Tài liệu Panam unsaturated soils 2017 fundamentals

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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. GSP 301 PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 Fundamentals Papers from Sessions of the Second Pan-American Conference on Unsaturated Soils Dallas, Texas November 12–15, 2017 Edited by Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E. John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E. Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE William J. Likos, Ph.D. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. GEOTECHNICAL SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 301 PANAM UNSATURATED SOILS 2017 FUNDAMENTALS SELECTED PAPERS FROM SESSIONS OF THE SECOND PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON UNSATURATED SOILS November 12–15, 2017 Dallas, Texas SPONSORED BY International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering The Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers EDITED BY Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E. John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E. Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE William J. Likos, Ph.D. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 www.asce.org/publications | ascelibrary.org Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor. The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Photocopies and permissions. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce.org or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database (http://cedb.asce.org) or ASCE Library (http://ascelibrary.org) and using the “Permissions” link. Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481684 Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-7844-8168-4 (PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America. PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 iii Preface Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The Second Pan-American Conference on Unsaturated Soils (PanAm-UNSAT 2017) was held in Dallas, Texas, November 12-15, 2017, featuring the latest research advances and engineering‐practice innovations in the area of Unsaturated Geotechnics, with a focus on characterization, modeling, design, construction, field performance and sustainability. PanAm-UNSAT 2017 follows a now well-established series of regional and international conferences on Unsaturated Soils, bringing together researchers, practitioners, students and policy makers from around the world, particularly the Americas. The conference built upon the success of PanAm-UNSAT 2013 (First PanAmerican Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Cartagena, Colombia), as well as that of previous conferences on unsaturated soils hosted in the United States, including UNSAT 2006 (Fourth International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Carefree, Arizona) and EXPANSIVE’92 (Seventh International Conference on Expansive Soils, Dallas, Texas, 1992). Proceedings of PanAm-UNSAT 2017 have been documented in four Geotechnical Special Publications (GSP) of ASCE including Volume 1: Plenary Session Papers; Volume 2: Fundamentals; Volume 3: Applications; and Volume 4: Swell-Shrink and Tropical Soils. Current Volume 2 (Fundamentals) consists of seven sections: Section I, Pore Fluid Retention, includes 8 papers dealing with the definition of the soil water retention curve, role of different pore fluids, and interlinkages between water retention, volume change, and effective stress. These papers also discuss the role of new manufactured materials such as 3D printed porous media and challenging natural materials like loess and soils with different fabrics. Section II, Hydraulic Properties, includes 9 papers dealing with a focus on prediction and measurement of key hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils such as the soil water retention curve, hydraulic conductivity, and air permeability. Papers discuss challenging materials such as mine tailings, the role of additions such as Xanthan gum to soils, as well as the behavior of silt/sand mixtures. The impact of variability and atmospheric boundary conditions are also characterized. Section III, Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation, includes 10 papers dealing with the importance of consideration of soil volume change in problems of unsaturated flow. Discussions in these papers include impacts of volume change on unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity functions and other flow/deformation coupling aspects in numerical modeling of unsaturated flow. © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Section IV, Shear Strength and Constitutive Modeling, includes 10 papers dealing with the measurement of the shear strength of unsaturated soils as well as the linkage between hydraulic properties and the shear strength. Challenging materials such as bentonite and mine tailings are characterized, and the evolution in behavior of unsaturated soils subjected to grain