Tài liệu Quản trị chiêu thị trần thị ngọc trang

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.r TS TRAN THJ NGQC TRANG ? QUAN TRI. """' CHIEU THI• ' . h.1. ~ ,, 'I[.'j~ ,~ \~ ~· ..,.,,. -· - NHA x CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU THI VA OUAN TR! CH/EU THI CHUONG I ~ A") A ' TONG QUAN VE CHIEU THI VA QUAN TRI CHIEU THI ? A Trang co che th! truong. ho?t dong truyen thong marketing (hay chieu th!) la mot phan quan trong trong he thong kinh til" xa hQi. tr6 thanh mot hinh thCic truyen thong can thie't doi vdi ca ngu-C:jj tieu dung va ngtJbi san xuat. Nhb ho?t dong chieu th! ma cac doanh nghiep c6 the th6ng tin, t?o Stj chu y cua cong Chung doi vdi cac san pham va d!ch Vl,.I cua minh. Ngllbi tieu dung cOng nhb vao cac ho?t d(lng chieu th! ma c6 nhieu thong tin, c6 nhieu co h(li chon 11,ta san pham va ra cac quyet djnh mua sam. Gae ho?t dong chieu th! se ngay cang phat trien va da d?ng hon cung voi sv thay doi ldn lao cua moi trubng kinh doanh va SI/ thay doi trong hanh vi nglloi · tieu dung. M1,.1c tieu chvang nay se xem xet cac viin de sau: 1. Xem xet cac chuc nang truyen th6ng chieu th! trong ke ho?ch marketing. 2. Gi6i thieu khai niem truyen thong marketing tong hc;ip va cac yeu to cua n6. Xem xet nguyen nhan lam gia tang vai tro cua truyen thong marketing tong hOp trong viec ho?ch d!nh va th 1,tc hien chvong trinh truyen thong khuyen mc,ti. 3. G16; th1eu cac yeu to khac nhau cua mot phoi thuc truyen thong va vai HO cua moi yeu to trong mot chvong trlnh truyen th6ng. Xem xet cac yeu to cua marketing va cac yeu to chieu th! phai dvoc phoi hOP nhv the nao de truyen thong co hieu qua. 4. Gioi thieu mo hlnh ho?ch djnh qua trlnh truyen thong marketing va cac bu6c de phat trien chvong trinh truyen th6ng marketing. 1. sl,I PHAT TRIEN CUA auANG cAo vA KHUYEN M~I. Hang nam, the gi6i chi mot khoan tien khong 16 cha cac ho?t dong gioi thieu hang h6a, nham thu hut sv chu y cua khcich hang. Giao su d?i 3 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU THI VA QUAN TR/ CH/EU TH! hoc Columbia, Williams s. Vickrey - ngvoi Wng doat giai Nobel kinh te 1996, da xem "Quang cao la han th~ bieu cua nen kinh te". Tam quan trong ngay cang tang cua quang cao va chieu th! c6 the thay thong qua mt1c chi phf cho hoat d(lng nay trong nhilng nam gan day. 0 My 1980 chi phf quang cao 53 ti USO, chi phf khuyen mai la 49 ti USO, nam 1996 quang cao tang 174 ti uso va khuyen mai tang hon 200 ti uso 1, nam 2002 quang cao tang 240 ti uso va khuyen mai tang hdn 250 ti uso. nat 0 Viet Nam, W khi nt16c ta chuyen sang nen kinh te th! trvong, hoat d(lng kinh doanh ngay cang phat trien da keo theo hoat dong quang cao chieu th! phat trien v6i toe do nhanh nhat w tru·6c Mn nay. Quang cao 8,1 trieu uso nam 1994 tang len 116 trieu uso nam 1999, tren 400 trieu USO nam 2006. Chi phf cho hoat dong khuye·n mai 523 ti dong nam 