Tài liệu Object-oriented design i0

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Object-Oriented Design I The Waterfall Model Requirements Definition System and Software design Implementation and Unit Testing Integration and System Testing 2 Operation and Maintenance Useful Texts Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, Ivar Jacobson, The Unified Modeling Language. Addison-Wesley 1999. Grady Booch, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, second edition. Benjamin/Cummings 1994. Rob Pooley, Perdita Stevens, Using UML Software Engineering with Objects and Components. Addison-Wesley 1999. 3 The Importance of Modeling • A model is a simplification of reality. • We build models so that we can better understand the system we are developing. • We build models of complex system because we cannot comprehend such a system in its entirety. Models can be informal or formal. The more complex the project the more valuable a formal model becomes. BRJ 4 Principles of Modeling • The choice of what models to create has a profound influence on how a problem is attacked and how a solution is shaped. • Every model can be expressed at different levels of precision. • The best models are connected to reality. • No single model is sufficient. Every nontrivial system is best approached through a small set of nearly independent models. 5 BRJ The Unified Modeling Language UML is a standard language for modeling software systems. • Serves as a bridge between the requirements specification and the implementation. • Provides a means to specify and document the design of a software system. • Is process and programming language independent. • Is particularly suited to object-oriented program development. 6 Notation: Classes Window origin size open() close() move() display() name attributes operations A class is a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships and semantics. 7 Notation: Interface ISpelling An interface is a collection of operations that specify a service of a class or component, i.e., the externally visible behavior of that element. 8 Notation: Collaboration & Use Case Chain of responsibility A collaboration defines an interaction, i.e., a society of roles and other elements that work together to provide some cooperative behavior. Place order A use case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a system performs that yields an observable result. 9 Notation: Active Class EventManager eventlist suspend() flush() An active class is a class whose objects own one or more processes or threads and therefore can initiate control activity. 10 Notation: Component & Node orderform.java A component is a physical and replaceable part of a system that conforms to and provides the realization of a set of interfaces. Server 11 A node is a physical element that exists at run time and represents a computational resource. Notation: Behavioral Things: Messages & States display An interaction is a behavior that comprises a set of messages exchanged among a set of objects within a particular context to accomplish a specific purpose. Waiting A state machine is a behavior that specifies the sequence of states an object or an interaction goes through during its lifetime in response to events. 12 Notation: Grouping and Annotation Business rules A package is a general-purpose mechanism for organizing elements into groups. return copy of self 13 A note is a symbol for rendering constraints and comments attached to an element or a collection of elements. Notation: Relationships A dependency is a semantic relationship between two things in which a change to one may effect the semantics of the other. 0..1 employer * employee An association is a structural relationship that describes a set of links, a link being a connection among objects. 14 Notation: Relationships (continued) child parent A generalization is a specialization/generalization relationship is which objects of the specialized element (child) are substitutable for objects of the generalized element (parent). A realization is a semantic relationship between classifiers, wherein one classifier specifies a contract that another classifier guarantees to carry out. 15 Diagrams in UML A diagram is the graphical representation of a set of elements, usually rendered as a connected graph of vertices (things) and arcs (relationships). • Class diagram shows a set of classes, interfaces, and collaborations with their relationships. • Object diagram shows a set of objects and their relationships. • Use case diagram shows a set of use cases and actors (a special kind of class) and their relationships. 16 Diagrams in UML (continued) • Interaction diagram shows an interaction, consisting of a set of objects and the relationships, including the messages that may be dispatched among them. => A sequence diagram emphasizes the time ordering. => A collaboration diagram emphasizes the structural organization of the objects that send and receive messages. 17 Diagrams in UML (continued) • Statechart diagram shows a state machine consisting of states, transitions, events, and activities. • Activity diagram is a statechart diagram that shows the flow from activity to activity within a system. • Component diagram shows the organization and dependencies among a set of components. • Deployment diagram shows the configuration of processing nodes and the components that live on them. 18 The HelloWorld Example class name HelloWorld operations paint() 19 Abstraction for HelloWorld class name HelloWorld annotation operations paint() 20 g.drawString ("HelloWorld", 0, 10)"
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