crushing is also considered. Section V, Numerical Modeling: Coupled Processes, includes 5 papers dealing with coupling in Thermo-, Hydro-, and/or Chemical- Mechanical processes within unsaturated soils. The papers deal with the development of constitutive models and challenges in numerical modeling associated with fully-coupled solutions to these challenging unsaturated soil problems. Section VI, Innovations in Testing, includes 11 papers dealing with challenging problems with unsaturated soils that required development of new testing approaches and analyses. These include the use of image analysis, seepage induced consolidation, soil-structure interaction, cone penetration testing, large-scale laboratory tests on compacted soils, thermal conductivity, and residual displacements after cyclic loading. Section VII, Dynamic Behavior, includes 8 papers dealing with the dynamic response of unsaturated soils under both small-strain and large-strain conditions. The impacts of variables such as the degree of saturation and the grain size distribution on the small-strain shear and resilient moduli were investigated. The liquefaction potential of unsaturated soil was also investigated, as was modeling of seismic compression of unsaturated soils. Each paper was subject to rigorous technical review during a three-phase submission process and received a minimum of two positive peer reviews before final acceptance by the corresponding session chair(s). © ASCE iv PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Acknowledgments Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The following individuals deserve special acknowledgment and recognition for their direct involvement and efforts in making this regional conference a success: PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Program Committee Conference Chair: Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E., University of Texas at Arlington Conference Co-Chair: John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of California, San Diego Technical Program Chair: Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE, M.ASCE, Arizona State University Technical Program Co-Chair: William J. Likos, Ph.D., M.ASCE, University of Wisconsin, Madison Local Chair: Marcelo J. Sanchez, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Texas A&M University Local Co-Chair: Gerald A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Oklahoma Logistics Coordinator: Majid Ghayoomi, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of New Hampshire Sponsorships/Exhibits Chair & Liaison from the G-I Technical Coordination Council (TCC): Anand J. Puppala, Ph.D., P.E., D.GE, F.ASCE, University of Texas at Arlington The Geo-Institute (G-I) of the ASCE Brad Keelor, Director Helen Cook, Board and Meetings Specialist Lucy King, Senior Manager, Conferences Cristina Charron, Manager, Conferences Drew Caracciolo, Manager, Sponsorships and Exhibits Rachel Hobbs, Administrator, Conferences The conference Program Committee would also like to acknowledge the officers of the TC106 Committee on Unsaturated Soils (ISSMGE), and all members of the Technical Advisory and International Technical Committees, who provided guidance and support during the early planning phases of the conference. TC106 Committee on Unsaturated Soils (ISSMGE) David Toll, Chair, University of Durham, UK Bernardo Caicedo, Vice Chair, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia Adrian Russell, Secretary, University of New South Wales, Australia Technical Advisory Committee Sai Vanapalli, University of Ottawa, Canada Greg Siemens, Royal Military College, Canada Kanthasamy (Muralee) Muraleetharan, University of Oklahoma, USA © ASCE v PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Xiong Zhang, University of Cincinnati, USA Ning Lu, Colorado School of Mines, USA Claudia Zapata, Arizona State University, USA Jorge Zornberg, University of Texas at Austin, USA Jorge Abraham Diaz-Rodriguez, UNAM, Mexico Bernardo Caicedo, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia Julio E. Colmenares, Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia Orencio Villar, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil Tacio de Campos, PUC-Rio, Brazil Fernando Marinho, University of São Paulo, Brazil Manoel Porfírio Cordão Neto, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil Diego Manzanal, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Alejo Sfriso, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina International Technical Committee David Toll, University of Durham, UK Adrian Russell, University of New South Wales, Australia Eduardo Alonso, UPC, Barcelona, Spain Antonio Gens, UPC, Barcelona, Spain Lyesse Laloui, EFP Lausanne, Switzerland J. Carlos Santamarina, KAUST, Saudi Arabia Charles Ng, HKUST, Hong Kong PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Session Chairs The conference Program Committee would also like to acknowledge the conference Session Chairs, who guided authors and reviewers through the draft and final phases of paper submission and review. In most cases, these chairs also served as on-site moderators during the conference itself. 