Tài liệu Proposed training module for enhancing teacher’s motivational techniques and students’ performance in basic english course in hanoi university of industry (haui)

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i i THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines PROPOSED TRAINING MODULE FOR ENHANCING TEACHERS‟ MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES AND STUDENTS‟ PERFORMANCE IN BASIC ENGLISH COURSE IN HANOI UNIVERSITY OF INDUSTRY (HaUI) A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of Graduate School Batangas State University Batangas City, Philippines In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy major in English By: BUI THI NGAN June 2014 ii THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines ABSTRACT Title Proposed a training module for enhancing teachers’ motivational techniques and students’ performance in Basic English Course in Hanoi University of Industry Author : Bui Thi Ngan Course :Doctor of Philosophy major in English language and Literature. Year : 2014 Adviser : Dr. Maltida H. Dimaano Summary This study aimed to determine the relationship of teachers’ motivational techniques and students’ academic performance in Basic English Course and its implication to language teaching and learning in Hanoi University of Industry in order to come up with a proposed training module for enhancing teachers’ motivational techniques and students’ performance. This study made use of descriptive method of research to determine the relationship of teachers’ motivational techniques and students’ performance in Basic English course and its implication to English Language teaching and learning in Hanoi University of Industry. A descriptive-correlational method will be the most appropriate method for this study because it will attempt to determine how related two or more variables are. Gay, L. R. (1987). iii THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines The two research instruments: Survey Questionnaire and Teacher Madetest were utilized in gathering data. The data gathered were subjected to the following statistical treatment to have a meaningful interpretation and analysis of the study: Cronbach alpha, Frequency Count, Mean, Percentage, Ranking, Standard Deviation and T-test. The findings of the study revealed that the teacher respondents were young with ages ranging from 22 to 38 years old; most of them are female and come from Ha Noi; all or 100 percent of them are married with Bachelor’s degree with 1 to 5 years of teaching experience. The three motivational techniques used consistently by Vietnamese teacher are (2) promoting learners. self-confidence, (8) making the learning tasks stimulating, and (9) promoting learner autonomy. The level of test performance of student respondents of Hanoi University of Industry in Basic English Course indicate low performance of students in all test areas. There is not much relationship that exists between the teachers’ motivational techniques and students’ performance in English. The proposed training module consists of learning activities or strategies with corresponding motivational techniques geared toward improving teaching Basic English. iv THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This dissertation wouldn’t have been possible had it not been for the support, love, patience, and generosity of many people, who have helped me in their own incredible way to deal with myself while trying to find my voice in what I do. First of all, I would like to acknowledge and express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Maltida H. Dimaano, for her greatly enthusiastic guidance, encouragement, and constructive comments in-depth along the way with my project. Without her support, this dissertation would not be able to be completed properly. My appreciation is also spared for quite a number of the professors including in particular Dr. Corazon Cabrera. Dr. Remedios P. Magnaye, Dr Amada G. Banaag, Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez, … who have provided me with profound knowledge in the field of the study, and to those lecturers, colleagues and friends who have given great help, advice and criticism on the dissertation for the improvement in significant ways. My sincere thanks go to all the members of the ITC, Thai Nguyen University for their constant assistance while my work was in process I am also indebted to our University Rector - Dr, Tran Duc Quy, who has always given me a lot of encouragement and all the students and my colleagues at Hanoi University of Industry for their help as participants in the gathering of evaluation data and developing the project. Finally, the deep love, encouragement and support from all the members of my family would be highly appreciated and my greatest thanks go to my husband and my two children for giving me life, love, values, and belief that I can accomplish anything I set out to do. All I have ever wanted was to make you proud of me! Thank you. v THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................... i TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................ v LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................... viii LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................ix CHAPTER I. THE PROBLEM Introduction ............................................................................ 1 Statement of the Problem ................................................... 10 Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study .................. 11 Significance of the Study ..................................................... 12 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Conceptual Literature .......................................................... 14 Research Literature ............................................................. 58 Synthesis ............................................................................ 70 Theoretical Framework ........................................................ 74 Conceptual Framework ........................................................ 79 Hypothesis ........................................................................... 81 Definition of Terms ............................................................... 81 III. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE Research Design ................................................................. 84 vi THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines Research Environment ........................................................ 83 Subjects of the Study ........................................................... 84 Data Gathering Instrument .................................................. 