Tài liệu Quản lý đào tạo trình độ trung cấp theo tiếp cận năng lực hướng tới việc làm tt tiếng anh

  • Số trang: 27 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 30 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
hoangtuavartar

Tham gia: 05/08/2015

Mô tả:

1 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION SCIENCE OF VIETNAM ------------------ NGUYEN THI THANH BINH MANAGEMENT OF COMPÊTENCY – BASED INTERMEDIATE VOCATIONAL TRAINING TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT Major: Educational Management Code:9.14.01.14 SUMMARY OF PHD. THESIS ON EDUCATION SCIENCE Hanoi 2018 2 Finalized at INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE OF VIETNAM Scientific supervisors: 1. Prof.Dr. Sc. Nguyen Minh Duong 2. Dr. Le Dong Phuong Defender1: .................................................................... Defender 2: .................................................................... Defender 3: .................................................................... This thesis will be reviewed at Institute –level Thesis Review Council, Institute of Educational Science of Viet Nam, 101 Tran Hung Dao Street, Ha Noi. On ….. Month …. Date …. Year The thesis can bi found at : - The National Library - The Library of Viet Nam Institute of Educational Sciences 1 PREFACE 1. Rationale Since 2000, Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Viet Nam has payed attention to social need – based training, training reforms including the implementation of competency – based training (CBT) in order to link training and employment. However, the training program in general and the intermediate level in particular is still mainly structured according to the subjects, heavy on knowledge, light on practice, not follow the CBT approach - considered flexible and work-oriented to meet diverse needs of learners as well as employers. Annual enrollment based on the ability of the schools but not close to the labor market needs, so it is not consistent with the law of supply demand and leads to the situation that a part of graduates have not found jobs and the training effectiveness is reduced. The main cause of the above situation is that the VET institutions have not yet managed intermediate level training according to the law of supply and demand of labor market. Resolution 29-NQ/TW stated: "Management of education and training is weak" and also set out the task: "Fundamentally renovate education management,.., emphasize the quality”. With the above reasons, the author decided to choose the topic "Management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment”. 2. Purpose of the research Propose several solutions on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment to improve the quality and the training efficiency, meeting the demand for intermediate level human resource development in the future. 3. The subject and object of the research 3.1. Target of the research: Competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. 3.2. Object of the research: Management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. 4. Scientific hypothesis Currently, training management at intermediate level has not followed the law of supply - demand of the market, so training is both redundant and insufficient; outputs and outcomes have not met the employment requirements and labor market. Therefore, if management of competency – based intermediate vocational training towards employment is implemented within appropriate solutions, from the inputs management, process management to outputs/outcomes management in connection with labor market demands, then the quality and effectiveness of training would be improved. 5. Research tasks 2 (1) Identify the theoretical foundations on management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment; (2) Evaluate the current situation of intermediate vocational training in Viet Nam and current situation of management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment; (3) Propose solutions on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. 6. Research scope 6.1. Research content The thesis focuses on organization and management methods; solutions on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment to enhance the quality and efectiveness of training and employment – oriented. 6.2. Site research The thesis conducts the survey on training management at intermediate vocational level of 13 VET institutions including 4 intermediate secondary schools and 9 colleges. These institutions are evenly distributed in the North Central - South (05 institution in the North, 03 institutions in the Central and 05 institutions in the South). 6.3. Targeted audience for survey The thesis collected opinions from 1.365 people in which, 181 administrators, 424 teachers, 322 learners, 272 graduates and166 employers. 6.4. Time scope The data of the thesis research process is synthesized in the period from 2015 to 2019. 7. Methodology and research methods 7.1. Approach methodology 7.1.1. System-based approach Intermediate-level human resources are a part of the socio-economy. Therefore, the research on vocational training management at intermediate level must be placed in relationships with the demand of human resource development in order to develop the socio-economy in each stage. 