01/ Dynamic Behavior of Unsaturated Soils, part I Majid Ghayoomi, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of New Hampshire 02/ Dynamic Behavior of Unsaturated Soils, part II Nadarajah Ravichandran, Ph.D., M.ASCE, Clemson University Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E., M.G-I, University of Texas at Arlington 03/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part I Rifat Bulut, Ph.D., M.ASCE, Oklahoma State University 04/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part II Jairo E. Yepes, Ph.D., Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá, Colombia Ujwalkumar D. Patil, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Guam Liangbo Hu, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of Toledo © ASCE vi PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 05/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part III Iraj Noorany, Ph.D., P.E., G.E., F.ASCE, Noorany Geotechnical Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 06/ Pore Fluid Retention Behavior, Part I William J. Likos, Ph.D., M.ASCE, University of Wisconsin, Madison Idil Deniz Akin, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Washington State University 07/ Pore Fluid Retention Behavior, Part II Corrie Walton-Macaulay, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Bucknell University 08/ Hydraulic Behavior, Part I Leonardo D. Rivera, METER Group 09/ Hydraulic Behavior, Part II Leonardo D. Rivera, METER Group 10/ Shear Strength Behavior Ali Khosravi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Sharif University of Technology 11/ Innovations in Testing, Part I Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 12/ Innovations in Testing, Part II Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 13/ Innovations in Testing, Part III Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 14/ Field Applications of Unsaturated Soils Gerald A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Oklahoma 15/ Stability of Unsaturated Slopes, Part I Navid H. Jafari, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Louisiana State University 16/ Stability of Unsaturated Slopes, Part II Soonkie Nam, Ph.D., EIT, A.M.ASCE, Georgia Southern University 17/ Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation, Part I Zhen Liu, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Michigan Technological University © ASCE vii PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 viii 18/ Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation, Part II Xiaoyu Song, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of Florida Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 19/ Numerical Modeling: Coupled Processes Giuseppe Buscarnera, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Northwestern University 20/ Foundations on Expansive Soils Xiong Zhang, Ph.D., P.E. A.M.ASCE, Missouri University of Science and Technology 21/ Expansive Soils: Mitigation Bhaskar C.S. Chittoori, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Boise State University 22/ Expansive Soils: Modeling Xinbao Yu, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Texas-Arlington 23/ Pipeline and Transportation Structures in Unsaturated Soils Claudia E. Zapata, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Arizona State University Mohammad Sadik Khan, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Jackson State University 24/ Modeling of Cracked Soils and Effects of Cracking Marcelo J. Sanchez, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Texas A&M University 25/ Constitutive Modeling: Micro to Macro Kalehiwot N. Manahiloh, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Delaware 26/ Climate Effects and Permafrost Farshid Vahedifard, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Mississippi State University 27/ Energy Geotechnics, Bio-Geo, and Sustainability John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of California, San Diego PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Draft Paper Reviewers Finally, the Program Committee would also like to acknowledge those who contributed to the conference by serving as the primary reviewers of draft papers. Their efforts in providing careful, thorough reviews of each submission form the backbone of quality assurance, providing organizers the confidence that conference content would represent the best of current thinking in the field, and allowing these Proceedings to be published as a multi-volume Geotechnical Special Publication (GSP). Murad Abu Farsakh Raju Acharya Marshall Addison © ASCE Asif Ahmed Beena Ajmera Amir Akbari Garakani Idil Akin Miguel Alfaro Saumya Amarasiri PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Omar Amer Ron Andrus Mohamed Arab Andrew Assadollahi Guillermo Avila Kleio Avrithi Muwafaq Awad Ramdane Bahar Aritra Banerjee Tugce Baser Munwar Basha Bate Bate Melissa Beauregard Craig Benson Riad Beshoy Tejovikash Bheemasetti Katia