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VERB TENSES I/. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE : THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN Câu xác định I / You / We / They + V0 She / He / It + V ( - s / - e s) * Động từ tận cùng có : S , SH , CH , X , O , Z thì ta thêm -es S + don’t / doesn’t + V0 Câu phủ định Câu nghi Do / Does + S + V0…..? vấn * Động từ “ To be”: I + am You / We / They + are She / He / It + is * Cách dùng: - Diễn tả một hành động được lập đi lập lại Ví dụ: They go to church every Sundays - Nói về sự thật Ví dụ: Thanksgiving comes on the fourth Thursday of November * Từ nhận biết: Always (Luôn luôn), Usually (Thường thường), Often ( Thường xuyên), Sometimes (Thỉnh thoảng), Never ( Không bao giờ), Seldom, rarely (Ít khi), Every …..( Mỗi……), EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the simple present tense 1. They ( go ) to church every Sundays. 2. She often ( watch ) TV in the evening. 3. What (you / do ) every morning? 4. I always ( get ) up at 7 o’clock in the morning. 5. After classes he often ( listen ) to music. 6. She ( not play ) volleyball every afternon. 7. Nam (often be ) late for school. 8. Lan and I ( be ) in class 6A II. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE: THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN Câu xác định S + am / is / are + V-ing Câu phủ định S + am / is / are + not + V-ing Câu nghi vấn Am / Is / Are + S + V-ing ? * Cách dùng: - Thì hiện tại tiếp diến diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra tại thời điểm nói. Ví dụ: Please don’t make so much noise. I am working - Hành động đang xảy ra không nhất thiết vào tời điểm nói Ví dụ: Mary wants to work in France, so she is learning French * Chú ý cách thêm –ing vào động từ: - Động từ tận cùng là –e, ta bỏ –e, thêm – ing ( write – writing ) - Động từ một vần tận cùng là một phụ âm, trước có một nguyên âm ta gấp đôi phụ âm rồi thêm – ing. ( swim – swimming ) 1 - Động từ 2 vần có dấu nhấn ở vần hai, tận cùng bằng một phụ âm, trước là một nguyên âm, ta gấp đôi phụ âm rồi thêm –ing ( begin – beginning ) * Từ nhận biết: Now, right now, at the moment, at present EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the present progressive tense 1. Tom ( sleep ) and we ( play ) video games at present. 2. What you ( do ) now? 3. We ( not study ) now, we ( watch ) TV. 4. You ( listen ) to me, Mary? – Yes, I am 5. Hurry up. He ( wait ) outside III. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE: TƯƠNG LAI ĐƠN Câu xác định S + will + V0 Câu phủ định S + will + not + V0 Câu nghi vấn Will + S + V0……? * Cách dùng: Thì tương lai đơn diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong tương lai * Từ nhận biết: Tomorrow, next….., in + năm trong tương lai, some day, sooner or later * NEAR FUTURE: TƯƠNG LAI GẦN S + is / am / are + going to + V0 Diễn tả một dự định trong tương lai EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the simple future tense 1. Goodbye ! We ( see ) you tomorrow. 2. The weather ( start ) a little colder tomorrow. 3. Stay home. Lan ( call ) you tonight. 4. Look at those black clouds. It is going ( rain ) 5. You ( be ) free tomorrow? IV. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN Câu xác I / he / she / it + was S + V- ed / -2 định You / we / they + were Câu phủ S + didn’t + V0 S + was / were + not …….. định Câu nghi Did + S + V0 …..? Was / Were + S ………..? vấn * Cách dùng: - Thì quá khứ đơn diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ - Diễn tả thói quen trong quá khứ * Từ nhận biết: Yesterday, ago, last……., in + năm ở quá khứ * Chú ý: Cách thêm –ed - Động từ tận cùng là –e, ta bỏ –e rồi thêm –ed Ví dụ: arrive - arrived - Động từ tận cùng là –y, trước nó là một phụ âm thì ta đổi –y thành –i rồi thêm ed Ví dụ: try – tried 2 - Động từ tận cùng là một phụ âm, trước nó là một nguyên âm, ta gấp đôi phụ âm rồi thêm -ed Ví dụ: fit – fitted EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the simple past tense 1. I ( start ) school when I was six. 2. We ( meet ) his parents yesterday. 3. The school ( be ) in bad conditions three years ago. 4. Your aunt ( call ) you yesterday? 5. He ( not visit ) Da Lat last summer. V. THE PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE: THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN Câu xác định S + was / were + V- ing Câu phủ định S + was / were + not + V- ing Câu nghi vấn Was / Were + S + V- ing ….? * Cách dùng: - Diễn tả hành động xảy ra tại một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ Ví dụ: They were working at seven o’clock last night - Diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra trong quá khứ thì có một hành động khác xen vào S + was / were + V- ing when S + V- ed / -2 Ví dụ: I was sleeping when the phone rang S + V- ed / -2 while S + was / were + V- ing Ví dụ: The phone rang while I was sleeping EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the past progressive tense 1. What you ( do ) at six o’clock yesterday? 