7.1.2. CIPO – based approach Based on CIPO model, training management is structured by 3 groups: Input (I-Input), process (P-Process), output/outcomes (O-Output / Outcomes) under the impact of context (C-Context). 7.1.3. Historical/logical approach Training management must be consistent with certain historical contexts. When the historical context changes, management methods, processes and measures will be renewed accordingly. However, the introduction of a new method, process or measure does not mean a new construction but must have inherited from the achievements. 7.1.4. Competency-based training 3 Human resource training must shift from content approach to target approach, taking output as a goal, towards forming the necessary professional competencies for learners so that they can perform the task of job according to occupational standards and have the opportunity to find a job. 7.1.5. Market-based approach In the market mechanism, education must be managed and operated in accordance with the law of market supply and demand to meet customer requirements and to improve the quality and effectiveness of institutions. Therefore, the study proposes solutions on management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment must also follow the rules of the market. 7.2. Research methodology The author used theoretical research methods of collecting, analyzing, synthesizing documents related to the thesis and practical research methods such as: survey methods, questionnaires, expert methods, mathematical statistics, summarizing practical experience and testing methods . 8. Viewpoints needs to be protected - Competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment will create necessary professional capacities and create conditions for graduates to find jobs in the right fields, sustainable jobs and improve career development. - Applying CIPO model to manage training from input (enrollment, curriculum, teachers, facilities), teaching and learning process to evaluation of output/outcomes under the impact of market economy. - Reforming management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment at VET institutions is necessary to gradually improve the quality of training to meet employment needs. 9. New findings of the thesis Based on CIPO training model, built the theoretical framework for management renovation of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. The survey showed that there have been some shortcomings remains in the training and management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. The author proposed some training management processes such as: management process for identifying the for demand; enrollment management process based on job demand; management process of the curriculum development based on job demand; management process of training and fostering teachers; management process of new teachers recruitment; management process of the integrated lessons compilation; process of establishing a job recommendation and consultancy team; management process of cooperative relationships between school and employers. 4 The author built a competency framework for training program of Marketing job at the intermediate vocational level, proposed 06 solutions on the management of intermediate vocational level human resource training. The author experimented one of solutions. The results of scientific experiment showed that the proposed solution not only met the theoretical requirements of management science but also met practical demands with high possibility. 10. Structure of the thesis Apart from the introduction, conclusion, recommendations, a list of the author's research works, references, appendices, main contents of the thesis are structured in 3 chapters: - Chapter 1: The theoretical foundation on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. - Chapter 2: The current situation on management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment. - Chapter 3: Solutions to management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. CHAPTER 1 THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ON MANAGEMENT OF COMPETENCY – BASED INTERMEDIATE VOCATIONAL TRAINING TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT 1.1. Overview of the research topic 1.1.1. Research on competency - based training 1.1.1.1. Overseas studies - William E. Blank (1980), Fletcher S. (1991), Worsnop, Percy J. (1993), Tom Lowrie (1999), Serge Côté (2012), Ayonmike, Chinyere S., Noel Kufaine và and Nancy Chitera (2013), Okoye Michael (2015) mention institutional framework of competency – based training, structural characteristics of competency – based training, building competency standards linking with occupations to form the competencies for learners, the role of teachers, facilities, the role of learners when moving to the competency-based training as well as the way to build a competency - based training framework, implement and develop competency-based training program. 1.1.1.2. Domestic studies The domestic experts have studied the module of occupractice skills applied in Vietnam; main contents in vocational training management, curriculum development, teaching, capacity building for learners as well as examination and evaluation in competency – based teaching. 