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American Society of Plumbing Engineers Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook A Plumbing Engineer’s Guide to System Design and Specifications Volume 1 Fundamentals of Plumbing Engineering American Society of Plumbing Engineers 8614 W. Catalpa Avenue, Suite 1007 Chicago, IL 60656-1116 The ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information for the design and specification of plumbing systems. The publisher makes no guarantees or warranties, expressed or implied, regarding the data and information contained in this publication. All data and information are provided with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, consulting, engineering, or other professional services. If legal, consulting, or engineering advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be engaged. American Society of Plumbing Engineers 8614 W. Catalpa Avenue, Suite 1007 Chicago, IL 60656-1116 (773) 693-ASPE • Fax: (773) 695-9007 E-mail: aspehq@aol.com • Internet: www.aspe.org Copyright © 2004 by American Society of Plumbing Engineers All rights reserved, including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including the making of copies by any photographic process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction, or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the publisher. ISBN 1–891255–21–5 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook Volume 1 Fundamentals of Plumbing Engineering Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook Chairperson: Alan Otts, P.E., CIPE ASPE Vice-Presidents, Technical: J. Joe Scott, CPD (2003-2004) Technical and Editorial Review: Jill Dirksen & Jim Camillo Chairperson: Richard Ellis CONTRIBUTORS Chapter 1 Formulas, Symbols and Terminology C. David Hudson, CPD Chapter 8 Corrosion Jill Dirksen Chapter 2 Standards for Plumbing Materials and Equipment Julius Ballanco, P.E. Chapter 9 Seismic Protection of Plumbing Equipment Rich Lloyd Chapter 3 Specifications Joe Manning, CPD Chapter 10 Acoustics in Plumbing Systems Ted Carnes Bill Johnson Tom Rose Chapter 4 Plumbing Cost Estimation Steven Skattebo, P.E. Chapter 5 Job Preparation, Drawings and Field Checklists Steven Skattebo, P.E. Chapter 6 Plumbing for People (or Persons) with Disabilities Patrick McClellan, CPD Chapter 7 Energy and Resource Conservation in Plumbing Systems Aaron Kelly, CPD Chapter 11 Basics of Value Engineering Stanley Wolfson Chapter 12 Green Design for Plumbing Systems J. Joe Scott, CPD About ASPE The American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) is the international organization for professionals skilled in the design and specification of plumbing systems. ASPE is dedicated to the advancement of the science of plumbing engineering, to the professional growth and advancement of its members, and to the health, welfare, and safety of the public. The Society disseminates technical data and information, sponsors activities that facilitate interaction with fellow professionals, and, through research and education programs, expands the base of knowledge of the plumbing engineering industry. ASPE members are leaders in innovative plumbing design, effective materials and energy use, and the application of advanced techniques from around the world. WORLDWIDE MEMBERSHIP — ASPE was founded in 1964 and currently has 7,500 members. Spanning the globe, members are located in the United States, Canada, Asia, Mexico, South America, the South Pacific, Australia, and Europe. They represent an extensive network of experienced engineers, designers, contractors, educators, code officials, and manufacturers interested in furthering their careers, their profession, and the industry. ASPE is at the forefront of technology. In addition, ASPE represents members and promotes the profession among all segments of the construction industry. ASPE MEMBERSHIP COMMUNICATION — All members belong to ASPE worldwide and have the opportunity to belong and participate in one of the 62 state, provincial or local chapters throughout the U.S. and Canada. ASPE chapters provide the major communication links and the first line of services and programs for the individual member. Communications with the membership is enhanced through the Society’s bimonthly magazine, Plumbing Systems and Design, and the bimonthly newsletter ASPE Report which is incorporated as part of the magazine. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS — The Society maintains a comprehensive publishing program, spearheaded by the profession’s basic reference text, the ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook. The Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook, encompassing 47 chapters in four volumes, provides comprehensive details of the accepted practices and design criteria used in the field of plumbing engineering. New additions that will shortly join ASPE’s published library of professional technical manuals and handbooks include: Pharmaceutical Facilities Design Manual, Electronic Facilities Design Manual, Health Care Facilities and Hospitals Design Manual, and Water Reuse Design Manual. CONVENTION AND TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM — The Society hosts biennial Conventions in even-numbered years and Technical Symposia in odd-numbered years to allow professional plumbing engineers and designers to improve their skills, learn original concepts, and make important networking contacts to help them stay abreast of current trends and technologies. In conjunction with each Convention there is an Engineered Plumbing Exposition, the greatest, largest gathering of plumbing engineering and design products, equipment, and services. Everything from pipes to pumps to fixtures, from compressors to computers to consulting services is on display, giving engineers and specifiers the opportunity to view the newest and most innovative materials and equipment available to them. CERTIFIED IN PLUMBING DESIGN — ASPE sponsors a national certification program for engineers and designers of plumbing systems, which carries the designation “Certified in Plumbing Design” or CPD. The certification program provides the profession, the plumbing industry, and the general public with a single, comprehensive qualification of professional competence for engineers and designers of plumbing systems. The