86 Data Gathering Procedure ................................................... 86 Statistical Treatment of Data ............................................... 88 IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ................................................................................... 91 Developed training module for teachers ............................ 135 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary ........................................................................... 190 Findings ............................................................................. 191 Conclusions ....................................................................... 197 Recommendations ............................................................. 197 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................... 199 APPENDICES A. Questionnaire for Teachers ................................................... 206 B. Questionnaire for Students .................................................... 215 C. Validation Letter of Questionnaire for Teachers .................... 222 D. Validation Letter of Questionnaire for Students ..................... 223 E. Letter of Request to the Head of HaUI................................... 225 F. Response Letter of the Head of HaUI .................................... 226 G. Photograph of HaUI, the study site ........................................ 227 vii THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines H. Documents for validation of questionnaires in Batangas State University ................................................................................ 228 I. Documents for Administration of Questionnaires in Hanoi University of Industry (HaUI) ................................................... 229 J. Documents for response Letter of the Head of HaUI validation of questionnaires ................................................................... 230 CURRICULUM VITAE ........................................................................... 231 viii THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Distribution of respondents of Hanoi University of Industry (HaUI) ... 86 2. Age Profile of Teacher Respondents .................................................. 92 3. Gender Profile of Teacher Respondents ............................................ 92 4. Place of Origin Profile of Teacher Respondents ................................ 93 5. Civil Status Profile of Teacher Respondents ...................................... 95 6. Educational Classification Profile of Teacher Respondents ............... 95 7. Years of Teaching Experience Profile ................................................ 96 8. List of 48 motivational techniques validated. ..................................... 98 9. List of 48 motivational techniques, their frequency ........................... 104 10.List of 48 motivational techniques, degree of importance ................ 111 11.Performance of student respondents in a teacher-made test........... 116 12.Student's t-test comparison of the mean % scores .......................... 117 13.T-test comparison of the mean scores for frequency ....................... 119 14.List of motivational techniques, their macro-strategy grouping, Cronbach alpha values, significant relationship on three areas of Basic English ......123 ix THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Research Paradigm ............................................................................. 80 1 1 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction English as the number one foreign language in Vietnam is a product of the Doi Moi or Renovation initiated by the Vietnam Communist Party in 1986. As an overall economic plan, Renovation opens its door to the whole world through its policy making English as the only foreign language to be taught in Vietnam. Vietnamese students have to pass an English language test being one of their six national examinations for them to get the certification for Secondary school education. Undergraduates and graduates of tertiary level are required to take English as a subject. Teaching English in various places at all levels expanding educational system in Vietnam is part of the mounting pressures where knowledge and ability to learn and communicate in English is a must and of importance. In Vietnam, there is low standard in teaching English and its use and without major changes and sizable inputs in curricula or course, methodology and materials, English teaching in Vietnam would soon cease to serve the demands being made on it (HongVan,httpPrimeEducationConsultancy12/29/13). Further, In Vietnam, Decision No. 1400/QDTTg approving the 10year National Plan for “Teaching and Learning Foreign Language in the National Formal Educational System in the Period of 2008-2020” was 2 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam issued on Sept. 30, 2008. BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines This decision covered the three phases. Phase one gives priority to developing and perfecting the ten year foreign language curriculum which focus on English writing, foreign textbooks, preparing necessary condition for exercising the ten-year foreign language (English) program. Phase two on the other hand gives focus on introducing the ten year foreign language program throughout the whole general educational program and phase three centers on perfecting the ten-year foreign language program throughout the whole general educational system and on developing intensive foreign language program for vocational schools, colleges and universities. Clearly, it is expected that by year 2020, most Vietnamese students who will graduate from secondary, vocational schools, colleges and universities will be able to communicate in English language confidently in their daily conversation, in their study and their work in an integrated, multi-cultural and multi lingual environment as well as making foreign language a comparative advantage of development for Vietnamese people in the course of the country‟s industrialization and modernization. In addition, in the general education level in Vietnam, the mandate of English language teaching (ELT) introduced by the Ministry of Education and Training in 2007 include ability of secondary students to use English as a means of communication at certain level of proficiency in the four macro skills and be able to read materials fitted for their levels; master basic English phonetics and grammar and acquire vocabulary in 3 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines English; as well as attain certain level of understanding of English and American culture and develop awareness on the cross-cultural