rules 1. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object. P The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to talk to you. → The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you. $ Note: In non-defining sentences you neither omit the relative pronoun nor use "that". My mother, who / whom that you met yesterday, wants to talk to you. My mother you met yesterday... 2. We can use participles when reducing the sentence. a) Present Participle V-ing PWe stood on the bridge which connects the two halves of the city. → We stood on the bridge connecting the two halves of the city. b) Past Participle V3 or being V3 P Two boy who was attacked by a dog was taken to hospital. → Two boy attacked by a dog was taken to hospital. c) Perfect Participle: having V3 (active-explaining sth.happened before the others) P The girl who has asked a question is very clever. →The girl having asked a question is very clever. d) Perfect passive participle: having been V3 (passive-explaining sth happened before the others) PThe teacher who has been asked a question is very clever. → The teacher having been asked a question is very clever.(Perfect passive participle) 3. When the verb “have” meaning possession, we can omit relative pronoun and “have” and use with(+) or without(-). PStudents who have enough knowledge and skills will be admitted. → Students with enough knowledge and skills will be admitted. PPeople who don’t have their ID cards can not get in. → People without their ID cards can not get in. 4. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases below. 1. The only...to 2. Superlative...to 3. The first, last, second, next...to PJohn is the only person who understands me. → John is the only person to understand me. PTom is the most handsome boy who came in this school. → Tom is the most handsome boy to come in this school. PJack is the first person who has handed in this exam. → Jack is the first person to have handed in this exam. 5. You can omit the relative pronoun and the verb be when they are followed by a noun phrase in a non-defining relative clause. This is called an appositive. PJan Smith, who is an expert on Millenials, will be speaking at noon today. →Jan Smith, an expert on Millenials, will be speaking at noon today. The appositive and the modified noun are interchangeable. →An expert on Millenials, Jan Smith, will be speaking at noon today. 2.2. Adverb Clause Reduction An adverb clause is a group of words that starts with a subordinating conjunction (a word that signals how, when, or why something is done) and has a subject and a verb. However, because it starts with a subordinating conjunction, the clause becomes a dependent clause. It cannot stand alone because it is not a complete idea, so it must be joined with an independent clause. While I am cooking, (Adverb clause) + I like to listen to the radio. (Independent clause) There are a number of adverb clauses in English such as adverb clauses of time, causality, opposition, condition, manner, and place. Not all adverb clauses can be reduced. Here are some examples of each type of adverb clauses which can be reduced: A. Reducing Adverb Clauses of Time Adverb clauses of time are reduced in a number of ways depending on the time expression used. Here are the most common: Before / After / Since / while • Keep the time word • Remove the subject • Change the verb to the gerund form Examples: PBefore Tom studied abroad, he took an English course. → Before studying abroad, Tom took an English course. PAfter he (had) sold his house, he built a new one. → After selling his house, he built a new one. → After having sold his house, he built a new one. PSince Marry moved here, she has got a lot of friends. → Since moving here, Marry has got a lot of friends. P While Mr. Harry was explaining the lesson, he wrote on the blackboard. → While explaining the lesson, Mr. Harry wrote on the blackboard. $ Note: “when” may also be used like “while”. P When you are walking alone at night in Paris streets, be careful. → When walking alone at night in Paris streets, be careful. As • Delete 'as' • Remove the subject • Change the verb to the gerund form Examples: PAs I was falling asleep, I thought about my friends in Italy. → Falling asleep, I thought about my friends in Italy. PAs she was driving to work, she saw a deer in the road. → Driving to work, she saw a deer in the road. As soon as • Delete ‘as soon as’ and replace with 'upon' or 'on' • Remove the subject • Change the verb to the gerund form Examples: PAs soon as she finished the report, she gave it to the boss. → Upon finishing the report, she gave it to the boss. PAs soon as we woke up, we got our fishing poles and went to the lake. → On waking up, we got our fishing poles and went to the lake. When Instead of when + clause, we can use on/upon + V ing P When Sandra graduated from university, she applied for a job. → On/upon graduating from university, she applied for a job. $ Note: In passive sentences or when the verb “to be” is the main verb of the sentence, we can omit the subject and be. PWhen he was a little boy, he was very naughty. → When a little boy, he was very naughty. PWhen they are used too often, words or phrases may lose their value. → When used too often, words or phrases may lose their value. B. Reducing Adverb Clauses of causality Adverb clauses of causality (providing the reason for something) are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions 'because', 'since' and 'as'. Each of these is reduced in the same manner. • Remove the subordinating conjunction • Remove the subject • Change the verb to the gerund form/ adjective/ noun Examples: PBecause she is a mother now, she has more responsibilities. → Being a mother now, she has more responsibilities. → A mother now, she has more responsibilities PSince she is suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky. → Being suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky. → Suitable for the vacant post, she is lucky. PAs Tom had extra work to do, he stayed late at work. → Having extra work to do, Tom stayed late at work. PAs he was a child of noble birth, he was famous among the children in that school. → Being a child of noble birth, he was famous among the children in that school. → A child of noble birth, he was famous among the children in that school. $ Note: If adverbial clause mentions an event which happened before the event in main clause, then we prefer “having V3” (perfect participle). P Because I injured my back yesterday, I now have difficulty in walking. → Having injured my back yesterday, I now have difficulty in walking. In negative reductions, we use "not + Ving" or "not having V3" PBecause I don’t know her phone number, I can’t call her. → Not knowing her phone number, I can’t call her. PBecause she hadn't studied well, she failed in the exam yesterday. → Not having studied well, she failed in the exam yesterday. C. Reducing Adverb Clauses of Opposition Adverb clauses of opposition beginning with 'though', 'although', or 'while' can be reduced in the following manner. • Keep the subordinating conjunction • Remove the subject and the verb 'be' • Keep the noun or adjective • OR Change the verb to the gerund form Examples: P While he was a happy man, he had many serious problems. → While happy, he had many serious problems. (adjective) PAlthough she was beautiful, she still felt shy. → Although beautiful, she still felt shy. (adjective) P Though she was an excellent student, she failed to pass the test. → Though an excellent student, she failed to pass the test. (noun) P Although he had a car, he decided to walk. → Although having a car, he decided to walk. (gerund) $ Notes: 1. An adverb clause can be changed to a modifying phrase ONLY WHEN THE SUBJECT OF THE ADVERB CLAUSE AND THE SUBJECT OF THE MAIN CLAUSE ARE THE SAME. Or, no change is possible if the subjects of the adverb clause and the main clause are different. eg: No change possible: PWhile the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep. PWhile we were walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us. 2. Sometimes while is omitted but the -ing phrase at the beginning of sentence gives the same meaning. eg: PWhile walking down the street, I ran into an old friend. P Walking down the street, I ran into an old friend. 4. Having + past participle gives the meaning not only of "because" but also of "before". ex: PHaving seen that movie before, I don't want to go again. PHaving seen that movie before, I didn't want to go again 5. We can make reductions with “if, unless, as if, whether …or” P If they were treated fairly, they wouldn't lose the game. → If treated fairly, they wouldn't lose the game. P Unless we are paid fairly, we will go on a strike. → Unless paid fairly, we will go on a strike. P They were running hurriedly, as if they were being chased by someone. →They were running hurriedly, as if being chased by someone. 6. Not all adverb clauses can be reduced. Some can be reduced in passive only. Some can be reduced in active only, and some can be reduced in both. - reduced in ACTIVE: after, before, while, when, if, unless, whether, although, though - reduced in PASSIVE: once, until, whenever, where, wherever, as - reduced in BOTH: if, unless, whether, although, though, when, since 7. We can make reductions even when the subjects are different PBecause our car is broken down, we have been travelling to work by bus since last week. → Our car being broken down, we have been travelling to work by bus since last week. PAs the weather was cold, we had to postpone the picnic. → The weather being cold, we had to postpone the picnic. P Because there was a long queue, we didn't want to wait. → There being a long queue, we didn't want to wait. The reduced phrases in the above examples are called absolute phrases. They are different from participial phrases in that they explicitly mention the subject. The subject is never mentioned in participial phrases. For example, "being rich" is a participial phrase, "he being rich" is an absolute phrase. Another difference between participial construction and absolute construction is that the subjects of absolute phrases are always different from those of their main clauses. For this reason the syntactic relation between the absolute phrase and the main clause is always a fragile one. So it is called absolute phrase. (Absolute means "independent" or "not related”). The absolute phrases serve to give additional details in a hurried manner. EXERCISES ON REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES I. Complete the following sentences with reduced adverb clauses 1. While ___ work, I saw an old friend of mine. A. I walking home from B. walking home from C. walked home from D. walking home work 2. Before ___, I brushed my teeth. A. left my house B. I leaving my house C. leaving my house D. my house leaving 3. I feel asleep ___ TV. A. while I watch B. while watching C. while watched D. during I was watching 4. While ___ about adverb clauses, a mild earthquake shook the classroom. A. the teacher lecturing B. the teacher was lecturing C. lecturing D. lectured 5. ___, a dog chased us down the street A. While running B. While we were running C. We were running while D. While running we were 6. Since ___ to San Bernardino, Yih-Ping has made many friends. A. coming B. come C. she coming D. she comes to 7. Peter went back to school ___ the phone. A. after John calling him on B. John had called him on C. after John had called him on D. after John had called him 8. ___ yesterday, we saw many deer. A. While we hiking through the woods B. Hiking through the woods C. During hiking through the woods D. Hiking through the woods we 9. ___ the necessary qualifications, she was not hired for a job. A. Lacked B. When lacking C. Lacking D. Because lacking 10. Unable to run the