2006. Xu hu6ng gia tang chi phf cho cac hoat d(lng chieu th! phan anh phan nao Slf phat trien cua nen kinh te' Va vai tro cua l1oat d(lng chieu thj trong ChLldng trinh marketing cua doanh nghiep. f)e hieu r5 hdn ve vai tro cua hoat d(lng chieu th!, trLJ6c he't chung ta se xem xet ban chat cua marketing va vai tro cua truyen thong marketing trong chie·n luQc marketing-mix. w 1.1 MARKETING 1.1.1 Marketing LA Gi? la gi: Theo Hiep h(li Marketing My - AMA: "Marketing la qua trinh hoach dinh va thlfc hien cac y tl!ong, dinh gia, phan phoi, chieu th! cho cac san pham Va djch VU tao ra Slj trao d6i nh~m thoa man muc tieu CUa cac ca nhan va t6 chuc" • Marketing tap trunq vao su trao doi: 8!nh nghTa cua AMA nhan manh Mn trao d6i, khi trao d6i xay ra, phai c6 it nhat hai ben tham gia trao d6i v~t c6 gia tr! de lay v~t khac va phai thong tin cho nhau. Nhu v~y quang cao va chieu th! dong vai tro quan trong trong qua trlnh trao d6i nh~m thong tin cho.hai ben tham gia. • Marketing dap ung monq muon cua ca nqubi ban 1 Adv\:rlising Age 4 Ian nqLJoi mua CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU THI VA QUAN TRI CH/EU TH/ • Hoat dong marketing phai huong ·vao khach hang, thoa man nhu cau. tao ra va duy trl moi guan he voi knach hang • Mot ly do khac khien cho marketing phai nhan manh den moi guan he: la tfnh hieu qua neu giu dLtQC. khach hang da CO hdn la tlm kiem khach hang moi. Cac nha marketing con quan tam den gia trj suet dbi cua mot khach hang. Ket qua cua mot cuoc nghien cuu da Chung to rang: Neu giam bot 5% so.khach hang roi b6 san pham cua c6ng ty co the lam tang them IQi nhu~n w30 - 90 %. Do do cac cong ty phai quan tam den Slj phat trien moi quan he VOi cac khach hang cua mlnh. 1.1.2 Marketing-mix: Marketing-mix la s1,1 phoi hQp cac thanh phan marketing sao ctio phu hQp voi hoan canh thLJc te cua th! truong, day chi nh la s1,1 bieu hi en linh ho~t cua doanh nghiep trong viec v~n d1,mg cac chien ILJQC 4P trong Wng giai do~n khac ntiau. cua th! truong. Bon Ps: Product (san pham), Price (gia ca), Place (phan ph6i), Promotion (chieu th! hay truyen th6ng marketing) la ban yeu to ci'.Ja marketing-mix. Nhiem v~ cua marketing la ket hQp bon yeu to nay trong m(lt chLtdng trlnh marketing de t~o Slj thu~n IQi cho khach hang tiem nang co the trao doi tren th! truong. ChLtdng trlnh truyen th6ng marketing la mot phan cua Chien ILfQC marketing va phai duQc phoi hQp ch~t che voi cac ho~t dong khac cua marketing. Mot c6ng ty c6 the chi mot khoi ILJQng tien Ion cho quang cao ho~c khuyen m~i. nhung neu san pham c6 chat ILtQng kem, gia ca kh6ng thfch hQp ho~c kh6ng c6 m(lt he thong phan phoi day du de dLta san pham den khach hang, c6ng ty d6 cOng se c6 ft hy vong thanh cong. 1.2 TRUYEN THONG MARKETING TONG H<;lP (Integrated Marketing Communications). 