2. Nam ( take ) a shower at eight o’clock last night. 3. I ( do ) my homework at seven o’clock yesterday. 4. While they ( eat ), the phone rang. 5. It ( rain ) when the plane got to Ha Noi. VI. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH Câu xác định S + have / has + V- ed / -3 Câu phủ định S + have / has + not + V- ed / -3 Câu nghi vấn Have / Has + S + V- ed / -3 ….? * Cách dùng:Thì hiện tại hoàn thành diễn tả: - Hành động vừa mới xảy ra trong quá khứ Ví dụ: I have just finished my homework - Hành động hay sự kiện tại một thời điểm không chắc chắn trong quá khứ Ví dụ: I have already seen that film - Hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng còn liên quan đến hiện tại Ví dụ: She has studied French for three years * Từ nhận biết: Just, already, yet, ever, so far, recently, lately, before, up to now, since, for Since + a point of time ( một điểm thời gian ) (Since 2011, Since January,…… ) 3 For + a period of time ( một khoảng thời gian) ( For 5 years ) EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the present perfect tense 1. We ( not come ) to your house for two years. 2. She ( live ) here since last year. 3. He ( see ) you since yesterday? 4. Nam ( collect ) stamps since 1999. 5. You ( finish ) your composition yet? – Yes, I have. VII. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE: THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH Câu xác định S + had + V- ed / -3 Câu phủ định S + had + not + V- ed / -3 Câu nghi vấn Had + S + V- ed / -3 ….? * Cách dùng:Thì quá khứ hoàn thành diễn tả một hành động hay sự kiện xảy ra trước một thời điểm hay một sự kiện khác trong quá khứ. Ví dụ: We had finished planting trees before lunchtime yesterday When I arrived at the party, Lucy had already gone home EXERCISES * Complete the following senrences, using the present perfect tense 1. We stopped for a rest after we ( walk ) for two hours. 2. I ( finish ) my homework before I went to school. 3. We received her letter after she ( move ) to a new house. 4. I ( see ) him eating in the restaurant before going home yesterday. 5. We missed the beginning of the play, because it ( already start ) when we arrived. EXERCISES I. Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense: 1. I ( get )……………………………………. up the day before yesterday. 2. What…………………………………….you (do) ……………………………………. The day after tomorrow? 3. She always (go) …………………………………….to sleep before her mother does. 4. She rarely (take) …………………………………….a bath after dinner. 5. …………………………………….you (take) …………………………………….a trip next summer? 6. Alice and Mary (put) …………………………………….away the dinner dishes right now. 7.The telephone rang while I (take) …………………………………….my shower this morning. 8. In what year…………………………………….World War II (break) …………………………………….out? 9. We (learn) …………………………………….grammar right at the moment. 10. John and Tom (write) …………………………………….letters at the moment. 11. Listen! Someone (knock) …………………………………….at the door. 12. It always (snow) …………………………………….in winter. It (snow) ……………………………………. Now. 4 13. I (read) …………………………………….a book when the electricity was disconnected. 14. Look! A boy (run) …………………………………….after a dog. He (want) …………………………………….to catch it. 15. I (spend) ………………………….this weekend in Dalat. I (go) …………………………….there nearly everymonth. 16.The bell rang while I (have) …………………………………….lunch. 17. When the war (end) ……………………………………., we were living in the countryside. 18. Marconi (invent) ……………………………………. radio a long time ago. 19. She (not, speak) ……………………………………. To me for over a month. 20. I (buy) …………………………………….a good dictionary yesterday morning. 21. …………………………………….you (have) …………………………………….dinner yet? 22. So far, I (not, see) …………………………………….a camel. 23. In France birbs (fly) ……………………………………. to the South before winter comes. 24. He (sit) …………………………………….on a chair at 9:00 last night. 25. I (know) ……………………………………. him for a very long time. 26. My parents (come) …………………………………….to stay with me next month. 27. The war began while he (live) …………………………………….in France. 28. They (just leave) …………………………………….here. 29. He (turn) …………………………………….on the fan now. 30. There (be) …………………………………….no intelligent life on the moon. 31. He thanked me for what I (do) ……………………………………. . 