Tài liệu [pmp] wiley [2005] the fast forward mba in project management, 2ed

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The Fast Forward MBA in Project Management SECOND EDITION ERIC VERZUH John Wiley & Sons, Inc. TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! Copyright © 2005 by Eric Verzuh. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. The publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services, and you should consult a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.Wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Verzuh, Eric. The fast foward MBA in project management / Eric Verzuh.—2nd ed. p. cm.—(The fast forward MBA series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-471-69284-0 (pbk.) 1. Project management. I. Title: MBA in project management. II. Title. III. Series. HD69.P75V475 2005 658.4'04—dc22 2004027080 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! For Marlene TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! ACKNOWLEDGMENTS T There are no unimportant jobs on any project, and there are no unimportant people on the project team. From concept through completion, many people have been involved in the development of this book. To each of the people who have shaped this book through their advice, encouragement, and hands-on participation, I offer my thanks. To Kymberly Actis, for her persistence and commitment as she turned my handwritten drawings into the many figures in this book. To the professionals who contributed their effort and experience to create the Stellar Performer profiles: Rod Pipinich, Fred Black, J. C. Brummond, Virginia Klamon, John Gaffney, Brian LaMure, Marlene Kissler, and Peggy Jacobson. To my colleagues and clients for their interest and insights: Steve Weidner, Greg Hutchins, Pen Stout, Karl Hoover, Steve Morris, Peter Wynne, Bill McCampbell, Patrick Bryan, John Spilker, and Kristian Erickson. To the team at John Wiley & Sons, Inc. who took a risk and saw it through: Henning Gutmann, Renana Meyers, and Sam Case. To those who put the wheels in motion: Brian Branagan, Linda Villarosa, and Barbara Lowenstein. I particularly want to thank two top-notch project managers who have taught me much about project management, business, and life, and with whom I’ve had the privilege to work: Sam Huffman and the late Fred Magness. Finally, I thank my wife, Marlene, who has played many roles on this project: coach, editor, critic, writer, and partner. Her insight and perspective have been of constant value both as I wrote this book and over the years as I built my business.I O N iv TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR THE SECOND EDITION T The privilege of updating this book for a second edition was accompanied by some hard work to make sure the result was actually an improvement. My thanks to those who contributed their expertise and energy. To the professionals who shared their hard-won knowledge: Jim Smith, Donna McEwen, T. J. Filley, Rod Pipinich, and Bill Schafer. Once again, to my wife, Marlene, whose talents and contributions permeate this work. ABOUT THE AUTHOR TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! v ABOUT THE AUTHOR ERIC VERZUH Eric Verzuh is president of The Versatile Company, a project management training and consulting firm based in Seattle, Washington. His company trains thousands of professionals every year in the fundamentals of successful project management including how to get the most out of Microsoft Project. Versatile’s consulting practice focuses on helping firms establish consistent, practical methods for managing their projects and implementing Microsoft’s enterprise project management solution. The company’s client list includes large corporations such as Adobe Systems, Lockheed Martin, and Nordstrom, as well as government agencies and small companies. Verzuh has been certified as a project management professional (PMP) by the Project Management Institute and is a frequent speaker at project management conferences. His other publications include articles, conference papers and The Portable MBA in Project Management (2003), also published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Verzuh can be reached via his company’s site on the Internet, www.versatilecompany.com. vi TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! CONTENTS xiii PREFACE PART 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1—PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING WORLD Introduction Project Management Is the New Critical Career Skill The Increasing Pace of Change Everyone Benefits from Understanding Project Management Downloadable Forms for Project Management Project Management: Art Informed by Science Project Management Magnifies Other Strengths End Point CHAPTER 2—THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT Introduction Projects Require Project Management The Evolution of a Discipline The Definition of Success TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! 2 2 3 5 6 6 7 9 10 12 12 12 15 18 vii CONTENTS The Cost-Schedule-Quality Equilibrium The Ultimate Challenge: No Damage Project Management Functions Project Life Cycle Organizing for Projects Project Managers Are Leaders End Point 19 20 20 22 25 29 30 PART 2 DEFINING THE PROJECT CHAPTER 3—PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS Introduction Stakeholders Are the Heart of a Successful Project Stakeholder Roles: Project Manager Stakeholder Roles: Project Team Stakeholder Roles: Management Stakeholder Roles: Sponsor Stakeholder Roles: The Customer Lead the Stakeholders End Point CHAPTER 4—MAKING THE RULES Introduction Project Rules Are the Foundation Publish a Project Charter Write a Statement of Work Statement of Work: Minimum Content Responsibility Matrix Creating a Communication Plan The Project Proposal Launches the Project End Point 36 36 37 37 38 39 41 42 44 44 46 46 46 48 51 52 58 61 67 71 PART 3 THE PLANNING PROCESS CHAPTER 5—RISK MANAGEMENT Introduction The Risk Management Advantage viii TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! 