1.2.1 SI! phat trien ctia Integrated Marketing Communications (l.M.C). Trang suot th~p ky 80, nhieu c6ng ty quan tam den mot Chien ILtQc ph6i hQp cac c6ng c~ chieu th!. Ho b~t dau thay doi each nhin huong tai quan niem moi "Truyen th6ng marketing tong hQp (l.M.C)". 8ay la slf dieu 5 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH.I VA QUAN TR/ CH/EU TH.I to phoi cac yeu chieu th! khac nhau va cac ho~t dong marketing khac nhau de truyen thong toi khach hang ci'.Ja cong ty. Gae nha marketing khi tiep nh~n khai niem truyen thong marketing tong hQp, ho b~t dau yeu cau d~i ly quang cao ci'.Ja minh phai ·phoi hQp trong viec sli d1,1ng cac bien khac ci'.Ja chieu th! hon la chi dl,la vao ho~t d(lng quang cao ddn le. Nhieu d~i ly quang cao da dap Ling v61 yeu cau ve sl,l hOP Ive giua cac bien chieu thi nhu quang cao. giao te (P.R). khuyen m~i, marketing trl,lc tiep. Gae d~i ly quang cao cOng tham gia vao cac ho~t dong khong phai la quang cao de kiem soat ngan sach va chlldng trinh khuye·n m~i ci'.Ja cac khach hang ci'.Ja minh. Ouan-riiem 1.M.G nhanh ch6ng duQc ua chuong nhieu hdn. Hi~p hqi cac d~i ly quang cao Mi 4As da dlla ra mqt dinh nghia ve· l.M.C nhll sau: · "I.MC la khai ni~m ve· SI/ ho?ch dinh truye'n thong marketing nh&m xac dfnh gia trf gia tang ctJa mrjt k{ hO?Ch t6'ng h9jJ, danh gia vai tro chie'n lu9·c cua cac thilnh pha°n khac nhau trong truye'n th6ng nhU: quang cao, khuyen m?i, tuyen truye'n Vil SI/ ke't h9·p cac thanh pha'n nay de' t?O ra m<)t SI/ truye'n th6ng r6 rang, deu d#n, hiCU qua t6/ da." • Dinh nghTa nay t~p trung vao qua trinh sli d1,1ng cac hinh thuc khac nhau ci'.Ja chieu thi de d~t duoc cac tac dong truyen thOng t6i da. Quan diem cua 4As t~p trung vao qua trinh SU d1,1ng cac hinh th(Jc chieu th! d~ d~t tac dong truyen thong t6i da. Tuy nhien cling co quan diem khac ve 1.M.C, nhll quan diem giao SL! Don Schultz - f)~i hoc NorthWestern (My) Quan ·didm giao sll' Don Schultz - D~i hc;ic Northwestern My: cho rang tri~n vong ci'.Ja 1.M:G rong hon, n6 c6 the la each Mp c~n de ho~ch d!nh chuong trinh marketing, chieu th! va phoi hQp cac chuc nang truyen thong khac nhau. Doanh nghiep phai phat trien chiifo IL!Q"c marketing tong the de' xac dinh ro lam the nao ma tat ca ho~t d(ing marketing ci'.Ja doanh nghiep (chlf khong chi rieng ho~t dong chieu thi) truyen thOng den khach hang. • SLJ nh~n thuc cua nguoi tieu dung ve mot nhan hieu hay cong ty la sv tong hQ"p cac thong diep ma ho tiep nh~n dL!Qc (nhu qua quang cao, 6 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH! VA QUAN TR! CH/EU THI muc gia, thiet ke baa bi, n8 llfc marketing trvc tiep, tuyen truyen khuyen mQi, thong diep tren mQng internet, hlnh thuc trung bay tQi diem ban ... ). l.M.C co thlfC hien de c6 the dQt dll(iC Slf nh~n thuc cua nguoi tieu dung ve hinh anh d(lc dao, an tuQng ve san pham cua cong ty tren thi truong. Vf di,i: gia cao c6 the bieu hien cha chat luong cao, cOng co the bieu hien cha kieu dang, thiet