32. My bicycle isn’t here any more. Somebody (take) …………………………………….it. 33. I (not, see) …………………………………….her for three years. I wonder where she is. 34. The performance (begin) …………………………………….at 7 o’clock and (last) …………………………………….for three hours. We all (enjoy) …………………………………….it. II. Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first. 1. Samuel started keeping a diary in 1997. Samuel has…………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 2. We started learning English five years ago. We have….……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 3. I began living in Ho Chi Minh city when I was 8. I have……..…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 5 4. She has taught the children in this remote village for five months. She started……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 5. He hasn’t written to me since April. The last time………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 6. She hasn’t had a swim for five years. She last ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 7. They last talked to each other two months ago They haven’t……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 8. The last time she saw her elder sister was in 1999 She hasn’t…..…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 9. She hasn’t written to me for years. It’s years……..…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 10. Robert and Catherine have been married for ten years. It’s ten years………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 11. It’s two weeks since they cleaned their room. They……………..………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. It’s over six months since John had his hair cut. John……………..…………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13. How long is it since you rode a bicycle? When……………………………………………………………….……………… …………………………………………………………………………………………? 14. How long is it since he wrote to me? When……………………………………………………………….……………… …………………………………………………………………………………………? 15. When did he last talk to you? How long………………………………………………………….……………………………… …………………………………………………………………………? 16. When did you last telephone him? 6 How long………………………………………………………….……………………………… …………………………………………………………………………? 17. We have never eaten this kind of food before. It’s the……………………………………………………………….…………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………. 18. This is the first time I have seen this film. I have never……………………………………………………………….………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 19. John began playing the piano ten years ago. John has…………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………….. 20. He has given up smoking for 2 months. He started……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………. ************************************************************************* **************************** PASSIVE VOICE THE PASSIVE VOICE IS FORMED: be + past participle ( V/ V - 3 / - e d ) S + V + O ( active : chủ động) S + be + V( - 3 / - e d) + by + O ( passive: bị động ) I/. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE : THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN S + V / V -s/-es + O She opens the door S + am / is / are + V - 3 / - e d + by + O The door is opened ( by her ) II. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE: THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN S + V - 2 / - ed + O She wrote some letters S + was / were + V - 3 / - e d + by + O her ) to me Some letters were written to me ( by III/. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE : THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN 7 S + am / is / are + V-ing + O room Nam is reading a book in the S + am / is / are + being + V - 3 / - e d + by + O room by Nam A book is being read in the IV. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH S + has / have + V - 3 / - ed + O We have just finished our homework S + has / have + been V - 3 / - e d + by + O finished (by us) Our homework has just been V. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE: TƯƠNG LAI ĐƠN S + will + V + O My father will buy a new car month S + will + be V - 3 / - e d + by + O next month A new car VI. MODAL VERB: ĐỘNG TỪ KHIẾM KHUYẾT S + modal verb + V + O I S + modal verb + be V - 3 / - e d + by + O next will be bought by my father can do this work This work can be done (by me) * Ghi chú: Modal verbs: can, could, may, might, ought to, have to, must, be going to, should, used to,…. VII. CÁCH BIẾN ĐỔI CÂU PHỦ ĐỊNH, CÂU HỎI YES/NO VÀ CÂU HỎI CÓ TỪ ĐỂ HỎI: 1. Câu phủ định: a. Hiện tại đơn She does not open the door The door is not opened ( by her ) b. Quá khứ đơn: She did not write some letters to me Some letters were not written to me ( by her ) c. Hiện tại tiếp diễn: Nam is not reading a book in the room 8 A book is not being read in the room by Nam