CPD, designed exclusively by and for plumbing engineers, tests hundreds of engineers and designers at centers throughout the United States biennially. Created to provide a single, uniform national credential in the field of engineered plumbing systems, the CPD program is not in any way connected to state-regulated Professional Engineer (P.E.) registration. ASPE RESEARCH FOUNDATION — The ASPE Research Foundation, established in 1976, is the only independent, impartial organization involved in plumbing engineering and design research. The science of plumbing engineering affects everything… from the quality of our drinking water to the conservation of our water resources to the building codes for plumbing systems. Our lives are impacted daily by the advances made in plumbing engineering technology through the Foundation’s research and development. American Society of Plumbing Engineers Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook (4 Volumes — 47 Chapters) Volume 2 Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Volume 3 Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Volume 4 Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Plumbing Systems (Estimated date: Fall 2005) Sanitary Drainage Systems Gray-Water Systems Vents and Venting Systems Storm-Drainage Systems Cold-Water Systems Domestic Water-Heating System Fuel-Gas Piping Systems Private Sewage-Disposal Systems Private Water Systems Vacuum Systems Pure Water, Systems Lab-Waste Systems Special Plumbing Systems (Estimated date: Fall 2006) Fire Protection Systems Plumbing Design for Health-Care Facilities Industrial Waste-Water Treatment Irrigation Systems Reflecting Pools and Fountains Public Swimming Pools Gasoline and Diesel-Oil Systems Steam and Condensate Systems Compressed Air Systems Site Utility Systems Plumbing Components and Equipment (Estimated revision date: Fall 2007) Plumbing Fixtures Piping Systems Valves Pumps Piping Insulation Hangers and Supports Vibration Isolation Grease Interceptors Cross Connection Control Water Treatment Thermal Expansion Potable Water Coolers and Central Water Systems Bioremediation Pretreatment Systems (The chapters and subjects listed for these volume are subject to modification, adjustment and change. The contents shown for each volume are proposed and may not represent the final contents of the volume. A final listing of included chapters for each volume will appear in the actual publication.) Table of Contents Chapter 1, Formulas, Symbols and Terminology minology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Plumbing Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Recommended Practice for Conversion to the International System of Units. . . . . . . . 32 Terminology and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Types of Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Si Unit Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Chapter 2, Standards for Plumbing Materials and Equipment . . . . . . . 41 Chapter 3, Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Contract Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniformat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masterformat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masterformat 2004—an Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methods of Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating the Specification Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use of Computers in Producing Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 1 General Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 2 Site Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 3 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 4 Masonry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 61 61 62 63 64 64 64 66 68 69 70 71 71 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 ii ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 Division 5 Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 6 Wood and Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 7 Thermal and Moisture Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 8 Doors and Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 9 Finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 10 Specialties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 11 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 12 Furnishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 13 Special Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 14 Conveying Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 15 Mechanical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Division 16 Electrical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-A5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-B1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSI Masterformat Divisions (2004 Edition) Procurement and Contracting Documents Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements Subgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facility Construction Subgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facility Services Subgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site and Infrastructure Subgroup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Equipment Subgroup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-B4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-B5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-C Section Shell Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 1—General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 System Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Submittals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Delivery, Storage, and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Project Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10 Sequencing and Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12 Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.13 Extra Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 2—Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Materials [Product Name]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 74 74 74 74 74 74 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 79 79 81 84 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 Table of Contents iii 2.3 Materials, General [Products, General]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Equipment [Name of Manufactured Unit]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 Source of Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PART 3—Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Installation, General [Application, General] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Installation {Of [Name]} {Application of [Name]} . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Connections (Not A CSI Article—but Useful for Division 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Field Quality Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Adjusting [Cleaning] [Adjusting and Cleaning] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Commissioning (Not A CSI Article — But Useful for Division 15 [Demonstration]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 Chapter 4, Plumbing Cost Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Labor Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Take-off Estimating Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Productivity Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Estimating Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Cost Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 94 95 97 98 Chapter 5, Job Preparation, Drawings, and Field Reports . . . . . . . . . . 99 Job-preparation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Plumbing Drawing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Plumbing-Drawings Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Risers and Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Schedules and Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Field Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Building Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Water and Gas Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Above Grade Rough-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Final . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Chapter 6, Plumbing for People (Or Persons) with Disabilities . . . . . 105 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backg Background ............................................................ Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Floor Or Ground Space for Wheelchairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 105 106 107 109 iv ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 Anthropometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Plumbing Elements and Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Chapter 7, Energy and Resource Conservation in Plumbing Systems125 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic Hot Water System Energy Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Domestic Hot Water Heating Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water-management Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 125 125 129 134 134 135 136 Chapter 8, Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamental Corrosion Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrochemical Equivalents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Forms of Corrosion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Galvanic Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electromotive Force Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acidity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oxygen Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Film Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homogeneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corrosion Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Materials Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design to Reduce Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Passivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cathodic Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inhibitors (Water Treatment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 139 139 139 141 141 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 147 147 151 151 154 Chapter 9, Seismic Protection of Plumbing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Causes and Effects of Earthquakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plate Tectonics and Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damage From Earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earthquake Measurement and Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 156 156 158 158 Table of Contents Ground Shaking and Dynamic Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Learning From Past Earthquakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damage to Plumbing Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 1964 Alaska Earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Damage Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 1971 San Fernando Earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Protection Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piping Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Anchorage Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer Analysis of Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads in Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Potential Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 158 160 161 161 161 161 162 163 163 163 166 171 171 183 184 184 186 186 186 186 188 190 191 191 Chapter 10, Acoustics in Plumbing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptable Acoustical Levels in Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acoustical Performance of Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insulation Against Airborne Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acoustical Ratings of Plumbing Fixtures and Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Acoustical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupied Domestic Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow Velocity and Water Hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noise and Vibration Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 193 193 193 194 195 195 196 196 198 198 199 200 206 Chapter 11, Basics of Value Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 The Intent of Value Engineering eering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Value? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elements of Value Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase One: Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 213 214 214 vi ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 Phase Two: Analysis/function Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules of Function Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Function Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose of the Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creative Thinking Personified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Divergent Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Concert With . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refining, Combining, Evaluating By Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Analysis and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incorporating the Functional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Pencil: Another Look . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development/ Investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consultation and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Creativity, Evaluation, Cost Anaylsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Gut Feel Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Analysis, More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Are We there Yet?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommendation/Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Present Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Present Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making the Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is It Value Engineering? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost Fitting ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level the Playing Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Déja Vu of the “Science” of Value Engineering eering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solution to Nine Dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solution to Equilateral Triangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 225 225 227 231 231 231 232 235 235 235 235 243 243 243 243 254 254 254 254 254 257 257 258 258 258 258 258 258 261 261 Chapter 12, Green Design for Plumbing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wastewater Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water-use Reduction Credit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plumbing Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Leed Points—Energy Savers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innovative Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grey Water Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 263 264 264 264 264 265 266 266 267 Table of Contents vii Figures Figure 1-1 Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3 Figure 1-4 Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7 Figure 1-8 Figure 1-9 Figure 1-10 Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12 Figure 1-13 Figure 1-14 Figure 1-15 Figure 6-1 Figure 6-2 Figure 6-3 Figure 6-4 Figure 6-5 Figure 6-6 Figure 6-7 Figure 6-8 Figure 6-9 Figure 6-10 Figure 6-11 Figure 6-12 Figure 6-13 Figure 6-14 Figure 6-15 Figure 6-16 Figure 6-17 Figure 6-18 Figure 6-19 Square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rhombus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Rhomboid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Trapezoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Trapezium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Right-Angle Triangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Isosceles Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Ellipse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cube or Rectangular Solid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Cone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Dimensions of Adult-Sized Wheelchairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Clear Floor Space for Wheelchairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Wheelchair Approaches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Clear Floor Space in Alcoves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Unobstructed Forward Reach Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Forward Reach Over an Obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Unobstructed Side Reach Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Obstructed Side Reach Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Cantilevered Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Horizontal Angle of Water Stream — Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Leg Clearances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Ambulatory Accessible Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Stalls — Door Swing Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Clear Floor Space at Water Closets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Water Closet — Side View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Water Closet — Front View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Wheelchair Accessible Toilet Stalls — Door Swing In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Clear Floor Space atLavatories and Sinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Clear Floor Space at Bathtubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 viii ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 Figure 6-20 Bathtub Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Figure 6-21 Transfer Type Shower Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 6-22 Roll-in Type Shower Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Figure 6-23 Grab Bars at Shower Stalls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Figure 6-24 Size and Spacing of Grab Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Figure 6-25 Shower Seat Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Figure 7-1 Energy Savings fromReduced Faucet Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Figure 7-2 Refrigeration Waste-Heat Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Figure 7-3 Condenser Water Heat Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Figure 7-4 Condenser Water Heat Recovery with Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Figure 7-5 Waste Water Heat Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Figure 8-1 Basic Corrosion Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Figure 8-2 Basic Cell Applied to an Underground Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Figure 8-3 Uniform Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-4 Pitting Corrosion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-5 Galvanic Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-6 Concentration Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-7 Impingement Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-8 Stress Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-9 (A) Plug-Type Dezincification(B) Layer-Type Dezincification . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 8-10 Stray Current Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 8-11 Corrosion by Differential Environmental Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Figure 8-12 Cathodic Protection by the Sacrificial Anode Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Figure 8-13 Typical Sacrificial Anode Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Figure 8-14 Cathodic Protection by the Impressed Current Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Figure 9-1 Significant Earthquakes in the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Figure 9-2 (A) Seismic Zone Map of the United States; (B) Map of Seismic Zones and Effective, Peak-Velocity-Related Acceleration (Av) for Contiguous 48 States.. . . . 157 Figure 9-3 World Map Showing Relation Between the Major Tectonic Plates and Recent Earthquakes and Volcanoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Figure 9-4 Elastic Rebound Theory of Earthquake Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Figure 9-5 Earthquake Ground Accelerations in Epicentral Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 9-6 Undamped Mechanical Systems: (A) Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems; (B) Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Figure 9-7 Response Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Figure 9-8 Snubbing Devices: (A) Three-Dimensional Cylinder Snubber . . . . . . . . . 164 Figure 9-9 Isolators with Built-In Seismic Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Figure 9-8 Snubbing Devices: (B) Three-Directional Angle Snubbers. . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Figure 9-10 Parameters to Be Considered for Pipe Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Figure 9-11 Pipe Bracing Systems: (A) Typical Pipe Bracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Figure 9-11 Pipe Bracing Systems: (B) Tension 360 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Figure 9-11 Pipe Bracing Systems: (C) Superstrut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (A) Transverse Bracing for Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (B) Longitudinal Bracing for Pipes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Table of Contents Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (C) Strut Bracing for Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (D) Alternate Attachment to Hanger for Pipe Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (E) Alternate Bracing for Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (F) Strut Bracing for Pipe Trapeze. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (G) Connections to Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (H) Connections to Open-Web Steel Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (I) Connections to Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (J) Hanger Rod Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (K) Hubless Cast-Iron Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (L) Riser Bracing for Hubless Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Figure 9-12 Construction Details of Seismic Protection for Pipes: (M) Connections for Pipes on Trapeze. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Figure 9-13 Sway Bracing, 0.5 G Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Figure 9-14 A Seismic Bracing Method: (A) Lateral Sway Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Figure 9-14 A Seismic Bracing Method: (B) Lateral and Longitudinal Sway Bracing.182 Figure 9-15 Acceptable Types of Sway Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Figure 9-16 Forces for Seismic Design: (A) Equipment; (B) Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Figure 9-17 Potential Problems in Equipment Anchorage or Pipe Bracing . . . . . . . 189 Figure 10-1 Pipe-Sleeve Floor Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Figure 10-2 Acoustical Treatment for Pipe-Sleeve Penetration at Spaces with Inner Wall on Neoprene Isolators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Figure 10-3 Acoustical Pipe-Penetration Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Figure 10-4 Installation of an Air Lock in a Residential Plumbing System . . . . . . . 201 Figure 10-5 Examples of Suction-Piping Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Figure 10-6 Typical Vibration-Isolation Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Figure 10-7 Typical Flexible Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Figure 10-8 Bathtub and/or Shower Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Figure 10-9 Suggested Mounting of Piping and Plumbing Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Figure 10-10 Suggested Installation of Plumbing Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Figure 10-11 Vibration Isolation of Flexible-Coupled, Horizontally Split, Centrifugal Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Figure 10-12 Common Errors Found in Installation of Vibration-Isolated Pumps. . 208 Figure 10-13 Vibration Isolation of a Sump Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Figure 10-14 Typical Pipe Run Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Figure 10-15 Typical Flexible Pipe-Connector Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Figure 11-1 Qualitative Results From the Implementation of Value Engineering . . 