ke san pham, baa bl. ten nhan hoac hlnh anh uy tfn cua cong ty. 1.2.2 Ly do ve tam quan trqng ngay cang tang cua l.M.C: Truyen thong marketing t6ng h(ip dLJQC xem nhll la mot Slf phat trien marketing dang ghi nh~n nhat trong th~p ky 90. Xuat phat W mot so ly do co ban sau: - Ly do co ban nhat la: sv phoi hOP c6 trnh chien 1voc cua cac chuc nang truyen thong khac nhau ngay cang c6 gia tr! hon la de chung ho~t C:~i~ mot each don le, ti! dong - Sl,f phat trien 1.M.C cOng phan anh Sl,f dieu chinh cua nha marketing doi VOi Sl) thay d0i cua moi truong: Sl,f thay d6i cua hanh Vi nglloi tieu dung (nhan khau hoc, loi song, each song, each Sll dt,mg phLJOng tien truyen thong), ve ky thu~t va phuong tien truyen thong (phat trien phllong tien truyen th6ng moi tivi cap, internet. .. ) - sv thay d6i cua 1.M.C con chiu anh huong boi sv thay d6i each thUC marketing san pham djch Vl,J cua CaC Cong ty nhll: • C6ng ty thay d6i ngan sach marketing W chi cha quang cao sang chi cac hlnh thuc khac, ho cho rang each thuc quang cao truyen thong ton kem va khong hieu qua. • Chia nho th! truong cac phllong tien quang cao lam cho nguoi tieu dung it quan tam den phLIOng tie n quang Cao d~i Chung, ma quan tam den cac phuor.g tien nh6 hon • C6 Slf djch chuyen sue mua cua th! trllong W nha san xuat sang nha ban le. Do the m~nh trong ITnh vl)c ban le, cac nha ban le khu we, vung va qu6c te dang thay the dan cac nha ban le nh6 dia phuong. Ho dung anh hllong cua minh de nh~n duoc cac khoan giam gia, chuoc giam khuyen m~i nha san xuat w 7 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH! VA QUAN TRI CH/EU THI • sv phat trien ·he thong du lieu. thOng tin marketing. Nhieu cOng ty da xay dµng Cd SO dU lieu ve ho Sd nhan khau, tam ly ci'.Ja khach hang. Ho si:t dung thong tin nay nham den khach hang muc tieu thong qua phudng phap marketing trvc tiep nhu telemarketing, quang cao dap ung trvc tiep hdn la quang cao dQi chung. • sv thay doi trong viec mua cac phudng tien truyen thong. Nhieu cong ty chuyen sang mua phudng tien quang cao trong nha (tivi, radio, bao) ho~c cac phuong tien doc l~p. dieu nay lam cho nhu cau mua phlfdng tien quang cao w cac d~i ly quang cao giam di va hoa hong ci'.Ja dQi ly quang cao tra nen thap dan. sv thay doi ve marketing dang anh huang den yeu to trong qua trlnh marketing va chieu thi. Gae cong ty da nhan thuc ho phai thay doi each thuc ma ho dang thµc hien de co d(lng san pham. Khong the cu rang bu(lc mai voi each quang cao truyen thong. Ho phai Slt dung bat cu hlnh thuc tiep xuc nao cha ho each thuc tot nhat chuyen tai thong diep den khach hang muc tieu. 1.2.3 Vai tro ciia chieu th!: Chieu thi dtlf!c djnh nghfa nhtf ta: slf phol hf!p cac na life nham thief /Qp kenh truye'n thOng Va thuyet phlJC khach hang di ban san pha'm, djch VIJ hay cil dQng cho cac 'i ttfi!Jng. Gae cong cv cd ban duoc si:t dvng de d~t duoc cac mvc tieu truyen thong cua to chuc auoc goi la phoi thuc chieu thi/truyen thong (promotional-mix),d6 la quang cao, khuyen m~i. marketing trvc tiep, giao te va chao hang ca nhan (nhv hlnh 1.1) l'hfli thU'c chicu thi - .