d. Hiện tại hoàn thành: We have not just finished our homework Our homework has not just been finished (by us) e. Tương lai đơn: My father will not buy a new car next month A new car will not be bought by my father next month f. Modal verb: I can not do this work This work can not be done (by me) 2. Câu hỏi YES / NO: a. Hiện tại đơn Does she open the door ? Is the door opened ( by her ) ? b. Quá khứ đơn: Did She write some letters to you? Were some letters written to me ( by her )? c. Hiện tại tiếp diễn: Is Nam reading a book in the room? Is a book being read in the room by Nam? d. Hiện tại hoàn thành: Have you just finished your homework? Has your homework just been finished (by you)? e. Tương lai đơn: Will my father buy a new car next month? Will a new car be bought f. Modal verb: Can you do this work? 9 by my father next month? Can this work be done (by you)? 3. Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi: Where did your child find the key? Where was the key found by your child ? Which book do people prefer ? Which book is prefered ? Who made the final decision? By whom was the final decision made? VIII. SPECIAL CASES: MỘT SỐ TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẶC BIỆT. 1. Động từ có hai tân ngữ: a. Loại câu passive thêm “TO” Những động từ “ give, send, show, pay, teach, tell, lend, promise, hand, throw, wish, deny, offer, own …” có 2 túc từ. Trường hợp này chúng ta có 2 hình thức của câu bị động. * Chúng ta sử dụng “TO” khi “DO” trở thành chủ từ trong câu bị động Ví dụ: My father gave me a new hat. S V IO DO I was given a new hat by my father A new hat was given to me by my father. b. Loại câu passive thêm “FOR” Những động từ “ buy, make, leave, order, do, save, get …” có 2 túc từ. Trường hợp này chúng ta có 2 hình thức của câu bị động. * Chúng ta sử dụng “FOR” khi “DO” trở thành chủ từ trong câu bị động Ví dụ: I bought my brother some books S V IO DO My brother was bought some books ( by me) Some books were bought for my brother ( by me) 2. People / they + V + that + S + V Cấu trúc active trên khi được đổi sang passive có thể theo hai cách sau: Ví dụ: People know that she is married People know that she is married It is known that she is married Ví dụ: People know that she was married married 10 She is known to be married People know that she was It is known that she was married She is known to have been married 3. Verb of perception: Các động từ chỉ giác quan S + V + O + V0 ………. S + be + V - 3 / - e d + to + V0 …………. * Động từ MAKE cũng được dùng như các động từ chỉ cảm giác. Loại câu này khi đổi sang passive voice ta thường bỏ BY và Object EXERCISES I. Turn these sentences into passive voice: 1. They have built up all sorts of fearsome prospects in their mind. 2. My brother is going to choose engineering for his future job. 3. They are preparing dinner in another room. 4. Lenin gave each of them two exercise books. 5. Women all over the world are acquiring greater independence. 6. The 20th century has given us a lot of advantages. 7. You will have to make great efforts in studying. 8. We are going to translate HAMLET into our native language. 9. Your sister must pay attention to her teacher’s advice. 10. In his chapter, we are going to give him an intelligent test. 11. She isn’t going to pick these roses for the party. 12. Someone has taken away all of my English books. 13. People are talking about him everywhere. 14. Noone can answer that question . 15. People say that he is 007. 16. The teacher made us do a lot of exercises. 17. How are they going to do this project? 18. Which picture did you draw yesterday? 19. People rumoured that the coming crop was the worst. 20. People say that prevention is better than cure. 21. They used to make the little boys climb the chimneys to clean them. 22. Are you going to take an English course during the summer? 23. They have to cancel all the fights from London because of the bad weather. 24. We saw her cross the intersections. 25. People considered that Micheal Jackson has been the best pop singer. 26. They know that he is armed. 27. He saw the stranger rob the National Bank. 28. We believe that he has special knowledge which may be useful to the police. 29. I rarely hear her call her children bad names. 30. The burglar broke into the house last night and klled the hostess . 31. The Irish had to put dowm the English flag. 32. They didn’t look after the children properly. 33. Everyone looks up to him. 34. They must hand in weaponds. 11 35. He poured all of the milk out. 36. When he come, they had solved the problem. 37. He made us work late at night. 38. What will I do if noone meets me at the airport? 39. Nobody showed them how to do. II. Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the original one: 1. Our boss has suggested a new idea. A new idea………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 2. You must wash this sweater in warm water. This sweater……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 3. We sold the last shirt of this style a few hours ago. The last shirt………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 4. They built the Effel Tower in 1889. The Effel Towe………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………… 5. The police are questioning him at their headquarters. He……………..…………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. He sent me a nice gift on my birthday. A nice gift ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 7. They grow rice in tropical countries. Rice………….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. My father will buy a new car next month. A new car…………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 9. Someone cleans this room everyday. This room………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 10. She hasn’t done her homework yet. Her homework…………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 11. My sister will tell you what time the train leaves. 12 You………….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 12. We have asked some friends of hers to join us. Some friends……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 13. They declared that she won the competition. It………………..…………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 14. They think that he has died a natural death. He……………..…………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 15. They reported that the President had suffered a heart attack. The President…………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 16. People believe that 13 is an unlucky number. It………………….………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… … 17. The teacher is watching them work. They………….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 18. Noone has seen Peter since the day of the party. Peter ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 19. The police were following the suspects. The suspects.……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 20. People think that an apple a day is good for you. An apple………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 21. We have to improve all the schools in the city. All the schools……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 22. They are going to build a new bridge in the area. A new bridge………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 23. They have buit two department stores this year. 13 Two department stores………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 24. The students are planting trees in the schoolyard at the moment. Trees………..……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 25. They were washing their car when I came. Their car…………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 26. She is cleaning the floor now. The floor..………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… 27. We have just finished our homework. Our homework…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 28. Noone can solve this problem. This problem……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… 29. They sell jeans all over the world. Jeans………..……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 30. My mother gave me a new skirt. A new skirt………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… WISHES 1. S1 + wish(es) + (that) + S2 + V-2 (ed) / were Diễn tả một mong muốn trái ngược với thực tế trong hiện tại Ví dụ: I don’t have a lot of friends at school. I wish I had a lot of friends at school 2.. S1 + wish(es) + (that) + S2 + could / would + V Diễn tả một mong muốn trái ngược với thực tế trong tương lai Ví dụ: I can’t drive a car I wish I could drive a car EXERCISES I. Write the correct form of the verb in parenthese: 1. I wish I (have)…….…………………………………more time now to help you with your lesson. 14 2. I wish our teacher (explain) …….…………………………………that lesson to us again tomorrow. 3. He wishes it (stop) …….…………………………………raining now. 4. She wishes someone (offer) …….…………………………………to help her with that work tomorrow. 5. We wish it (be) …….…………………………………a little warmer in this room. We feel very cold. 6. I wish I (be) …….…………………………………as handsome as he is. II. Circle the best answer A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences: 1. She wishes she…….…………………………………a movie star. A. has been B. will be C. is D. were 2. He wishes his mother…….…………………………………him much money tomorrow. A. gave B. would give C. will give D. can give 3. We wish it…….