Bicalho Mahnoosh Biglari Hemanta Bista Amin Borghei Tommy Bounds Rifat Bulut Giuseppe Buscarnera Jack Cadigan Donald Cameron Gaylon Campbell Junnan Cao Amy Cerato Uma Chaduvula Lizhou Chen Can Chen Bhaskar Chittoori Mehmet Cil Rodney Collins Jose Andres Cruz Sheng Dai Arghya Das Abhijit Deka Ludmilla Derk Yi Dong Ghada Ellithy David Elwood Matt Evans © ASCE ix Arvin Farid Ashok Gaire Fernando Garcia Lucas Garino Kevin Gaspard Antonio Gens Hande Gerkus Omid Ghasemi-Fare Saswati Ghatak Majid Ghayoomi Amin Gheibi Michael Gomez James Graham Xiangfeng Guo Marte Gutierrez Jumanah Hajjat MD Haque Arash Hassanikhah Kianoosh Hatami Carol Hawk Nathan Hayman Arash Hosseini Sandra Houston Laureano Hoyos Nejan Huvaj Tatsuya Ishikawa Navid Jafari Pegah Jarast Jay Jayatilaka Mohammad Sadik Kahn Edward Kavazanjian Mohammadreza Keshavarz Sadik Khan Morteza Khorshidi Arman Khoshghalb Mohammad Khosravi Ali Khosravi Naji Khoury Charbel Khoury Golam Kibria Wansoo Kim Sihyun Kim S. Sonny Kim Alan Kropp M. R. (Kantha) Lakshmikantha Eng Choon Leong Lin Li Jie Li William Likos Chuang Lin Zhen (Leo) Liu Jose Lizarraga Naresh M Michael Maedo Nariman Mahabadi Emad Maleksaeedi Kalehiwot Manahiloh Ferdinando Marinelli Alejandro Martinez David Mathon John McCartney Marta Miletic Gerald Miller Morteza Mirshekari Debakanta Mishra Shannon Mitchell Rigoberto Moncado Lopez M. Azizul Moqsud Ali Moradi Derek Morris Kimia Mortezaei Hamed Mousavi Masoud Mousavi Sayed Masoud Mousavi Balasingham Muhunthan Kanthasamy Muraleetharan Boo Hyun Nam Soonkie Nam James Nevels Thai Nguyen Wen-Jie Niu PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Iraj Noorany Hyunjun Oh Olurotimi Victor Ojekunle Austin Olaiz Orlando Oliveira Fatih Oncul Mandeep Pandey Youngjin Park Ujwalkumar Patil Meghdad Payan Aravind Pedarla James Phipps Hariprasad Ponnapu Allison Quiroga Harianto Rahardjo Mehrzad Rahimi Nadarajah Ravichandran Ronald Reed Leonardo Rivera Nick Rocco Breno Rocha Ivo Rosa Montenegro Hakan Sahin Sonia Samir Marcelo Sanchez Sireesh Saride Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy © ASCE x Gokhan Saygili Sreedeep Sekharan Charles Shackelford Babak Shahbodaghkhan Mohammadreza Shakeri Longtan Shao Sunil Sharma Ajay Shastri Zhenhao Shi Jimmy Si John Siekmeier Greg Siemens Pawan Sigdel Behzad Soltanbeigi Chung Song Xiaoyu Song Timothy Stark Melissa Stewart Richard Sullivan HeMei Sun Amirata Taghavi Nagasreenivasu Talluri Rupert Tart, Jr. Oliver-Denzil Taylor Faraz Tehrani Colby Thrash Martin Tjioe Kala Venkata Uday Florian Unold Farshid Vahedifard Julio Valdes Sai Vanapalli B.V.S. Viswanadham Divya Viswanath Kenneth Walsh Hanlin Wang Kaiqi Wang Shaun Weldon Joshua White Xialong Xia Sudheer Yamsani Xiaoming Yang Yaolin Yi Xinbao Yu Atefeh Zamani Siavash Zamiran Bo Zhang Yida Zhang YouHu Zhang Chao Zhang Xiong Zhang Honghua Zhao Bohan Zhou Yang Zhou PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 xi Contents Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Pore Fluid Retention Accuracy Assessment of Predictive SWCC Models for Estimating the van Genuchten Model Parameters ............................................................................ 1 Ghada S. Ellithy, Farshid Vahedifard, and Xavier A. Rivera-Hernandez Evaluation of Effective Saturation of Air-NLAPL on the Basis of Air-Water Tests in Soils with Multimodal Pore-Size Distribution ........ 11 Miguel A. Alfaro Soto, Chang H. Kiang, and Eduardo P. Dos Santos Effects of Suction Path on Water Retention and Volumetric Behavior of Loess at High Suctions ......................................................................... 19 S. K. Belal Hossen, Hamed Sadeghi, and Charles Wang Wai Ng Extraction/Infusion Rate Effects on Continuous Soil-Water Characteristic Curves for Clayey Sand .................................................................. 28 Muwafaq Awad, Inthuorn Sasanakul, and Richard Ray Soil-Gasoline Retention Curve for a Uniform Sand .............................................. 38 B. C. Pioli, A. M. S. Maximiano, and F. A. M. Marinho Soils with Bimodal Soil-Water Characteristic Curve............................................ 48 L. Zou and E. C. Leong Testing Method and Fabric Effects on the SWCC of a Poorly Graded Sand.............................................................................................................. 58 Lucas A. Walshire, Oliver-Denzil Taylor, and Woodman W. Berry The Soil Water Characteristic Curve for 3D Printed Soil Samples ..................... 68 Nariman Mahabadi, Dirk BeGell, Xianglei Zheng, Leon van Paassen, and Jaewon Jang Hydraulic Properties Determination of Spatial Variation of Unsaturated Vertical Permeability ........ 77 Mohammad Sadik Khan, Asif Ahmed, and Md. Sahadat Hossain Effects of Relative Humidity Cycling on the Tensile Strength of a Claystone ................................................................................................................... 