- I I Quang cao I I Khuyc'n ml)i l\tarkcling lnfc lic'p I (;iuo l le· . Hinh 1.1: Cac yeu to cua phoi thuc chieu th! 8 Chao h· CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU THI. VA QUAN TRI CH/EU THI Trang tai lieu nay Chung ta xem marketing trljc Mp la mot ye'u ta· cua promotion-mix ma cac nha marketing sl1 d1,mg de truyen thong v6i khach hang m~c tieu. Moi yeu t6 deu c6 vai tro khac nhau trong qua trlnh l.M.C. va chung cOng dLJc;lc thl,ic hi$n v6i hlnh thuc khac n~au, moi yeu to deu c6 nhung L1U diem va han diem nhat dinh. Mot chuong trlnh 1.M.C thanh cong doi hoi doanh nghiep biet each ket h(,jp dung dan cac ky thu~t Va Cong CV truyen thOng, XJC djnh r6 vai tro va Sl/ mo rong cac yeu to nay trong viec phoi hQp; Sll dvng chung. De dat dllc;lC dieu nay, nglloi Chiu trach nhiem ve hoat dong truyen thong cua CaC . cong ty phai hieu r6 vai tro cua truyen thong marketing trong mot. ke hoach chung marketing . .vai tro cua truyen thong marketing h_ay chieu th! the hien nhll sau: • La cong CV thl,ic hien chuc nang truyen thong, dap ling nhu cau khach hang. • Phoi hQp v6i cac cong c~ khac trong marketing-mix de dat mt,Jc tieu marketing. • La cong CV canh tranh trong kinh doanh: gia tang gia trj san pham, thong tin, xay dl,ing nh~n thuc ve san pham, nang cao uy tin nhan hieu. duy trl niem tin, thai do tot dep cong chung ve cong ty ... a Chieu thi co the'. • Thong tin ve IOi the san pham. • Thie·t l~p sv nh~n thuc va thai do thu~n IQi d6i v6i san pham, cong ty. • Tao sv ua thich nhan hieu. • Tang so ILJ<;ing ban hien tai. • Cung c6 hoat dong phan phoi tc;ii cac diem ban • 8at Sl/ h<;ip tac tU cac trung gian va 1v·c ILJQng ban hang. • Dong vien ll}c luqng ban hang. • Xay dt,Jng hinh anh tot ve c6ng ty. le. 9 CHUONG 1. T6NG OUAN CH/EU THI VA OUAN TR! CH/EU THI • Chieu thi khonq thi Thuye't ph1,1c nguoi tieu dung mua san pham khorig phu ~1Qp v6i nh.u cau .. • Lam cha khcich hang mua san pham vai muc gia cao hem. • Thuye't ph1,1c khach hang tlm mua san pham trong khi n6 dang phan phoi hi;ln che. 1.2.4 Chl1c nang ctia chieu th!: • Truyen thOng: thong tin, thuyet ph1,1c, nhac nho. • Kich thich tieu th1,1, gia tang gia tr!. • .Thiet l~p quan he, lien ke't. 1.3 PHOI THUC TRUYEN THONG TRUYEN THONG MARKETING TONG HQP. CONG Cl,I CUA 1.3. l Quang cao (Advertising): Quang cao la hlnh thuc truyen thOng phi ca nhan ma phai tra tien d€ tMng tin ve cong ty, san pham, djch VI,!, y tLJong. Can quan tam nhung d~c trung sau day khi de c~p den khai niem ve quang cao: • Quang cao la hlnh thuc truyen thong ~ai tra tien cha viec mua khong gian va thoi gian M dang cac thOng' dfep quang cao. • Quang cao la hlnh thuc truyen