…………………………………today. A. didn’t rain B. isn’t raining C. hasn’t rained D. doesn’t rain 4. I wish you…….…………………………………well at school, but you don’t. A. had done B. do C. will do D. did 5. we wish that he…………………………………………….the girl next door. A. will marry B. can marry C. would marry D. has married 6. I wish she…….…………………………………to my party but she won’t. A. can come B. could come C. may come D. will come. 7. We wish the weather…….………………………………… fine today. A. were B. is C. has been D. will be III. Each sentence has a mistake. Idetify it by choosing A, B, C or D: 1. She wishes she is the most beautiful girl in the world. A B C D 2. My dear friends, I wish you will visit us someday this summer. A B C D 3. I wish you can help me solve this mathematical problem. A B C D 4. I wish I can go with you to the countryside next weekend. A B C D 5. Lan wishes that she can go to the Singapore to visit her penpal. A B C D 6. I wish there is a park near my house so that I could play soccer with my son there. A B C D 7. I wish Miss Nga will come here and stay with us for a whole week. A B C D 8. Nga wishes she can go camping with her classmates this weekend. A B C D 9. I wish I am in London with my relatives now. 15 A B C D 10. You are making too much noise. I wish you stop it. A B C D IV. Rewrite the sentence that has the same meaning as the root one: 1. I don’t understand what the man says I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. My relatives live too far from me. I wish…………………..……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3. We can’t live together forever ! I wish…………….…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4. He doesn’t have a computer at home. He wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 5. She doesn’t get good marks. She wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 6. The children can’t play with those new toys. The children wish………………………….……………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………… 7. I do not know many English words I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 8. My friends cannot stay with me longer. I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 9. He can’t take his friends to the party tonight. He wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 10. Lan isn’t here and I want to see her. I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 11. I don’t have a pen pal and I’d like to. 16 I wish………….……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 12. I can’t go to the football match this afternoon and I’d like to. I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 13. Mr. Minh doesn’t have a red tie and he wants to have one very much. Mr. Minh wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………… 14. It’s a pity Hoa can’t play the piano well. Hoa wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 15. I’m sorry that he won’t accept the job he’s been offered. I wish………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 16. I don’t have much time to read all of the books I like. I wish………..………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 17. It’s a pity that she can’t speak English. She wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… 18. Mrs. Taylor doesn’t like living in her small house. Mrs. Taylor wishes……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… ************************************************************************* **************************** CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1 : CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1 IF CLAUSE S + V / V –s (es) S + is/ am / are MAIN CLAUSE S + will/ can/ may/ must + V Câu điều kiện loại 1 là câu điều kiện có thật ở hiện tại, chỉ một khả năng có thể có được ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai Ví dụ: If we pollute the water, we will have no fresh water to use 17 2. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 2: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2 IF CLAUSE S + V – 2 (ed) S + were MAIN CLAUSE S + would/ might/ could/ should +V Câu điều kiện loại 2 diễn tả điều kiện trái ngược với thực tế trong hiện tại. Ví dụ : If I were a bird, I would be a pigeon ( Nếu tôi là chim, tôi sẽ là loài chim bồ câu ) * Ghi chú: Unless = if ……not (nếu không ) Unless it rains , we can play tennis If it doesn’t rain , we can play tennis If it doesn’t tennis rain , we can play tennis Unless it rains , we can play EXERCISES I. Put the verbs in the following sentences in the correct tenses: 1. If she has time this morning, she (finish)………………………………………..this drawing. 2. We will stay at home if it (rain) ……………………………………….. 3. If I had enough money now, I (buy) ………………………………………..a computer. 