1.1.2. Research on employment – oriented training 1.1.2.1. Oversea studies 5 - UNESCO (1997), UNESCO-ILO (2002), Astha Ummat, Buning, Frank Schnarr, Alexander (2009), Zafiris Tzannatos và Geraint Johnes (1997), Lisbeth Lundahh và Theodor Sander (1998), Rita Nikolai và Christian Ebner (2011), Chana Kasipar and colleagues (2009) studied on the enhancement of linkage between VET and the world of work, the role of industry in the linkage between training and employment, the analyse of benefits of schools and industry in training cooperation and solutions on the enhancement of linkage between training and employment. 1.1.2.2. Domestic studies Nguyen Minh Duong, Phan Van Kha carried out a research into the linkage between training and employment through modules – based vocational training, impacts and principles in building the cooperation of training and human resource utilization. 1.1.3. Research on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment in vocational education and training 1.1.3.1. Oversea studies Richard Noonan (1998), Vladimir Gasskov (2000), Serge Côté (2004), Geogre Predley (2009), OECD (2011) and other authors mentioned ways to manage human resources in VET meeting social needs; solutions on improvement of the linkage between training and employment. 1.1.3.2. Domestic studies Studies of Do Van Tuan (2010), Tran Trung (2013), Nguyen Phuc Chau (2010), Nguyen Thi My Loc (2010) and some doctoral thesis proposed solutions to develop vocational training to improve the quality of human resources; training management at vocational schools to meet social needs; indicate trends of VET development and propose new models of vocational education schools in the context of Viet Nam. Concerning the training management job-oriented at intermediate level, studies of authors: Dang Xuan Hai (2010), Nguyen Duc Tri (2010), Phan Van Kha (2007), Dao Thi Le (2017), Doan Nhu Hung (2018), Le Dai Hung (2018) emphasized the change management of schools in accordance with the training philosophy and labor market. In summary, many authors have studied on training and management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment, however, there have not been any research that analyzed the linkage between training and employment; job-oriented intermediate level training management models as well as specific solutions on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. Therefore, it is necessary to have a new research direction to contribute to management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. 1.2. Basic concepts 6 1.2.1. Intermediate level 1.2.2. Training management 1.2.3. Competency approach 1.2.4. Employment – based training 1.3. Role of intermediate level human resources Currently, among trained workers with degrees, the proportion of intermediate – trained workers is a higher than college – trained workers in all sectors. This fact shows the great role of intermediate-level human resources in the economic sectors of our country. Besides, by 2030, when the labor force working in the whole economic sector is expected to be about 70 million people, the total estimated population of the country is 105 million and the trained labor force is about 56 millions of people, the human resources of the vocational training system are expected to account for about 48 million people, equivalent to 85.7% of the total number of trained personnel, the human resources at the intermediate level in the next 10 years are still considered as the core manpower of VET when trained workers gradually replace unskilled workers. 1.4. Competency – based training towards employment 1.4.1. The philosophy of training 1.4.1.1. Learn to master job-tasks, to get a chance to find a job 1.4.1.2. Occupational standard is a measure of the proficiency in the job 1.4.1.3. To be proficient in the job, there are certain conditions 1.4.2. Principles of training 1.4.2.1. Training must come from occupational standards 1.4.2.2. Publicize criteria, evaluation criteria and implementation conditions to learners 1.4.2.3. Proficiently learn each ability before moving on to other competencies 1.4.2.4. Pay attention to the results, care less about time 1.4.2.5. Facilitate learners at their own pace and ensure the necessary conditions for implementation. 1.4.2.6. Competency - based assessment 1.4.3. Characteristics of training 1.4.3.1. Output oriented - practice capacity 1.4.3.2. Employment – based enrollment 1.4.3.3. Training process orgnization 1.4.3.4. Output/outcomes evaluation 1.5. Some training model 1.5.1. Process training model 1.5.1.1. Inputs 1.5.1.2. Process 1.5.1.3.Output 1.5.2. Circular training model 7 1.5.2.1. Training needs identification 1.5.2.2. Training planning and designing 1.5.2.3. Training implementation 1.5.2.4. Output/Outcomes eveluation 1.5.3. CIPO model CIPO is abbreviated from the term Context-Input-Process-Output. The CIPO model was proposed by UNESCO in 2000. This model has many similarities with the model of process training model; however, there is a fundamental difference of the CIPO is the emergence of context factors affecting the whole process of training. Therefore, the CIPO model is considered to be consistent with a constantly changing society and is always influenced by contextual factors. 1.6. Applying the CIPO model to management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment The author applies the CIPO model to management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment. This model is generalized as shown in Diagram 1.1. 