212 Figure 11-2 Value Engineering Job Plan Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Figure 11-3 Information Gathering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 ix x ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 Figure 11-4A General Project Information Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-4B Detailed Basic Project Information Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-5 Project Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-6 Information and Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-7 Cost Structure of Product/Service/Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-8 Generalized Total Cost to Each User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-9 Cost Breakdown Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-10 Function Definition Verbs and Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-11 Function Analysis/Definition Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-12 Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST) Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-13 HOW and WHY Relationship with Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-14 Creativity Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-15A Creativity Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-15B Creativity Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-16 Creativity Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-17A Basic Idea Evaluation Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-17B Initial Example — Idea Evaluation Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-18A Functional Development Sketch Worksheet — Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-18A Functional Development Sketch Worksheet — Example. . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-18B Functional Idea Development and Estimated Cost Worksheet — Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-18B Functional Idea Development and Estimated Cost Worksheet — Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-19 Functional Evaluation Worksheet — Part 1, Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-19 Functional Evaluation Worksheet — Part 2, Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-20A Functional Evaluation Worksheet — Part 1, Example. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-20B Functional Evaluation Worksheet — Part 2, Example. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-20C Functional Evaluation Worksheet — Part 1, Example. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-21 Completion of Functional Definition and Analysis Worksheet. . . . . . . Figure 11-22A Functional Evaluation, Part 1, Step 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-22B Functional Evaluation, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-22C Functional Evaluation, Part 1, Step 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-23 Completed Idea Evaluation Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-24A In-progress Alternative Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-24B In-progress Alternative Idea Development and Cost Estimates . . . . Figure 11-25 Risk Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-26 Value Engineering Team Recommendation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 11-27 Example of Value Engineering Change Proposal Contract Clause . . . 215 216 219 221 222 223 223 224 226 229 230 233 234 234 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 255 256 257 259 260 Table of Contents xi Tables Table 1-1 Table 1-2 Table 1-3 Table 1-4 Table 1-5 Table 2-1 Table 2-2 Table 2-3 Table 4-1 Table 4-2 Table 4-3 Table 4-4 Table 4-5 Table 4-6 Table 4-7 Table 4-8 Table 4-9 Table 4-10 Table 4-11 Table 6-1 Table 7-3 Table 7-1 Table 7-2 Table 8-1 Table 8-2 Table 8-3 Table 8-4 Table 9-1 Table 9-2 Table 9-3 Table 10-1 Table 10-2 Standard Plumbing and Piping Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Standard Fire-Protection Piping Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Abbreviations for Text, Drawings, and Computer Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Temperature Conversion Chart, °F – °C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Conversion to SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Codes and Standards Listed by Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Complete List of Standards By Standard-Writing Organization . . . . . . . . . 46 Organization Abbreviation, Address, and Phone Number Listing . . . . . . . 58 Piping Take-off Sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Hours to Excavate 100 Feet [30.5 m] of Trench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 To Sawcut 100 Feet [30.5 m] of ConcreteTrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 To Break 100 Feet [30.5 m] of Pavement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Hours to Backfill 100 Feet [30.5 m] of Trench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Hours to Complete 100 Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Hours to Install 100 Pipe Hangers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Hours to Install Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Adjustments From Standard Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Solution to Example 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Solution to Example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Graphic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 The Effect of Stopping Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Energy Savings Chart for Steel Hot Water Pipes and Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Energy Savings Chart for Copper Hot Water Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Electrochemical Metal Lossesof Some Common Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Galvanic Series of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Electromotive Force Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Corrosion Rates for Common Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Piping Weights for Determining Horizontal Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Assigned Load Table for Lateral and Longitudinal Sway Bracing. . . . . . . 184 Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Recommended Static Deflection for Pump Vibration-Isolation Devices . 