85 Jubert A. Pineda, Enrique Romero, and Eduardo E. Alonso © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Evaluation of the Soil-Water Retention Curves of Different Unsaturated Silt-Sand Soil Mixtures ...................................................................... 95 Kátia V. Bicalho, Fernanda V. Gonçalves, and Leidimara S. Favero Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Hydraulic Properties for Bulyanhulu Tailings during Drying ........................... 104 Feixia Zhang, Delwyn G. Fredlund, and G. Ward Wilson Influence of Confining Pressure on Air Permeability of Unsaturated Soil Barrier .............................................................................................................. 114 S. Roy and S. Rajesh Prediction of Soil-Water Characteristic Curve Using Artificial Neural Network Approach ................................................................................................. 124 Sajib Saha, Fan Gu, Xue Luo, and Robert L. Lytton Rainfall Infiltration and Runoff Characteristics of an Unsaturated Volcanic Soil under Grass Cover .......................................................................... 135 Thanh Binh Nguyen, Ishikawa Tatsuya, and Siva Subramanian Srikrishnan Upward Wetting Behavior of Unsaturated Xanthan Gum–Treated Sand........ 146 An T. P. Tran, Ilhan Chang, Jooyoung Im, and Gye-Chun Cho Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation Assessing the Influence of Errors in SWCC Prediction Methods on Transient Seepage Analyses ................................................................................... 155 Lucas A. Walshire, Bryant Robbins, and Oliver-Denzil S. Taylor Effects of Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties of Municipal Solid Waste on Moisture Distribution and Settlement in Bioreactor Landfills .......................... 165 Girish Kumar and Krishna R. Reddy Estimation of Water Level in Road Embankment by Transient Unsaturated Seepage Analysis ............................................................................... 175 Hirohiko Kusaka and Akihiro Takahashi Evaluation of Point Pedo-Transfer Functions for the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve .............................................................................................. 185 L. Zou and E. C. Leong Examination of Capillary Regime in the Soil Water Retention Curve Using Multi-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Method .................................................... 195 Jonathan F. Fili, Farshid Vahedifard, Bohumir Jelinek, and John F. Peters © ASCE xii PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Fully Coupled Finite Element Analysis for Consolidation of Unsaturated Soils Due to Hydraulic and Mechanical Loads .................................................... 205 Yue Zhang and Annan Zhou Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Klinkenberg-Corrected Gas Permeability of an Unsaturated Bentonite .......... 215 Bing Qin, Zhen-Dong Fang, Fa-Zhong Zhang, and Zheng-Han Chen Moisture and Matric Suction Behavior in Unsaturated Subgrade through Field Instrumentation and Numerical Modeling ................................................. 226 Asif Ahmed, Md Sahadat Hossain, Md Jobair Bin Alam, and Mohammad Sadik Khan Numerical Implementation of a Critical State Model for Soft Rocks................ 236 Martí Lloret-Cabot, Jubert A. Pineda, and Daichao Sheng Physical and Numerical Modeling of an Earthen Three-Layer Landfill Cover System under One-Dimensional Infiltration............................................. 247 Jason L. Coo, Zac P. S. So, and Charles W. W. Ng Shear Strength and Constitutive Modeling A VET-Based Direct Shear Box for Testing Unsaturated Soils at High Suctions .......................................................................................................... 258 Hamed Sadeghi, Fardin Jafarzadeh, and Charles W. W. Ng Effect of Grain Crushing and Grain Size on the Evolution of Water Retention Curves .................................................................................................... 268 Y. D. Zhang, J. S. Park, S. Gao, A. Sonta, B. Horin, and G. Buscarnera Effects of Atmospheric Drying and Consolidation of Flocculated Thickened Tailings and Centrifuged Cake on Near-Surface Shear Strength ................................................................................................................... 279 Louis K. Kabwe, G. Ward Wilson, Nicholas A. Beier, and J. Don Scott Experimental Study of Suction Stress Characteristic Framework for Granular Materials Using Conventional Direct Shear Test ............................... 289 Emad Maleksaeedi, Mathieu Nuth, Sogol Sarlati, and Mohamed Chekired Formula of Shear Strength of Unsaturated Soil and Its Verification ................ 299 Shao L. Tan, Zheng G. Feng, Guo X. Xia, Qin Y. Long, and Sun Xiang Influence of Fluid Pressures on Shear Strength of Unsaturated-Saturated Bentonite-Sand Mixture ......................................................................................... 