1.6.1. Inputs management 1.6.1.1. Enrollment management according to employment - oriented competency: To comply with the law of supply and demand in quantity and occupations, graduates will have more opportunities to find jobs and improve training effectiveness. 1.6.1.2. Teacher development management to implement competencybased training: Teachers have a decisive role to enhance the training quality. In the competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment, teacher have to integrate both theory and practice, and use positive teaching methods, modern teaching and learning facilities and equipment as well as information technology and simulation technology in teaching. 1.6.1.3. Training program development management of competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment: It is necessary to manage the identification of objectives/learning outcomes of curriculum, content and modules – based structure design of curriculum. 1.6.1.4. Management of teaching facilities and training equipment to competency – based training: Competency – based training requests facilities and equipment is relevant with the professional environment at the job position so that graduates can easily integrate with the world of work. The equipment must be of all types, in sufficient quantity and modern (not too backward compared with the demand of industry production) to conduct learning activities as required by the training program. 1.6.1.5. Financial management: Finance assures training activities in the schools, so financial management is necessary. 8 Management of the adaptation with the context - Political and socio-economic context - Policies - Labor market; progress of science and technology, globalization, international Iitergration Input management - Enrollment management - Training program development management - Teacher management - Management of facilities and equipment Process management - Teaching process management - Teaching activities management - Learning activities management - Output management - Evaluation, granting certificate and degrees - Job concultancy and - Tracer studies Employment - Demand of labor market - Competencies of graduates meeting job requirements of labor market Diagram 1.1 Applying the CIPO model in management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 1.6.2. Teaching process management 1.6.2.1. Teaching process organization management: Including tasks: Select teaching process organization types; assign teachers; arrange teaching facilities and training equipment to implement training courses; organize the teaching based on job tasks; organize modules - based training. 1.6.2.2. Teaching activities management: Including tasks: manage the preparation for teaching and learning activities; manage the performance of teachers' lectures. 1.6.2.3. Learning activities management: Including tasks: manage learning activities in class and manage outside-class learning activities. 1.6.3. Output management 1.6.3.1. Evaluation and granting certificate and degrees 1.6.3.2. Job consultancy for graduates. 1.6.3.3. Collection of feedback management 1.6.4. Impact of context on management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 1.6.4.1. Political and socio-economic context 1.6.4.2. Policies 9 1.6.4.3. Labor market 1.6.4.4. Progress of science and technology 1.6.4.5. Globalization, international Integration 1.7. Experience of some countries in the world on the competencybased intermediate vocational training towards employment Experience of Québec's Vocational and Technical Training System, dual system of the Federal Republic of Germany; Australian vocational training experience, Japanese KOSEN training model and Philippine vocational training system show that VET in developed countries is closely linked to employers/ enterprises, training in association with industry needs and helps learners get jobs right after graduation. From this experience of countries, Vietnam's VET needs of the labor market; strengthen soft skills training to quickly help learners work in a globalized environment, promote the establishment of close relationships between the three parties: the State - the School - Employer to monitor and regulate human resource training according to the labor supply and demand law of the labor market. Conclusion of Chapter 1 Competency – based training towards employment help learners to gain professional competencies to fulfill the tasks and jobs of employment as well as have more opportunities to find jobs. On the basis of analyzing and summarizing the theories on training and management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment, the thesis has applied CIPO model and has built a theoretical framework for the management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment from input to the process of teaching and learning as well as output. CHAPTER 2. THE CURRENT SITUATION ON ON MANAGEMENT OF COMPETENCY – BASED INTERMEDIATE VOCATIONAL TRAINING TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT 2.1. An overview of intermediate level human resource training in Vietnam 2.1.1. Network of VET institutions providing intermediate level training As of December 2017, there were 1,974 VET institutions all over the country, of which 551 intermediate vocational schools accounted for 27.9% of the total, and nearly 400 colleges and other institutions implementing intermediate level training. The network of VET institutions for intermediate level is widely distributed throughout the country and belongs to many different management agencies and units. The institutions tend to have multidisciplinary and multi-job training; open and flexible training methods to meet the people's vocational training needs. 