85 85 86 CONTENTS All Project Management Is Risk Management The Risk Management Framework Step One: Identify the Risks Step Two: Developing a Response Strategy Step Three: Establish Contingency and Reserve Step Four: Continuous Risk Management End Point CHAPTER 6—WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Introduction Defining the Work Breakdown Structure Building a Work Breakdown Structure Criteria for a Successful Work Breakdown Structure Work Package Size Planning for Quality Breaking Down Large Programs Watch for Different Terminology Contractors or Vendors Can Provide a WBS End Point CHAPTER 7—REALISTIC SCHEDULING Introduction Planning Overview Planning Step Two: Identify Task Relationships Planning Step Three: Estimate Work Packages Planning Step Four: Calculate an Initial Schedule Planning Step Five: Assign and Level Resources End Point CHAPTER 8—THE DYNAMICS OF ACCURATE ESTIMATING Introduction Estimating Fundamentals Estimating Techniques Building the Detailed Budget Estimate Generating the Cash Flow Schedule End Point 86 88 90 94 105 106 107 113 113 113 117 120 122 126 128 128 130 130 131 131 132 133 136 143 155 162 166 166 167 172 182 189 190 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! ix CONTENTS CHAPTER 9—BALANCING THE PROJECT Introduction Three Levels of Balancing a Project Balancing at the Project Level Balancing at the Business Case Level Balancing at the Enterprise Level End Point 203 203 204 205 217 222 223 PART 4 CONTROLLING THE PROJECT CHAPTER 10—BUILDING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE PROJECT TEAM Introduction A Framework for Building High-Performance Teams Leadership Responsibilities Building a Positive Team Environment Ground Rules Team Identity Team Listening Skills Meeting Management Summary of Building a Positive Team Environment Collaborative Problem Solving Problem Analysis Decision Modes Conflict Management Continuous Learning Summary of Collaborative Problem Solving Job Satisfaction End Point CHAPTER 11—COMMUNICATION Introduction Project Communication Communicating within the Project Team Communicating with Management and Customers Control Documents The Change Management Process x 232 232 237 240 244 244 245 250 254 256 256 257 260 263 266 269 270 270 272 272 272 273 281 282 282 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! CONTENTS Configuration Management Change Management Guidelines Are Essential for Managing Expectations Closeout Reporting End Point CHAPTER 12—MEASURING PROGRESS Introduction Measuring Schedule Performance Measuring Cost Performance Earned Value Reporting Cost and Schedule Baselines End Point 286 288 288 289 305 305 305 309 311 320 322 PART 5 PUTTING THE DISCIPLINE TO WORK CHAPTER 13—ENTERPRISE PROJECT MANAGEMENT Introduction Defining Enterprise Project Management Three Tiers of Management within EPM The Four Components of EPM Establish Consistent EPM Processes Technology Enables EPM Processes The People Who Deliver Projects Support Project Management: The Project Office Organize for Project Management Managing the Change to Enterprise Project Management End Point CHAPTER 14—APPLICATION IS THE ART: SOLVING COMMON PROJECT PROBLEMS Introduction Responsibility Beyond Your Authority Disaster Recovery Reducing the Time to Market When the Customer Delays the Project 324 324 326 328 332 332 339 346 348 355 361 367 371 371 371 372 373 374 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! xi CONTENTS The Impossible Dream Fighting Fires Managing Volunteers Achieving the Five Project Success Factors End Point xii 375 376 376 377 377 APPENDIX: THE DETAILED PLANNING MODEL 379 NOTES 389 INDEX 393 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! P R E FA C E W “What makes the second edition different?” That’s my first question when I see a second edition. Project management hasn’t changed too much since the first edition, so this edition is primarily justified with additional content. • Chapter 10, “Building a High-Performance Project Team,” is brand new. It assembles proven team management techniques for transforming a group of people who happen to be assigned to the same project into a cohesive unit committed to a common goal. • Chapter 13, “Enterprise Project Management,” has been significantly revised to incorporate lessons learned in the past five years as firms attempt to institutionalize project management. • Several chapters have added content. Chapter 5, “Risk Management,” includes additional proven risk management techniques. Chapter 4 describes the content for a project proposal. Chapter 12 has more advice on using earned value management techniques. • Stellar performers—profiles of companies that put project management principles to work—have been added in Chapters 1 and 11. A new feature of this edition is the Fast Foundation for Project Management, a series of templates and checklists designed to make it just a little easier to put the concepts to work on your project. You’ll find these tools located at the end of the chapters in which the concepts were presented. The templates are available for download at www. versatilecompany.com/forms, and called out in text with an icon. It is pretty exciting to have a book that is popular enough to justify a second edition. More than anything, I am proud of how many people TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! xiii P R E FA C E have said this book is practical—it makes project management make sense. The book is intended to present a realistic look at the challenges of the project environment and the skills you need to successfully bring a project to fulfillment. On the way, you will learn the tools necessary to achieve each of the five essential success factors. Part 1 lays the groundwork. In addition to simple terminology, it contains global concepts that tie project management to other disciplines, such as quality and product development. Part 1 also includes examples of the organizational changes companies are making to take advantage of