thOng phi ca nhan: th0ng diep quang cao phai su d1,1ng cac phuong tien thOng tin dc;ii chung (tivi, radio, baa chi, tC;lp chi) M chuy€n tai thOng diep den so dong khach hang trong cung thoi di€m. 1 Quang cao duoc xem la hlnh thuc su dung nhieu nhat cua truyen thong, c6 le vi tfnh Ian r(>ng cua n6, n6 dLJQC cac cong ty san xuat hang tieu dung su dung ph6 bien hon cac cong ty san xuat hang cong nghiep n.hu so lieu chi phi quang cao cua 20 nha quang cao quoc gia !C;Ii My (bang l.1) C6 nhieu ly do giai thich tc;ii sao quang cao IC;Ii c6 vai tro quan trong nhlf v~y. 10 CHUONG 1. T6NG QUAN CH/EU TH! VA QUAN TRI CH/EU THI Thu nhat: quang caa c6 the' la m(lt phuong phap hieu qua ve chi phf d8 truyen thong tren dien r(lng. Mot chuong trinh quang caa phat ra nhieu h(l gia dinh mo xem. Nii'u xet chi phi cha mot Ian thong tin de'n khach hang se thap hon hlnh thuc khac. Thu hai: quang caa c6 the tc;ia an ttJOng, thu hut b~ng bieu tuong cha nhan hieu hay cong ty, kha nang nay giup cha cong ty ban nhung san pham ma n6 rat kh6 neu ra Sll khac biet ve thu(lc tinh cua san pham vi du: thuoc la, nt16c giai khat. Thu ba: Ul.l diem khac cua quang caa la kha nang tac d(lng vaa phan Ltng cua khach hang khi cac yeu to khac cua marketing kh6 thl)C hien duoc. Mot chuong trinh quang cao hap dan c6 the giL p daanh nghiep tang daanh SO, tc;ia 11,!C day g6p phan vaa Sl) thanh cong chung cua mot ke ha~ch truyen thong marketing. Bang 1.1: MllO'i cong ty quang cao hang tieu dung va hang cong nghi~p co chi phi quang cao cao nha·t ii My nam 2006. (don vi: trieu USO) Quang cao cong nghi~p Cong ty STT Quang cao tieu dung Chi phi sn Cong ty Chi phi 1 AT&T 3.344 1 Procter&Gamble 4.898 2 3 Verizon Communications Sprint Nextel 2.821 1.775 2 3.296 2.576 4 American Express 928.7 3 4 General motors Ford Motor Co Walt Disney 2.320 5 General Mills 920.5 5 Johnson 6 Microsoft 912.2 6 Dell 882.5 7 Unilever Toyota Motor 2.098 7 8 Hewlett·Packard 828.8 8 Sony 1.994 9 Deutsche Telekom 815.1 9 DaimlerChrysler 1.952 10 IBM 516.5 10 General Electric &Johnson 2.290 1.995 . 1.860 Ngu6n: Advertising Age- June 25, 2007 Tc;ii Viet Nam, d~n dau chi phi quang caa thuong la cong ty san xuat hang tieu dung nhu so lieu trong bang 1.2 11 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH/ VA QUAN TR/ CH/EU THI Bang 1.2: Muoi cong ty co chi phi quang cao cao nMi't Viet Nam 2004 CHI PHf (USO) CONG TY : 1. Lever Viet Nam 7.688.063 2. Bia Viet Nam 2.063.075 3. Cong tY 1.934.967 P&G Viet Nam 4. Cong ty Dong Hai 1.596.654 5. Dutch Lady Viet Nam 1.118.958 <' 6. IBC - Pepsi 7. Samsung Electronic 813.078 " 801.625 8. Samsung Vina Electronic 762.972 9. Cong ty Amtronic Viet Nam. 762.686 1O.Nestle Vi~t 688.674 Nam Nguon: AC Nielsen f)~c diem Va ml)C dfch Cua quang Cao Se khac nhau doi vdi cac nganh khac nhau va trong nhung tlnh huong khac nhau. C6 cong zy nham vao quang Cao cho nhu CaU