2.1.2. Enrollment of intermediate level Admissions data for 2011-2016 show that in 2011-2015, the number of students enrolled in intermediate level is over 300 - over 400,000 people. 10 Particularly, in 2016, the number of enrolments has decreased (284,600 people) but still about 30% higher than the college level. 2.1.3. Regarding to the current intermediate training MOLISA has issued Circular No. 09/2017/TT-BLĐTBXH dated March 13, 2018 on organizing the implementation of the intermediate and college level training program according to the school year or by the method of modules or credits accumulation; regulations on test, examination and graduation recognition. With this regulation, there are two methods for the schools. Most schools are still conducting training in subjects, school year. They have not yet strongly implemented the form of training according to the modules - based training approach which is flexible to create maximum conditions for learners to change their careers. 2.2. Survey to assess the current situation 2.2.1. Survey purpose The purpose of the survey is to collect information, detect and assess the status of training and management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment at VET institutions. 2.2.2. Subjects and survey criteria Subjects for surveying include: managers, teachers, students, ex- student of 13 VET institutions providing intermediate level training and representatives of employers. 2.2.3. Survey content - Survey on training: Input factors, teaching process and output factors of competency – based intermediate vocational training towards employment. - Survey on the management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment including managing inputs, managing the teaching process according to Employment-oriented competency, output management work-oriented; impact of context affecting the competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment. 2.2.4. Survey methods and processing survey results Surveys are conducted by questionnaires. The questionnaire shall be cleaned before entering the data. 2.2.5. Scale There are 02 scales used as 4-level scale and 3-level scale 2.2.6. Time The survey time is taken from October 1 st, 2017 to December 30th, 2017. 2.3. The current situation of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 2.3.1. Situation of enrollment Schools conduct enrollment many times in the year; enrolled many qualifications toward a training program. The enrollment links to assess the 11 input capacity of learners, however, schools need to promote enrollment based on surveying the job demand of the labor market and classifying learners. 2.3.2. Situation of training program development Regarding the development of the training program, schools implement many forms of training program development. However, they have not yet focused on the development of training program towards outcomes. Besides, the training program is still focus much on theory and less on practice, also content on soft skills has not been focused in the curriculum. 2.3.3. Situation of teaching capacity and the need of improving the competency of teachers The ability of teachers to communicate with students is most appreciated. The next is the capacity to use information technology in teaching. However, teachers are still weak at teaching and integrating theory with practice, using active teaching methods as well as modern technical means in teaching. 2.3.4. Situation of facilities and teaching equipment Basically, the facilities and teaching equipment meet the training level quite well. However, the level of modernity compared to the requirements is underestimated. 2.3.5. Situation of teaching activities This survey shows that teachers are very conscious in preparing lectures in the teaching process; most of the traditional and basic teaching activities are regularly performed. However, active teaching and integrated teaching activities are not implemented. 2.3.6. Situation of student achievement assessment Regarding the assessment of students' learning outcomes, teachers still use traditional assessment methods that have not evaluated learning outcomes according to the competencies required for job. 2.3.7. Situation of the relationship between the school and the employer VET institutions coordinate well with employers to organize graduation exercises for students. However, most of the relevant criteria such as the connection between the school and the establishment employing employers in consulting and job introduction for graduates, developing the training program, sending experts to teach, receive students in internship and support teachers to practice skills at the employers' premises which are not performed well. 2.3.8. Situation of the quality of intermediate level training compared to the job requirements. Regarding the quality of intermediate-level training compared to the job requirements, the criteria of occupational skills, foreign language capacity and informatics support work of students are still limited. 