project-oriented work. Parts 2, 3, and 4 present the tools and techniques—the real science—of project management. Because this is a how-to book, the techniques in these chapters are described in detail. These techniques start with simple examples, then progress to tips for managing larger projects. In these sections, you will learn the major responsibilities of a project manager, the definition of a project, and the best ways to plan and control projects. Part 2 deals specifically with setting the goals and constraints of the project. Part 3, “The Planning Process,” offers the most effective techniques for managing budgets, monitoring a project’s scope, and keeping on schedule. Many of these techniques are features of popular project management software. After reading this section, you will know how to make better use of this software. Part 4 offers methods for controlling a project and keeping it on track. This section focuses on the many tools used to keep a project on track and bring it to successful completion, regardless of whether everything goes as planned. Together, these three sections provide the tool set every project manager needs. Part 5 describes how the tools presented in this book can be used by organizations and by project managers. We look at the ways in which project management techniques are being adopted by a growing number of organizations. Finally, we look at the kind of problem situations that project managers are likely to face—and how to deal with them using the tools presented in this book. Eric Verzuh Seattle January 2005 xiv TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! PA R T Introduction 1 What are projects, and why are so many businesses reorganizing to include them? Why has project management become such a popular career track? In Part 1 of this book, you will find answers to these questions and more. Because projects differ from the ongoing operations of a firm, managing them presents a new set of challenges. Over the past 50 years, a number of tools and techniques have evolved to deal with these challenges. Chapters 1 and 2 include an overview of these techniques, along with the five factors that make a project successful. We live in a world where change—and the rate of change—is constantly increasing. In order to survive and prosper, organizations need to continually modify their products and services. Projects are the means by which these innovations are effected. Greater change = more innovations = more projects. TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! CHAPTER 1 Project Management in a Changing World INTRODUCTION Project managers are changing the world. • A World Health Organization (WHO) “vaccination army” runs a blitz to attack polio, vaccinating 4.2 million children in a 50,000-squaremile area in three days in southern India.1 • A commercial aircraft manufacturer is designing a new model aircraft to be built from lightweight composites, resulting in fuel savings of 20 percent over similar-sized airplanes. • NASA teams send sophisticated robots and probes to other planets in our solar systems, furthering our understanding of Earth and its origins. • Nanotechnology researchers manipulate matter at the molecular level, developing materials that hold incredible potential to revolutionize manufactured products, from building bridges to transmitting electricity to the clothes we wear. Project managers are all around us, too: building a custom home, opening a medical clinic, installing an updated accounting system, or writing a book. Everywhere that people are leading change they are managing projects. No wonder the project management discipline has leapt from a neglected corner to center stage. Government and industry are embracing the project management discipline as leaders recognize that they are increasingly managing project-driven organizations. But change and projects have been around for thousands of years; what is different now? Just what is project management? 2 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! PROJECT MANAGEMENT Before we understand the new interest in project management and project-driven organizations, we must first understand the concept of projects. Projects are all the work we do one time. Whether it’s designing an aircraft, building a bakery display case, or creating a business logo, every project produces an outcome and every project has a beginning and an end. Fundamental to understanding the importance of projects is realizing that each one produces something unique. So designing and tooling up to build a new sports car is a project (actually a lot of projects), but manufacturing thousands of them is not. Manufacturing and other repetitive processes are defined as ongoing operations. PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS THE NEW CRITICAL CAREER SKILL Given this description, we can find projects—and project managers— everywhere. Every graphic artist, systems analyst, carpenter, engineer, attorney, and scientist who is creating a unique product is faced with the challenges of leading a project. As more repetitive jobs are replaced by automation, it is increasingly a necessity to be able to lead change. Economically, the arguments for understanding project management are even stronger. People and companies that innovate, that create and lead change, enjoy higher incomes and profit margins than those that compete based on economies of scale and efficiency. Project management is not new. The pyramids and aqueducts of antiquity certainly required the coordination and planning skills of a project manager. While supervising the building of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Michelangelo experienced all the torments of a modernday project manager: incomplete specifications, insufficient labor, unsure funding, and a powerful customer. But only in the twentieth century did the title and the discipline emerge. Much of modern project management was defined in the 1950s, on the major cold war defense programs. As a result, the discipline grew up within the aerospace and defense industries, but in the 1990s project management broke out of its traditional boundaries. It is now a recognized and valued skill set in organizations across the spectrum, from health care to manufacturing, software to natural resources. The evidence is everywhere: • As recently as 1990, your search for a college course on project management would have turned up one or two classes within the industrial engineering school. Not so anymore. Project management is a required course in MBA programs, and universities across the country offer advanced degrees in project management. TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! 