310 Tomoyoshi Nishimura and Paul Habasimbi © ASCE xiii PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 xiv Influence of Matric Suction on the Shear Strength of a Cohesive Soil-Geosynthetic Strap Interface ......................................................................... 320 Patrícia Del G. Orlando and Fernando A. M. Marinho Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Material Microstructure Effects in Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Bentonite ........................................................................................... 330 Ayman A. Abed and Wojciech T. Sołowski Shear Strength Prediction of Compacted Silty Sand at Peak/Critical State Failure over Wider Suction Range .............................................................. 340 Ujwalkumar D. Patil, Aritra Banerjee, Anand J. Puppala, and Laureano R. Hoyos Shear Strength Properties and Collapse Response of a Sandy Silt under Generalized Stress States ....................................................................................... 350 Enrique Romero, Octavio E. Cárdenas, Antonio Lloret, and Rodrigo C. Weber Numerical Modeling: Coupled Processes A Chemical-Mechanical Coupling Constitutive Model of Unsaturated Soils .......................................................................................................................... 360 T. T. Ma, C. F. Wei, C. Q. Yao, and P. Chen Calibration of Plasticity-Based Safety Factors for Rainfall-Induced Landslides ................................................................................................................ 370 José J. Lizárraga and Giuseppe Buscarnera Normal Compression Planar Surfaces for Specific Volume and Degree of Saturation ................................................................................................................ 380 Martí Lloret-Cabot, Simon J. Wheeler, and Marcelo Sánchez Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Modeling of a Shallow Foundation under Atmospheric Actions .............................................................................................. 391 Sergio Samat THM Evolution of Bentonite in China-Mock-Up Test for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China ................................................................... 403 Y. M. Liu and S. F. Cao Innovations in Testing Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Unsaturated Compacted GMZ Bentonite-Sand Mixture ......................................................................................... 413 Weimin Ye, Yu Lu, Xianhua Huang, Bao Chen, Yonggui Chen, and Yujun Cui Compacted Unsaturated Soil Behavior in a Large Scale Laboratory Test ....... 425 Corrie Walton-Macaulay, L. Sebastian Bryson, and Jason Curd © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 xv Design and Calibration of a Miniature Cone for Testing in Unsaturated Soils .......................................................................................................................... 436 Pegah Jarast and Majid Ghayoomi Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Development of an Alternative Total Volume Change Measuring System for Samples in Unsaturated Conditions in Triaxial Tests ..................... 447 Taíse M. de O. Carvalho, Tácio M. P. de Campos, and Mariana Benessiuti Motta Evaluation of Different Procedures for the Installation of Sensors of Indirect Suction Measurement .............................................................................. 457 G. N. Bellina, O. M. Oliveira, R. A. R. Higashi, and Fernando A. M. Marinho Investigations on Pile-Soil Interaction Using Image Analysis ............................ 466 G. Sreelakshmi, M. N. Asha, and Divya Viswanath, Large-Strain Consolidation Column with Applied Negative Water Pressure ................................................................................................................... 476 Bereket T. Fisseha, G. Ward Wilson, and Delwyn G. Fredlund Measurement of Suction Stress in Adsorption Regime ....................................... 486 Yi Dong and Ning Lu Resilient Modulus and Permanent Strain Behavior of a Compacted Red Clay .......................................................................................................................... 494 Zhong Han, Wei-lie Zou, and Sai K. Vanapalli Response of Unsaturated Silty Soil under the Constant Loading States during Water Infiltration ....................................................................................... 504 Ali Murtaza Rasool and Jiro Kuwano First Saturation and Resaturation of High Capacity Tensiometers with 1.5 MPa High Air Entry Value (HAEV) Ceramic Filters ................................... 514 J. Mendes, D. Gallipoli, D. G. Toll, and A. Tarantino Dynamic Behavior Assessment of Cary and Zapata Suction Based Model for Prediction of Resilient Modulus in Fine Grained Subgrade Soils ............................................. 523 Pugazhvel Thirthar Palanivelu and Claudia E. Zapata Dynamic Behavior of Naturally Desiccated Clays via Resonant Column Testing at Constant Water Content Conditions .................................................. 