12 2.3.9. Situation of graduates ‘employment Regarding the employment status of graduates: 34% of graduates find a job in the right training sector for a period of 6 months. Generally, the percentage of graduates who have found a job in the right training sector is still limited. Meanwhile, the percentage of graduates finding jobs but irrelevant to training within a 6-month period accounts for 48%. Besides, the number of graduates who cannot find jobs accounted for 18% is quite high. Thus, VET institutions need to well implement the training management, set out specific solutions to take advantage of opportunities, limit challenges as well as promote strengths and overcome weaknesses to meet the demands of the labor market and employment. 2.4. Current situation of management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 2.4.1. Input management 2.4.1.1. Situation of enrollment management towards jobs In general, VET institutions have done quite well the management of public announcements of enrollment results, management of enrollment applications, management and approval of enrollment results, management of enrollment and management targets. Admission notice to attract learners. However, enrollment management according to employment needs is still performing at a low level. VET schools must have solutions to solve this question. 2.4.1.2. Situation of training programs management and development basing on competency approach towards employment VET institutions have not yet done well to design capacity modules and determine the output standards of the training program. It is the fact that most VET institutions are conducting training according to the school year, only a few institutions implement modules – based training program. 2.4.1.3. Situation of teachers management and development to carry out competency – based training VET institutions have not focused on further training for teachers as well as associated with companies to train teachers. The incentives for teachers have not well implemented. 2.4.1.4. Situation of teaching facilities and equipment management to implement competency – based training VET institutions must do well from the planning, procurement, installation, preservation and repair of teaching equipment until the inspection and assessment of the implementation of investment plans, develop the cooperation between schools and industry in teaching facilities and equipment. 2.4.1.5. Situation of financial management 13 VET institutions have focused on investing in teaching facilities and equipment, mobilized vary resources, well-implemented scholarship and incentives for learners. 2.4.2. Situation of teaching process basing on competency approach towards employment 2.4.2.1. Management of teaching process VET institutions have done quite well in assigning teachers. However, the majority of teachers still uses traditional teaching methods, not boldly renovate into modules-based training and teaching closely to the employment. 2.4.2.2. Teaching management VET institutions must focus on managing the design of pedagogical/learning materials; managing teachers' teaching plans; managing the implementation of integrated lectures. 2.4.2.3. Learning management VET institutions need to further strengthen the management of learning activities in class or outside class, and especially focus on management the practice of learners in the industry because this is one of the important contents linking training and the world of work, helping graduates to easily integrate into the job market. 2.4.3. Situation of employment-oriented output/outcomes management Survey results show that employment-oriented output/outcomes management is not well implemented. Competency – based assessment, granting of certificates and degrees for learners, job consultancy for graduates are all very important contents that link training with employment, opening up learning and working opportunities for learners. However, they are not implemented synchronously. 2.5. Impacts of the context to employment-oriented training According to the CIPO model, the external context consists of political, legal, socio-economic, scientific and technological advances, globalization and international integration, cooperation with employers…will affect the inputs, outputs and training process. Therefore, in the process of employment-oriented training at the intermediate level, VET institutions need to pay attention to the context factors to have flexible changes as well as easily adapt. 2.6. Overall assessment of the situation of management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 2.6.1. Strength The management of enrollment and training is carried out in accordance with the regulations on enrollment; competency – based training is newly; VET schools are interested in planning staff development and implementing 14 remuneration policies for teachers; planning teaching facilities and equipment every year; teachers actively innovate teaching methods, assessment method of students' learning results; management of certificate and degree issue for learners; attaching importance to assessment of learning outcomes according to traditional teaching method. 