differences for students to become better communicator, to inform the world regarding the history and culture of the Vietnamese people and to take pride of the Vietnamese language and culture. But based on the EF English Proficiency Index (EP EPI), Vietnam has 44.32 percent or very low English proficiency close to Thailand with 39.41 percent. This index – the first of its kind is used to compare the English proficiency of non-native English speaking countries, calculated from 2,360,730 test takers in 42 countries and two territories from 2007 to 2009. In 2012, Vietnam showed an EPI of 52.14 percent or low proficiency, an improvement from the previous year in comparison with Thailand wherein got a value of 44.36 or very low English proficiency. So that motivation in English language learning is considered or looked into as it plays an important role in both teaching and learning. It is also one of the main determinants of second or foreign language learning achievement. Motivation as a direct determinant of second language achievement is also one of the individual variables where more attention and direction should be given. It is also considered a stable learner trait and can be analyzed based on the aspect of the language learning process associated with the classroom. Motivation as a global concept and one of the most effective factors in all kinds of educational settings is also one condition where learners 4 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines are willing to invest their time and efforts in order to learn. It is a personal character where some learners may have it while others don‟t. Basic motivational drives varied from each individual at different times and should be situational. Motivation is also requested with the desire and drive within the individual for him to achieve his goal so that as an internal condition it is dependent on his needs and perception. Involve also in motivation is the willingness of the person to exert high levels of effort for a certain kind of goal to satisfy some individual needs. As a process of arousing, directing and maintaining behavior toward a goal, motivation indicates also for a person to have vigor in order for him to produce better output. A well- motivated person must have a very clear well - defined goals for him to take actions where he expects attaining such goal with success. Strengths and directions of behaviors are also some concerns of motivations. If a person has behavioral commitment he can be very effective at work. Certain behaviors such as being purposive, designated, and goal oriented involved certain forces acting within the individual for him to initiate, sustain and direct such kind of behaviors. Comprising part of teacher‟s pedagogical knowledge is a combination of many different aspects called motivation. It is impossible to maintain and be successful with the techniques at all times and teachers must have this realization. Teachers will be feeling better about his quality of teaching if he gains experience using some of the 5 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam techniques. BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines Teachers must realize that teacher‟s ability to create the quality is the basis for the quality learning experience. The problem of motivating students cannot be done in one simple process. In motivating students‟ to learn, individual style and personality of the teacher is of utmost importance for it plays a significant role in the implementation of motivation strategies. A wide variety of learning experiences for the student is involved and the structure of class period is also dependent on motivation routine. So that it is important for teachers to have familiarity on the different types of motivation and its role in teaching. The personality of the teacher is one of the aspects of motivation that is hardest to change. One of the most demanding environments where teachers‟ perceive behaviors of learner‟s self-worth is that of classroom environment. The characteristic necessary to motivate a class as part of a teacher‟s task in the classroom which is always done in a careful daily process often meet some failures and needs. There are several perceived teachers‟ characteristics considered important for students‟ motivation to learn. A teacher must possess a concern and caring attitude towards students, as well as love and knowledge and utilize them for accomplishing something. There is a meaningful effect on students‟ performance and behavior based on their perceptions regarding teacher‟s concern and care for them. Students tend to be high achiever in their academic performance upon perceiving 6 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines that their teachers are willing to reach them out and provide necessary assistance even if students are aware that teacher maintains the same standards. Although some students considered love and care to be the most important characteristics they are expecting for a teacher to manifest, they also consider humor and high expectations as other characteristics their teachers should possess. Humor can stimulate, illustrate, motivate and lose tension that‟s why it is considered a valuable character trait a teacher should have. In the classroom, motivation did not receive much scholarly attention until recently that teachers tend to rely on unsystematic bag-oftricks approaches or on some theories. Students in the classroom want to use their teachers as human beings having warm and genuine sense of humor. These character traits can reveal teacher‟s humanness, comfortableness and secured attitudes in terms of their course materials and knowledge as well as their personal relationship with students. Teachers who motivate students in class have high expectations of them. Students‟ performance is affected by a high expectation of the teacher which is communicated to them through different kinds of cues, either verbal or non- verbal. Student on the other hand even if he has negative expectation about the teacher is still affected by the high expectation of the teacher on him. Teacher should identify the standards 7 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines of quality through a solid motivational routine. Once this quality is clearly explained in terms of its attainment to the students, they will work hard to achieve and maintain it. Teachers determine the standards of quality for students to achieve. If the standards set by the teacher is clearly explained and identified in terms of specified ways of achieving them, more success in meeting high expectations will be done by the students. In motivating students, their desire to learn can be elicited by teachers through a variety