533 Jorge A. Pineda, José A. Cruz, and Pamela Y. Ávila © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance in Silty Sand via Suction Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Tests............................................................................ 543 Aritra Banerjee, Ujwalkumar D. Patil, Anand J. Puppala, and Laureano R. Hoyos Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Impact of Grain Size Distribution Curve on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of Unsaturated Clean Sand .................................................................... 553 P. Shahbazan, A. Khosravi, P. Toomani, A. Pak, and M. Rahimi Influence of Degree of Saturation on the Small Strain Shear Modulus of a Silty Clay .......................................................................................... 564 Shu-feng Chen, Ling-wei Kong, Ai-guo Guo, and Cheng Chen Modeling the Dynamic Response of a Level Ground Unsaturated Sand Deposit Using a Fully Coupled Finite Element Analysis Procedure .................. 574 Bo Zhang and Kanthasamy K. Muraleetharan Modeling the Seismic Compression of Unsaturated Sands................................. 584 Wenyong Rong and John S. McCartney Resonant Column Behavior of Unsaturated Near-Surface Sands ..................... 595 Oliver-Denzil S. Taylor and Katherine E. Winters © ASCE xvi PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Accuracy Assessment of Predictive SWCC Models for Estimating the van Genuchten Model Parameters Ghada S. Ellithy, Ph.D., P.E.1; Farshid Vahedifard, Ph.D., P.E.2; and Xavier A. Rivera-Hernandez, P.E.3 1 Senior Research Geotechnical Engineer, Engineer Research and Development Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180. E-mail: ghada.s.ellithy@usace.army.mil 2 Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS 39762. E-mail: farshid@cee.msstate.edu 3 Research Civil Engineer, Engineer Research and Development Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180. E-mail: Xavier.A.Rivera-Hernandez@usace.army.mil Abstract Proper determination of the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) plays an important role in the accuracy of any modeling attempt involving variably saturated soils such as transient unsaturated seepage analysis. While the SWCC can be directly measured, several predictive models have been developed over the past two decades and are employed in practice because of their simplicity, and the lower cost, and time needed to obtain their input parameters. The predictive models are commonly developed through multiple regression analysis over a large number of measured SWCCs to establish an empirical correlation between the SWCC model parameters and soil index properties such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits. This study evaluates the performance of seven predictive models to estimate the van Genuchten SWCC model parameters a, n, and r that represent the air entry value (AEV), slope of the curve, and the residual water content, respectively. For this purpose, the transient release and imbibition method (TRIM) device is used in the laboratory to obtain the van Genuchten SWCC of silty sand samples collected from a setback levee. The van Genuchten model parameters measured in the laboratory are compared against those estimated using the predictive models. The comparison shows that using predictive models can lead to over two orders of magnitude difference in a, a ratio of r to s between 0.06 and 0.21, and an n value between 1.25 and 2.85 for the tested soil. The aforementioned differences can lead to significant variations in transient seepage analysis results, a factor which needs to be carefully taken into consideration when using predictive models in practice. INTRODUCTION A transient condition for a given seepage scenario indicates that input and output quantities, such as soil hydraulic loading, gradient, and flow rate, vary with time. Transient seepage is commonly associated with unsaturated flow conditions where water flow occurs through soils with negative pore water pressures that are partially filled with water. However, the soil can remain saturated for some distance above the phreatic surface under negative pore water pressures. Flow above © ASCE 1 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 2 the phreatic surface through the saturated zone is also considered unsaturated flow. The assumption that the flow has achieved a steady-state condition is usually conservative from an engineering perspective. Steady-state analyses will normally result in the highest vertical gradients, uplift pressures, flows, and pore pressures that the structures should experience. An appropriate use of transient analyses can include: validating the results of piezometer readings during transient flooding events, estimating the time required for steady-state seepage conditions to be achieved, and estimating the development of the uplift forces relative to the hydrograph for the flood event, among others (Tracy et al. 