2.6.2. Weakness Enrollment associated with employment needs has not been given adequate attention. Management of the training program development has not yet met the requirements of occupational practices: training program is built based on the curriculum framework, not focusing on the management of the training program content, outputs/outcomes and not structured in modules. Management and development of teachers, further training for teachers is still fuzzy. Facilities are backward, not properly invested and in line with professional development practices. Weak linkage with industry, therefore, training is not associated with production practices. Employment consultancy and tracer surveys has not done regularly and has not really promoted proactive and professional. 2.6.3. Opportunities and challenges VET is always concerned by the Party and the State. International integration, globalization and development of science and technology create conditions to innovate content, teaching methods, and intermediate level training management. However, the challenges show that the VET quality at intermediate level is still limited; international labor migration takes place on a global scale, leading to competition for workers' skills, posing great challenges to Vietnamese labor force. 2.6.4. Causes of limitations Management capacity is limited, mainly based on experience and old ways, not promoting initiative and creativity. The recruitment and further training of teacher have not been given adequate attention. Teaching facilities and equipment are old and backward, not updated with the current career development trend. The autonomy and self-responsibility before the society of the schools have not had specific and detailed instructions; Some VET institutions also depend heavily on the state budget. Conclusion of Chapter 2 The survey results shows that it is necessary to innovate enrollment management, develop training programs, do further training for teachers, innovate and manage the teaching process, manage teaching and learning activities. In addition, it is necessary to innovate job consultancy for graduates as well as carry out the tracer survey, from that, adjusting the training program in accordance with the practice. 15 CHAPTER 3. SOLUTIONS TO MANAGEMENT OF COMPETENCY – BASED INTERMEDIATE VOCATIONAL TRAINING TOWARDS EMPLOYMENT 3.1 Orientations for proposed solutions 3.1.1. Towards standardization of output/outcomes 3.1.2. Towards training to meet the employment needs 3.1.3. Towards training quality management 3.2. Principles for proposed solutions 3.2.1. Guarantee of objectives 3.2.2. Guarantee of inheritance 3.2.3. Guarantee of systematization and synchronization 3.2.4. Guarantee of posibility 3.2.5. Guarantee of practicality 3.2.6. Guarantee of efficiency 3.3. Innovative solutions to management of competency-based intermediate vocational training towards employment 3.3.1. Solution 1: Innovating the management of demands – based enrollment 3.3.1.1. Purpose of the solution Overcoming the limitations that VET institutions are facing are both redundant and lack training. Creating more opportunities for graduate students to find jobs. 3.3.1.2. Content of the solution The solution consists of the following contents: Management determines the demand for intermediate level jobs and manages enrollment based on competency approach towards employment. 3.3.1.3. Ways of solution implementation - Management of intermediate level training need identification. In order to manage the identification training needs by accurate and timely way, the institutions should follow the 6-step process including: + Step 1: Make plan to collect information on intermediate level job demands in the region. + Step 2: Establish a specialized teamwork to survey the demand for intermediate level jobs including those who are knowledgeable about survey work. + Step 3: Design the survey toolkit to gather information on training needs, which clearly define the demand for quality (capacity), the quantity and the structure of intermediate-level professions + Step 4: Conduct surveys to collect information on job demands. + Step 5: Data analysis, information processing, synthesis of survey results. 16 + Step 6: Prepare an overall report on intermediate level employment needs. - Manage enrollment based on competency approach towards employment. In order to manage the enrollment, the VET institutions need to set up an Admissions Council and carry out the process including the following steps: + Step 1: Make enrollment plan. The VET institutions need to make specific content and requirements on enrollment time, subjects and forms, professions according to employment needs, procedures and applications for enrollment and admission. duties and powers of the Admissions Council and relevant Departments as prescribed. + Step 2: Notice of enrollment. The VET institutions need to announce publicly and promptly on the mass media about the enrollment criteria according to the majors that institutions will enroll, the entry conditions, the necessary documents and the time of enrolling. + Step 3: Accept the application. The VET institutions establish a board to receive the application and explain the questions as well as advise and answer the candidates’ questions. + Step 4: Admission. Based on the profile, the Admissions Council will organize the admission according to the specified criteria and make a list of the winners to the Principal for approval. + Step 5: Notification of admission. After being approved by the Principal, the nominated department will send notices to the successful candidates and set the date of admission. + Step 6: Organize the assessment of input capacity. This is a principle of performance-based training and will facilitate learners not to re-learn what they already know. + Step 7: Do consultancy on career selection. In order to help learners avoid being confused in choosing careers; or suitable to the labor market needs. + Step 8: Class and major distribution 3.3.1.4. Conditions for solution implementation VET institution leaders must change their perception; choose the right personnel and organize further training for the staff to implement the enrollment; arrange necessary equipment to operate and strengthen cooperation with industry. 