4. If he (be) ………………………………………..a prime minister, he would spend more money on education. 5. If we win the lottery, we (give) ………………………………………..them half of the money. 6. She will need new clothes if she (get) ………………………………………..any fatter. 7. If he (play) ………………………………………..foodball all day, he would get very tired. 8. If the young man wanted to see me, he (come) ………………………………………..to my office. 9. If Henry is late, the train (not, wait) ……………………………………….. 10. I will go with him if he (go) ……………………………………….. 11. You will be ill if you (eat) ………………………………………..too much. 12.If she were older, she (have) ………………………………………..more sense. 13. If you (read) ………………………………………..that book carefully, you would understand it. 14. If it (be) ………………………………………..fine tomorrow, I (play) ………………………………………..tennis. 15. My uncle (be) ………………………………………..able to help us if he (be) ………………………………………..here now. 16. Were I you, I (not do) ………………………………………..that. 17. If you (go) ………………………………………..away, please write to me. 18 II. Circle the best answer A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences: 1. If you work hard, you………………………………………..in the final examination. A. succeed B. will succeed C. would succeed D. had succeed 2. We will be unhappy if you ……………………………………..come. A. haven’t B. don’t C. have D. didn’t 3. If you……………………………………..somewhere else, where would you like to be? A. have been B. can be C. are D. could be 4. What………………………………………you do if you have a lot of money. A. have B. will C. would D. did 5. What will you do if you……………………………………………the final exam. A. pass B. passed C. will pass D. passes 6. If I were you, I ……………………………………………that camera. A. haven’t bought B. wouldn’t buy C. won’t D. didn’t buy 7. …………………………………………….you work harder, you won’t be able to pass the exam. A. Unless B. If C. When D. As 8. If it………………………………………rain, we’ll have the party outside. A. didn’t B. doesn’t C. won’t D. wouldn’t 9. If I…………………………………………………a bird, I would be able to fly. A. were B. am C. is D. are 10. Unless you understand, I…………………………………………….explain it to you again. A. am B. would C. will D. was 11. Liz would come to see you, if she………………………………………..your address. A. has B. has had C. have D. had 12. If we………………………………………..hard, we’ll make this beach a clean and beautiful place again. A. will work B. worked C. have worked D. work 13. “My boss made me work overtime again.” If I were you, I…………………………………………….my job” A. quit B. would quit C. will quit D. must quit 14. If I……………………………………………the day-off tomorrow, I would go on a trip to the mountains. A. can have B. will have C. have D. had 15. If it………………………………………, we ‘ll buy warm clothes. A. get B. got C. will get D. would get 16. If you heat ice, it……………………………..into water. A. will turn B. would turn C. is turning D. turns 17. If I……………………………………..a new car, I would take you to the movie. A. had had B. have had C. had D. have 18. If my father…………………………………….a doctor, he would be very rich now. A. were B. was C. is D. will be 19 19. If it……………………………….., I would not go to school. A. rains B. has rained C. rained D. had rained 20. If we had enough time, we ……………………………………to you. A. will write B. would write C. can write D. shall write III. Each sentence has a mistake. Idetify it by choosing A, B, C or D: 1. We won’t get lost if we took a map. A B C D 2. If the little girl knew how to do it, her mother will be pleased. A B C D 3. If there will be too much exhaust fume in the air, our breathing will be badly affected. A B C D 4. If we would have a large garden, we would plant a lot of flowers in it. A B C D 5. If you won’t study hard, you’ll fail the exam. A B C D 6. If he would speak more slowly, I could understand him. A B C D 7. If you will stay in bed and take enough medicine, the flu will certainly disappear in three days. A B C D 8. Nam’ll get up early if he had an alarm clock. A B C D 9. If you went to his office after 10 am, you will see him. A B C D IV. Finish the second sentence in such a way that it has the same meaning as the original one: Number 0 has been done for you: 0. She doesn’t have a bicycle so she has to walk to school. If she had a bicycle, she wouldn’t have to walk to school. 1. She loves him, so she forgives him easily. If …………………………..…………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… 2. It rains, so the children don’t go swimming. If …………………………….………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 3. They don’t behave themselves, so their parents are not happy about that. If ……………………….……………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 4. If you didn’t speak quickly, I could understand you. 20
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