205 Typical Sound Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 xii ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 1 Formulas, Symbols and Terminology FORMULAE COMMONLY USED IN PLUMBING ENGINEERING For the convenience of ASPE members, the Society has gathered some of the basic formulae commonly referred to and utilized in plumbing engineering and design. It is extremely important to convert to values of the proper units whenever using these equations. Take note that gravitational acceleration and gravitational constant have the same numerical value, but the units are not the same. This term is frequently left out of equations with no effect to the numerical value. However, the units will not be dimensionally correct and do not cancel out. Due to the English system of measurement utilizing pounds to indicate mass and force, pounds-mass (lbm) and pounds-force (lbf) are used to distinguish between the two. This is not an issue for The International System of Units (SI). Equations listed in parenthesis () are used to represent equations that are unit-system specific to SI units and differ when using English units. Equation 1-1, the Manning Formula Used for determining the velocity (V) of uniform flow (defined as the flow that is achieved in open channels of constant shape and size and uniform slope) in sloping drains. Note that the slope of the water surface is equal to the slope of the channel, and that the flows in such open channels do not depend on the pressure applied to the water but on the gravitational force induced by the slope of the drain and the height of the water in that drain. Equation 1-1 ⁄ ½ V = 1.486nR S 2 3 where V = Velocity of flow, ft/s (m/s) n = Coefficient representing roughness of pipe surface, degree of fouling, and pipe diameter R = Hydraulic radius, ft (m) S = Hydraulic slope of surface of flow, ft/ft (m/ m) The hydraulic radius (R) can be calculated using Equation 1-3. The roughness coefficient (n) and several values for the hydraulic radii are given in Baumeister and Marks’s “Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers.” Equation 1-2, Rate of flow Used for determining the amount of water passing through a pipe. This quantity of water, for a given time, depends on the cross-sectional area of the pipe and the velocity of the water. Equation 1-2 Q = AV where Q = Flow rate of water, ft3/s (m3/s) A = Cross-sectional area of pipe, ft2 (m2) V = Flow velocity of water, ft/s (m/s) (a) Therefore, substituting Equation 1-2 in Equation 1-1, the Manning Formula can be represented as follows: Equation 1-2a AR ⁄ S½ Q = 1.486 n 2 3 Equation 1-3, Hydraulic radius (R) Usually referred to as the hydraulic mean depth of flow, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of flow to the wetted perimeter of pipe surface. Equation 1-3 R = Area of flow/Wetted perimeter For half-full (HF) and full-flow (FF) conditions, the hydraulic radii can be represented as: Equation 1-3a D RHF = RFF = 4 where D = Diameter of pipe, ft (m) RHF = Hydraulic radius, half-full condition, ft (m) 2 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook — Volume 1 RFF = Hydraulic radius, full-flow condition, ft (m) Equation 1-5a γh 144 Equation 1-4, Water flow in pipes Two types of water flow exist: Laminar and turbulent. Each type is characterized by the Reynolds number, a dimensionless quantity. The physical characteristics of the water, the velocity of the flow, and the internal diameter of the pipe are factors for consideration, and the Reynolds number is represented as: where P = Pressure, lbf/in2 (kPa) γ = Specific Weight of substance, lbf/ft3 (N/m3) h = Static head, ft (m) Equation 1-4 Equation 1-5b Re = VDρ ρ µg gc where Re = Reynolds number, dimensionless V = Velocity of flow, ft/s (m/s) D = Diameter of pipe, ft (m) ρ = Density, lbm/ft3 (kg/m3) µ = Absolute viscosity of fluid, lb-s/ft2 (m2/s) gc = Gravitational Contstant, 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s2 Values of viscosity are tabulated in the ASHRAE “Handbook of Fundamentals.” In laminar flow, the fluid particles move in layers in straight parallel paths, the viscosity of the fluid is dominant, and its upper limit is represented by Re = 2000. In turbulent flow, the fluid particles move in a haphazard fashion in all directions, the path of an individual fluid particle is not possible to trace, and Re is above 4000. Flows with Re between 2000 and 4000 are classified as critical flows. Re is necessary to calculate friction coefficients which, in turn, are used to determine pressure losses. Equation 1-5, Friction head loss Whenever flow occurs, a continuous pressure loss exists along the piping in the direction of flow, and this head loss is affected by the density of the fluid, its temperature, the pipe roughness, the length of the run, and the fluid velocity. The friction head loss is represented by Darcy’s Friction Formula: Equation 1-5 h= fLV2 2gD where h = Friction head loss, ft (m) f = Friction coefficient, dimensionless L = Length of pipe, ft (m) V = Velocity of flow, ft/s (m/s) g = Gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/s2 (9.8 m/s2) D = Internal diameter of pipe, ft (m) (a) The static head is the pressure (P) exerted at any point by the height of the substance above that point. To convert from feet (m) of head to pounds per square inch (kPa or kg/m2), the following relationship is used: P= (b) Therefore, Equation 1-5 may be represented as: γ fLV2 288gD (c) To convert pressure in meters of head to pressure in kilopascals, use P= Equation 1-5c kPa = 9.81 (m head) (d) To calculate the friction loss, the Hazen-Williams Formula is used: Equation 1-5d h = 0.002082L q ( 100 ) C ) ( d 1.85 1.8 4.8655 where C = Friction factor for Hazen-Williams q = Flow rate, gpm (L/s) d = Actual inside diameter of pipe, in. (mm) L = Length of pipe, ft (m) f = Friction factor Values for f and C are tabulated in Baumeister and Marks’s “Handbook for Mechanical Engineers.” Equation 1-6, Potential energy (PE) Defined as the energy of a body due to its elevation above a given level and expressed as: Equation 1-6 PE = Wh = mgh gc (PE = Wh) where PE = Potential energy, ft-lbf (J) W = Weight of body, lbf (N) h = Height above level, ft (m) g = Gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/s2 (9.8 m/s2) gc = Gravitational constant, 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-s2 Equation 1-7, Kinetic energy (KE) Defined as the energy of a body due to its motion and expressed as: Equation 1-7 ( mV2 WV2 KE = 2gc = 2g mV2 KE = 2 ) where KE = Kinetic energy, ft-lbf (J) m = Mass of body, lbm (kg) V = Velocity, ft/s (m/s)
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