Cd ban (khuyen khfch nglfOi tieu dung Uong sua, nuac qua, an thit bo, di du lich ... ). C6 cong ty nham vao quang cao cho nhu cau ch9n 11,ia, khuytfo khich mua mot nhan Cl) the nao d6. (Vi di) dung sua Vinamilk). Cac cong ty quang cao aen th! truong tieu dung bang quang cao QUOC gia, quang Cao ban le de khuyen khfch nhu cau Cd ban, nhu cau chon ll,la. NgUQc lai trong th! truong cong nghiep, th! truang chuyen gia, nguoi ta phai thl!c hien hlnh thuc quang cao thuong mai, quang cao chuyen gia, quang cao cong nghiep nhv hlnh 1.2 mo ta cac loai quang cao pho bitfo. 12 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH! VA QUAN TR/ CH/EU TH! QUANG CAO HUdNG D~N NGUCll TltU DUNG (CONSUMER ADVERTISING) QUANG CAO OU6C GIA (National Advertising): Quang ciio duoc thuc hien bai nhirng c6ng ty lcin co pham vi hoat d(ing r(ing tren ca nucic Muc lieu cua quang cao qu6c g1a nhi!m th6ng tin vii nhac nhO nglldi tieu dung ve c6ng ty ho3c n11an l·1eu san pharn. d3c die·m. IOi ich. U\J diem. c~ch su dung san pham Tao ra vii duy tri hinh anh san ph5m de nguil1 tieu dung mua san pham OUANG CAO BAN LE I DIA PHUONG (Retail / local Advertising): Qu~ng ciio diroc thvc hien bcii nhung nglldi ban le ho3c nhi, thl,fC hi~n ChLJOng trlnh ho~t dQng d~ d~t dLiQC Slf hi§u biet Va SI/ chap nhan cua cong chung". Giao te thuong c6 mvc tieu nham thie't l~p va duy tri an tlfe)ng tfch Cl,(C cua cac nh6m cong chung ve cong ty. Hinh thuc thu·ang la Sll dl)ng hop baa, to ChUC Sl,( kien, Cung cap thong tin de baa chi du·a tin Ve San ph~m ho~c cong ty, tham gia vao cac ho~t dong cong dong nhlf: tro cap, dong ' lkio ~rto K~·, 411ii kh;i" s;it ( 'h;in dung ng1r\1i 1il:11 di111g Viet Nam h;iP S(;TI ~/2006 16 CHUONG 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH/ VA QUAN TR! CH/EU TH! g6p quy xa h(li, tai trc;1 cha cong ty. SL/ kien d~C biet V.V ... de tang Cllong hlnh anh 1.3.5 Chao hang ca nhiin (Personal selling): Thanh to cuoi cung cua phoi thuc truyen thong la chao hang ca nhan, mot hlnh thltC truyen th6ng ca nhan Va tn,tc tiep, nglfoi ban CO thuylft phl,JC khach hang mua san pham djch Vl,J cua Cong ty hO~C hanh d(lng theo m(it y t11ong nao d6. Ban hang la hoqt dong tie·p xuc trLJc tiep giUa nguoi mua va nglloi ban, (ho~c d6i mat hoac thong qua hinh thuc truyen th6ng khac) de thong tin gidi thieu san pham. Hoqt dong nay cha nha marketing mot Sl/ truyen thong uyen chuyen, linh hoqt, nglloi ban co the gap va biet phan ung cua khach hang va dieu chlnh thOng diep m(lt each thfch h(lp. (j khfa Cqnh rieng tlf, truyen thong c6 trnh ca nhan h6a trong chao hang cha phep nguoi ban thiet ke thong diep dap Ltng voi nhu cau rieng biet cua khach hang ho~c phu hc;1p voi tinh huong khac nhau. Chao hang cOng ghi nh~n nhieu thong tin phan hoi chfnh xac, We thoi do anh hllong cua viec gioi thieu ban hang. C6 the danh gia hieu qua viec chao hang qua phan Ltng cua