entire 42 kilometers, she decided to drop out of the race, ___ her a heat stroke. A. the fatigue from the intense heat almost gave B. the fatigue from the intense heat having almost given C. which the fatigue from the intense heat having almost given D. the fatigue from the intense heat had almost given 11. ___ the age of 21, he was able to gamble in Las Vegas. A. When reached B. Reached C. As reaching D. Upon reaching 12. ___, Martha was watching her favorite TV program. A. While Penchart talking to his friend B. While Penchart was talked to his friend C. While Penchart was talking to his friend friend while D. Penchart was talking to his 13. Before ___ visit my brother and his family, I will need to finish all of my business dealings with my clients. A. leaving for North Dakota B. leaving for North Dakota to C. left for North Dakota to D. I leaving for North Dakota to 14. ___ , the student won a $10 million lottery. A. While worked on the computer B. While working on the computer C. While she working on the computer D. Working on the computer while she 15. Since ___ his MBA studies, Selim has secured a great job as a finance manager of a major corporation in Turkey. A. he finishing B. finishing C. finished D. he finish 16. Joo Kyung always watches TV after ___ her homework. A. finished B. finishing C. she finished D. she finish 17. ___ his laser pointer to point to an example on the board, the teacher carefully explained the meaning of "animal" idioms. A. Using B. Used C. While he using D. While he was used 18. ___ to buy a car, she took the bus every morning to work. A. Because she unable B. Being unable C. Be unable D. Because she were unable 19. ___, I discovered that my stereo had been stolen. A. On that looking into my car B. When I look into my car C. Looking into my car when I D. On looking into my car 20. ___ so dry during the summer, it is prohibited to light camp fires. A. The forest area in the San Bernardino mountains is B. Being the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains is C. Because the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains is D. Being the forest area in the San Bernardino mountains was II. Choose the correct phrase to finish the sentence. 1. ___ so dry during the summer, it is forbidden to light camp fires. A.Being the hills in our area B.Being that the hills in our area are C.The hills in our area are being D.Because the hills in our area are 2. Since ___ in English class, Lee has made many friends. A.Lee enrolls B.enroll C.Lee enrolling D.enrolling 3. ___ to ride a bicycle, he walked to work every morning. A.Because he unable B.Being unable C.Be unable D.Because he were unable 4. Unable to walk the entire 10 miles, Peter decided to drop out of the hike, ___ him a leg cramp. A.his new shoes gave B.his new shoes had been given C.which his new shoes having given D.his new shoes having given 5. I feel asleep ___ to the radio. A.while listening B.while I listen C.while listened D.during I was listening 6. Larry always watches TV after ___ the dishes. A.washed B.washing C.he washed D.he wash 7. ___ to an example on the board, the teacher carefully explained the meaning of "gerunds." A.Pointing B.Pointed C.While she pointing D.While she pointed 8. ___ our bikes, a mysterious car followed us down the street. A.While we had ridden B.While we were riding C.We were riding while D.While riding we were 9. Sara went back to her bedroom ___ the phone. A.after talking her on B.after talked on C.after talking on D.talked on 10. ___, I discovered that my stereo system had been stolen. A.On that coming home B.When I come home C.Coming home when I D.Upon coming home III. Rewrite the following sentences using the reduced adverb clauses. 1. Since it was discovered, penicillin has been used to treat bacterial infections. → Since ………………………………………………………………………… 2. Benjamin Franklin invented many things while he was working as a printer. → ………………………………………………………………………… 3. When a substance undergoes a slow oxidation, the substance can burst into flame. → When ………………………………………………………………………… 4. Although the moon rocks were expensive to obtain, they provided valuable information. → Although.………………………………………………………………………… 5. After the space probes landed on Mars, they sent back pictures. → After ………………………………………………………………………… 6. Frank Sprague developed the elevator after he had improved the electric motor. → ………………………………………………………………………… 7. When she returned to her native city, Kate Chopin began to write the stories for which she is noted. → ………………………………………………………………………… 8. Because it was once considered a dangerous predator, the wolf has been hunted to near-extinction. → ………………………………………………………………………… KEYS I. Complete the following sentences with reduced adverb clauses 1.B 6.A 11.D 16. B 2.C 7. C 12. C 17. A 3.B 8.B 13. B 18. B 4.B 9. C 14. B 19. D II. Choose the correct phrase to finish the sentence. 1.D 2.D 3.B 4.A 6.B 7. A 8.B 9. C 5.B 10. A 15. B 20. C 5.A 10. D III. Rewrite the following sentences using the reduced adverb clauses. 1. Since discovered, penicillin has been used to treat bacterial infections. 2. Benjamin Franklin invented many things while working as a printer. 3. When undergoing a slow oxidation, the substance can burst into flame. 4. Although expensive to obtain, the moon rocks provided valuable information. 5. After landing on Mars, the space probes sent back pictures. 6. Frank Sprague developed the elevator after improving the electric motor. 7. When returning to her native city, Kate Chopin began to write the stories for which she is noted. 8. Once considered a dangerous predator, the wolf has been hunted to near-extinction. Reference: A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (Longman, 1985) http://esl.about.com/od/grammarstructures/a/Reduced-Adverb-Clauses.htm http://profrajappansblog.blogspot.com/2010/10/participial-construction-absolute.html
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