3.3.2. Solution 2: Managing intermediate vocational training programs development based on competency towards employment 3.3.2.1. Purpose of the solution Ensure that the training program meets the job tasks and duties, meeting the employer needs; expand learning opportunities for learners, so that learners choose the necessary content to learn in accordance with their 17 needs, abilities and lifelong learning ability; contribute to improving the quality and effectiveness of vocational traning. 3.3.2.2. Content of the solution Establish the Training Program Development Sub-Committee and organize the implementation of tasks to build a module - based training program, eliminate the old academic programs not updated with professional environment. 3.3.2.3. Ways of solution implementation In order to implement this solution, the VET institutions should follow steps: - Step 1: Establish the training program sub-committee. - Step 2: Conduct job analysis to determine the output standard of the training program. - Step 3: Analyze the learning outcomes of the training program to determine the content of the training program. - Step 4: Structure of the competency – based training. - Step 5: Workshop to get expert opinions and finalize the training program draft. - Step 6: Approve and issue a new training program. Announcing the training program on mass media and conducting training under the new training program. In order to design the content structure of the competency – based training, VET institutions should follow these steps: + Step 1: Select training content + Step 2: Identify the lectures integrated in each module + Step 3: Organize module compilation + Step 4: Organize a workshop to consult experts on draft training modules + Step 5: Complete the modules 3.3.2.4. Conditions for solution implementation Changing awareness of VET institutions leaders about developing training programs associated with employment; have a contingent of teachers and knowledgeable experts on developing the competency – based training; have sufficient resources to support the curriculum development; cooperate closely with industry in developing the training program. 3.3.3. Solution 3: Managing the development of teachers to competency – based training toward employment 3.3.3.1. Purpose of the solution In order to cultivate teachers who have enough professional capacity to meet the quantity, balance with the training industry, especially can integrate the theory with the practice to implement the training courses according to competency approach. 3.3.3.2. Content of the solution 18 The solution includes the following contents: Managing and retraining existing teachers and managing new teachers recruitment. 3.3.3.3. Ways of solution implementation - Managing further training and retraining existing teachers: + Conduct survey on the capacity of existing teachers' staff + Determine further training and retraining needs + Organize further training and retraining of existing teachers. Training courses and further training must be planned in details and do evaluation. - Management of new teacher recruitment. The principles of publicity, fairness and democracy must be followed, ensuring that the right people are chosen. In order to recruit teachers to meet their requirements, VET institutions need to follow the process of steps: + Step 1: Determine the need for new teacher recruitment + Step 2: Plan a new teacher recruitment + Step 3: Establish a new Teacher Recruitment Council + Step 4: Organize the implementation of new teacher recruitment + Step 5: Approve new teachers 3.3.3.4. Conditions for solution implementation VET institutions’ leaders should pay more attention; changing teachers' perceptions; have a specific teacher training and retraining plan and arrange annual funding to carry out activities. 3.3.4. Solution 4: Managing learning and teaching activities based on competency approach towards employment 3.3.4.1. The purpose of the solution In order to ensure the requirement of teaching integrated with each job of employment to equip students with the necessary competencies to have the opportunity to find jobs after graduation, at the same time to improve the quality and effectiveness of the teaching process. 3.3.4.2. Content and solutions - Management of the integrated lecture Lecture: Compilation of integrated lectures, including contents such as target writing, integrated lecture content, selection of assessment tools and equipment-suppliesmethods convenient teaching integrated lecture. Compilation of integrated lectures should be organized in the following steps: + Step 1: Determine the target of integrated lecture + Step 2: Develop a set of learning outcomes assessment tools + Step 3: Select the content of integrated lecture + Step 4: Select equipment, supplies and teaching facilities + Step 5: Through the subject + Step 6: Complete the integrated lecture
- Xem thêm -