khach hang. Neu thong tin phan hoi khong thfch hQp, nglloi ban co the dieu chlnh th6ng diep. No ILJc chao hang cOng cho phep nh~m vao khach hang m1,1c tieu va th! truong chuyen biet nhung nglloi co trien vong Ion nhat cho san pham va dich vv cua ceing ty. II. auAN TRI CHIEU THI (QUAN TRI TRUYEN THONG MARKETING). Ouan tr! chieu th/: 18 qua trinh phtfi htJp cac yeu to' cMeu thi di phat triin mQt chtlang trinh truye·n thong to'ng htJp, co the' kie'm soat dtltJc de' truye·n thong mqt each co hi~u qua Gae nha marketing phai xem xet 11,ta chon cong cl,J nao, ket hANH GIA KE HO~CH MARKETING. Buoc dau tien trong qua trlnh haach d!nh la xem xet ke haach va mvc tieu marketing. Truoc khi phcit trien ke ha(;lch chieu thi. nha marketing phai hieu ro cong ty dang dung dau? Vi tri hien tai cua cong ty tren thi truong, cong ty dv d!nh se di toi dau? Lam the naa d8 dat duc;ic vi tri d6? a Phan Ion thong tin nay se ton tC;li trong ke haach Marketing, ke haach marketing c6 the dLioi nhieu dC;lng, nhllng n6i chung n6 baa gom nam yeu to cd ban sau: 1. Phan tich tlnh huong mot each chi tiet baa gom viec danh gia ca yeu to marketing ben trong daanh nghiep va phan tich moi trlfong ngaai vi, ve canh tranh tren thi truong; 2. Mvc tieu marketing Cl) the se cung cap djnh hllong, khung thoi gian cha ho(;lt dong marketing va cd chii cho viec danh gia ket qua; 3. Chien IL!Qc va chlfdng trlnh marketing se baa gom viec Iva chon th! tniong mvc tieu, cac quyet dinh va ke hoC;1ch cha ban yeu to cua marketing-mix; 4. Mot chlleing trlnh cho trien khai thvc hien chien ILIQc marketing, baa gom xac d!nh nhiem w cv the phai thvc hien va trach nhiem; 5. Mot qua trinh kiem soat va danh gia viec thvc hien. cung cap thong tin phan hoi de kiem soat chinh xac, nhung thay doi can thiet trong chi1l°n IL!Qc marketing ho~c chien thu~t marketing; 0 'rHt1VItN ~ TRV0NG Ml HQC MARKETING 19 CH/JGJN.G 1. TONG QUAN CH/EU TH! VA .QUAN TR/ CH/EU TH! Doi voi phan Um cong ty, M :ho;;ich chieu thi :1a mot .Phan .cua chien 1t1oc marketing, vi the nguoi l~p ke ho;;ich phai hieu ro vai tro cat yeu to cua phoi thuc chieu thj trong toan b'Q :Chuong tr.inh mar'kelin_g. Ke ho;;ich chieu thj duoc phat trien t11ong ti;/ nht:t kef 'ho;;ich marketing va thuang su di.mg thOng tin ctii tie't, nguai l~p ·ke ho;;ich chieu thi .t~p trung vao cac th6ng tin trong M ho<;ich marketing co Mn quan den c'h'ien 1uoc chieu th!. II. 2 PHAN TfCH TiNH HUONG CUA KE HO~CH CHIEU THJ. Sau khi xem xet tcing quat ke ho;;ich marketing, b11oc ke tiep trnng .qua trinh phat trien ke ho;;ich chieu thi la thl,fc hien viec phan tfch tlnh hu611g. Cong viec nay t?p trung vao cac yeu to anh hLJCJng Sl,f pnat trien Chien luoc chieu th!. Giang nhll phan tich tinh huong marketing, phan tich tinh huong chllong trinh chieu thi bao gom phan tich n()i vi va ngo~i vi. den ca 20
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