2014). To perform a transient seepage analysis using modeling programs, it is required to provide the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), which is also known as volumetric water content function, soil moisture retention curve, and storage function, among other names. The SWCC describes a constitutive relationship between matric suction (), and the water content of unsaturated soils, which in return determines the hydraulic conductivity function of the unsaturated soils. These relationships affect the results of the transient seepage significantly in terms of hydraulic output such as exit gradient and hydraulic flux. They also affect the distribution of pore pressures that contribute to the effective stresses needed for slope stability. The SWCC can be directly measured or estimated using simplified models. The latter models can be either analytical or predictive. These models have been developed over the past two decades and are employed in practice because of their simplicity, and the lower cost and time needed to obtain their input parameters. The predictive models are commonly developed through multiple regression analysis over a large number of measured SWCCs to establish an empirical correlation between the SWCC model parameters and soil index properties such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits. This study evaluates the performance of seven predictive models to estimate the van Genuchten SWCC model parameters. The van Genuchten model parameters measured in the laboratory are compared against those estimated using the predictive models. SOIL-WATER CHARACTERISTIC CURVE (SWCC) The SWCC is recognized as the key soil i nformation required for the analysis of seepage, stability, and volume change problems involving unsaturated soils (e.g., Fredlund 2002). Typically, the water content in the SWCC is represented by the volumetric water content (VWC or ). In unsaturated soils where the voids are filled with both water and air, the SWCC describes the volume of the voids that remain filled with water as the soil drains. The matric suction () in unsaturated soil is the difference between the pore-air pressure (ua) and the pore-water pressure (uw): 𝜓 =𝑢 −𝑢 (1) The VWC () is the ratio of the water volume to the total volume of a soil sample and can be calculated as: 𝜃 =𝑝𝑆 (2) where p is the porosity and S is the degree of saturation. The VWC at full saturation is denoted as s or saturated volumetric content, which equals to the porosity of the soil sample. The SWCC shows a hysteretic behavior depending on whether the soil is drying (desorption) or wetting © ASCE Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 301 (adsorption), as shown in Figure 1. Typically, in current simulation tools, one SWCC can be modeled for each soil. Depending on the case being analyzed, either the draining or the wetting curve is selected, or an average curve can be used. As shown in Figure 1, three main features define the shape of the SWCC: The air-entry value (AEV), which corresponds to the suction value where the soil begins to drain freely. The AEV, in turn, is influenced by the pore size distribution of the soil. The second feature of the SWCC is the slope of the quasi-linear portion of the curve, which represents the rate at which the water content changes with matric suction. The third feature is the residual water content (𝜃 ), which is the volumetric water content of the soil where any increase in suction does not result in significant changes in water content. Fine grained soils will tend to have flatter SWCC and a relatively higher AEV compared to coarse grained materials with large and uniform pores which let the water start and continue to drain over a relatively small range of matric suction. It is worth mentioning that the SWCC is not unique for a soil at all conditions, SWCC vary dependent on initial void ration, confinement pressure and temperature. Figure 1. Typical Drying and Wetting SWCCs (after Fredlund et al. 1994). ESTIMATION OF SWCC Soil parameters required for modeling unsaturated soils for a particular project can be measured in the laboratory through a number of testing methods. It is worth mentioning that the first SWCCs were published in 1907 (Buckingham, 1907). However, due to the cost, time consuming measurements and uncertainty of results, empirical models have been developed over the years to determine the SWCC for different soils. These empirical models can also simplify the determination of other unsaturated soil properties like hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Mathematical Models Several of these predictive models are in the form of mathematical equations or closed form solutions that were fitted to experimental data. The mathematical equation models are effective in the sense that they enable an efficient determination of the SWCC from few data points. Also, some applications require a continuous functional from of the SWCC that can be differentiated © ASCE 3
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