3 INTRODUCTION • By 2004 nearly every Fortune 500 company had attempted to implement a project management office (PMO) in one or more parts of their organization. A PMO is responsible for instilling consistent project management practices. Only a decade earlier, most executives in these companies hadn’t even heard of such an entity. • The use of formal project management cost and schedule reporting techniques—required for decades on Department of Defense programs—is now required of all federal agencies. • Since 1990, the Project Management Institute, the professional association for project managers, has seen its membership rise from 7,700 to over 100,000 in 2004.2 More important, the factors that have driven project management to center stage are not receding. • Competition from a global economy is so pervasive it has become cliché. That competition is forcing firms to collaborate across organizational and geographic boundaries, introducing the term virtual teams to our business vocabulary. • Evolving technology has put every one of us on ever-faster upgrade cycles. At a personal level, our phones, computers, and cars become out of date faster. For businesses and governments, the upgrade cycles include refineries, chemical plants, medical clinics, and weapons systems. • The availability of a highly skilled temporary labor force is a perfect match for the projectized economy, providing the ability to rapidly increase or decrease staffing as projects begin and end. The response to these pressures is reflected in the views of management experts. • Oren Hararai, professor of management at the University of San Francisco and the author of two books on the changing business environment, sees the project-oriented employment trend growing. “The future of business is fluid networks of unaffiliated organizations, multiple careers simultaneously, work revolving around projects, as fluid as the external environment. Routine work can be automated or outsourced—the real value of an organization will be based on how quickly people can come together and focus on problems and solutions and then disband.3 • Tom Stewart, writing in Fortune magazine, says companies “have redrawn their boundaries, making them both tight (as they focus on core competencies) and porous (as they outsource noncore work).4 • Pen Stout, author, instructor, and project management consultant, sees a symbiotic relationship between the independent worker and the major corporations. “There will be strong ‘big big’ companies, 4 TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! PROJECT MANAGEMENT strong ‘small small’ companies, not much in the middle. Project management works because it’s a way for the bigs to use the strengths of the smalls.”5 • Best-selling authors Ram Charan and Larry Bossidy make the connection between strategy and success by emphasizing the “discipline of getting things done.” “If your business has to survive difficult times, if it has to make an important shift in response to change—and these days just about every business does—it’s far, far more likely to succeed if it’s executing well.”6 Projects are all around us. Project management skills transcend corporate and industry boundaries, enabling us to do the same. The people who lead projects—who turn visions of what might be into tangible products and services—stand out. Further, the biggest driver of the growth in project management is getting even bigger. As we will see in the next section, change is everywhere, and change means projects. THE INCREASING PACE OF CHANGE The most irrepressible trend favoring project management is the increasing pace of change. We embrace change as it gives us increased quality of life, as with advances in medical technology or fuel economy. We may resist or resent change, particularly when it is forced upon us in the form of new regulations or new competition. But change cannot be denied and its pace is faster than ever. New products and services are exploding onto the scene overnight, while current products are becoming obsolete faster than ever. The recent Internet boom and bust showed in dramatic fashion how rapidly the world economy can assimilate and adapt. Technology is not the only evidence of change. Pressure to increase the quality, availability, and affordability of health care keeps medical professionals and administrators restructuring their organizations. Corporate mergers in banking, insurance, telecommunications, computers, and media bring the challenges of integrating cultures and systems. As businesses scramble to keep up with fast-moving competitors, riding the tsunami of change becomes critical to success. This emphasis on change increases the importance of project management, because a rapid rate of change brings a greater need for projects. In response to a rapidly changing marketplace, a company might reengineer itself, develop new products, or form alliances with other firms. Each of these innovations is brought about by one or more projects. Greater change = more innovations = more projects. At a personal level, the pace of change carries the same significance. What career can we expect in 10 or 20 years, when the careers that existed 10 or 20 years ago have so often disappeared? What skills TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! 5
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