of teaching techniques aside from teacher‟s personality. The interaction between the lesson structure and teacher‟s personality serve as bases of learning experience. Teachers are expected to be comfortable to the techniques they are using in the classroom. Teacher who is uneasy and not comfortable in his teaching even if he has a very long number of years of teaching experience as well as other causes will convey the same uneasiness to his students. Only teachers sincerity, concern, humor and increase expectations can decrease students‟ restlessness albeit motivate students to learn more easily. Interaction and worthwhile tasks can be used to motivate students as well as the environment in which students learn. Interaction between the teacher and the students are also important in any learning experiences. Teaching is considered interaction that facilitates learning. Teachers‟ can‟t interact with their students sometimes because they don‟t have respect for students. Teachers treat their students alike and in the 8 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines same way. The interaction that is nurtured between the students and the teacher are interrupted because of that attitude. Teacher has to accept individual differences and once there is acceptance of students differences, the door to interaction is opened. Knowledge and skills reacquired by students quality of learning is improved regardless of the kind of lifestyles students have through active participation process because they are highly motivated. One factor identified that creates distance between the teacher and the student is the interest of the teacher which differs from the interest of the students. Teachers who teach students without taking initiatives to learn more above the interests of students are losing a great motivational technique. Learning about students‟ lives is a great challenge for many teachers, but it is very important for the teacher to have an impact on their students‟ lives. In teaching, there are many techniques that are found to be motivational like cooperative learning. Teacher feeling comfortable with the implementation of the said technique is an important aspect of any teaching techniques since the desired outcome of any motivational technique is for the students to participate in class. In motivating students, it is considered essential that teachers must show concerns in taking time to find the techniques that best fit the class thereby allowing teachers to feel comfortable and professional. 9 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines Quality atmosphere for learning in the classroom can be considered a motivational factor that contributes effective teaching. It is of importance to look for some aspect of this atmosphere since classroom is a place where motivation can be facilitated. One area that can greatly affect the classroom is routine. Students know what to expect through the use of routine and it can establish a good comfortable atmosphere of learning. It is a must to prevent the use of routine to become boring and mundane on the part of the students‟ inclusion of motivational technique. Student‟s discipline is considered inevitable in any classroom environment aside from classroom routine and the development of student‟s success. Teachers must maintain effective discipline to motivate students who are task to act responsibly and to show good human relations because of its effects in learning. As regard to English classes observed, students lack interest in learning this foreign language because Vietnam English is not considered the core subject in the curriculum. Most Vietnamese students focus their studies on natural science subject. The prescribed English textbooks containing complex topics and lessons attributed also to students‟ difficulty and discouragement in learning English. Classes in Vietnam also comprised of forty five to fifty students per class. These language classes have also an effect on the English language activities of students that demand group or pair work. Students‟ learning is also affected by the many holidays in Vietnam and for the entire school year. These 10 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines interruptions of classes contributed to the poor learning attitude of students aside from poor equipment, outdated teaching materials, inadequately trained teachers and written grammar focused government examinations. Though teachers use motivational techniques in teaching, they still use the traditional methods of teaching, such as giving assignments, compiling of vocabulary tests, teaching grammar with the use of visual aids, engage students in various language activities and control their class by teaching and explaining lessons all the time. It is more of teacher centered rather than students. Teachers did not give their students opportunities to engage in group or pair works to share information inside the classroom. As an administrator of Hanoi University of Industry, I am interested in investigating the relationship of teachers‟ motivational techniques and students‟ English performance. Finding out the patterns of the varied techniques utilized by teachers as well as knowing the academic performance of students in English Basic Course will serve as basis for developing a training program that will address the concerns relative to the study. Statement of the Problem This study determined the relationship of teachers‟ motivational techniques and students‟ academic performance in Basic English Course and its implication to English Language teaching and learning in Hanoi 11 THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines University of Industry in order to come up with a proposed training module for enhancing teachers‟ motivational techniques and students‟ performance in Basic English Course Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the teachers in terms of: 1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Place of origin 1.4 Civil status 1.5 Educational qualification 1.6 Years of teaching experience? 2. What are the motivational techniques employed in teaching the Basic English course? 3. What are the levels of students‟ performance in Basic English test? 4. Are there significant relationships between teachers‟ motivational techniques and students‟ performance in English? 5. What training module may be proposed to enhance student‟s performance? Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study The study covered the motivational techniques used by teachers in teaching Basic English course. The demographic profile of the teachers was used consisting of information like age, gender, place of origin and
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