Tài liệu Ngữ pháp tiếng anh - thpt

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Ngữ pháp tiếng Anh - THPT
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ I- Hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V(s/es); S + am/is/are - Caâu phuû ñònh S + do/does + not + V; S + am/is/are + not - Caâu hoûi Do/Does + S + V?; Am/Is/Are + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, every day/week/month … Ex: Mary often gets up early in the morning. 2.2 Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù. Ex: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng trong töông lai ñaõ ñöôïc ñöa vaøo chöông trình,keá hoaïch. Ex: The last train leaves at 4.45. II- Hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + am/is/are + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + am/is/are + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn ra ôû hieän taïi (trong luùc noùi); sau caâu meänh leänh, ñeà nghò. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: now, right now, at the moment, at present, … Ex: What are you doing at the moment? - I’m writing a letter. Be quiet! My mother is sleeping. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ ñöôïc leân keá hoaïch thöïc hieän trong töông lai gaàn. Ex: What are you doing tonight? - I am going to the cinema with my father. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng nhaát thôøi khoâng keùo daøi laâu, thöôøng duøng vôùi today, this week, this month, these days, … Ex: What is your daughter doing these days? Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 1 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - She is studying English at the foreign language center. 3) Nhöõng ñoäng töø khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì HTTD: 3.1 Ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan: hear, see, smell, taste 3.2 Ñoäng töø chæ tình caûm, caûm xuùc: love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish 3.3 Ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi, söï lieân heä, sôû höõu: look, seem, appear, have, own, belong to, need, … 3.4 Ñoäng töø chæ sinh hoaït trí tueä: agree, understand, remember, know, … III- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (Present Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm. Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, coøn keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi. Ex: My friend Nam has lived in HCMC since 1998. 2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng vöøa môùi xaûy ra. Ex: I have just finished my homework. 2.4 Trong caáu truùc: Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed Be + the ss nhaát + N + S + have/has + V3/ed Ex: This is the first time I have been to Paris. She is the most honest person I have ever met. 3) Caùc traïng töø thöôøng duøng vôùi thì HTHT: just (vöøa môùi), recently/lately (gaàn ñaây), ever (ñaõ töøng), never (chöa bao giôø), yet (chöa), already (roài), since (töø khi – moác thôøi gian), for (khoaûng), so far/until now/up to now/up to the present (cho ñeán baây giôø) IV- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Present Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + have/has+ been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + have/has + not + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Have/Has + S + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 2 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Thì HTHTTD ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû: * Haønh ñoäng baét ñaàu trong quaù khöù vaø keùo daøi LIEÂN TUÏC ñeán hieän taïi vaø coøn tieáp dieãn ñeán töông lai, thöôøng duøng vôùi How long, since vaø for. Ex: How long have you been waiting for her? - I have been waiting for her for an hour. * HTHT: haønh ñoäng hoaøn taát HTHTTD: haønh ñoäng coøn tieáp tuïc V- Quaù khöù ñôn (Simple Past): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + V2/ed; S + was/were - Caâu phuû ñònh S + did + not + V; S + was/were + not - Caâu hoûi Did + S + V?; Was/Were + S? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöù vôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, last week/month/year, in the past, in 1990, … Ex: Uncle Ho passed away in 1969. VI- Quaù khöù tieáp dieãn (Past Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + was/were + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + was/were + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Was/Were + S + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra (vaø keùo daøi) vaøo moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong quaù khöù. Ex: She was studying her lesson at 7 last night. What were you doing from 3pm to 6pm yesterday? - I was practising English at that time. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (V-ing) ôû quaù khöù thì coù moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xen vaøo (V2/ed). Ex: He was sleeping when I came. While my mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang. 2.3 Hai haønh ñoäng dieãn ra song song cuøng luùc trong quaù khöù. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 3 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: While I was doing my homework, my younger brother was playing video games. VII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh (Past Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had+ not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Had + S + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù (haønh ñoäng tröôùc duøng HAD + V3/ed, haønh ñoäng sau duøng V2/ed). Ex: We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night. Lucie had learned English before she came to England. 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù. Ex: By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years. (Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.) 3) Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc töø, ngöõ sau ñaây: * After, before, when, as, once Ex: When I got to the station, the train had already left. * No sooner … than (vöøa môùi … thì) Hardly/Scarely … when (vöøa môùi … thì) Ex: He had no sooner returned from abroad than he fell ill. ---> No sooner had he returned from abroad than he fell ill. (Anh aáy vöøa môùi trôû veà töø nöôùc ngoaøi thì ñaâm ra beänh.) * It was not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) Ex: It was not until I had met her that I understood the problem. ---> Not until I had met her did I understand the problem. (Maõi tôùi khi toâi gaëp coâ ta, toâi môùi hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà.) VIII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Past Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + had + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + had + not + been + V-ing Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 4 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Caâu hoûi Had + S + been + not + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng cho ñeán khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù. Ex: When she arrived, I had been waiting for three hours. IX- Töông lai ñôn (Simple Future): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + V - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + V - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + V? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai. Ex: I will call you tomorrow. 2.2 Moät quyeát ñònh ñöa ra vaøo luùc noùi. Ex: It’s cold. I’ll shut the window. 2.3 Moät quyeát taâm, lôøi höùa, ñeà nghò, yeâu caàu. Ex: I will lend you the money. Will you marry me? 2.4 Moät tieân ñoaùn, döï baùo trong töông lai. Ex: People will travel to Mars one day. 3) Moät soá traïng töø chæ thôøi gian thöôøng gaëp: tomorrow, tonight, next week/month/year, some day, in the future, … * LÖU YÙ: Caùch duøng cuûa be going to + V: + Dieãn taû yù ñònh (khoâng coù trong keá hoaïch) Ex: I have saved some money. I am going to buy a new computer. (Toâi ñaõ ñeå daønh ñöôïc moät ít tieàn. Toâi ñònh mua moät maùy vi tính môùi.) + Dieãn taû moät döï ñoaùn coù caên cöù Ex: Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain. (Haõy nhìn nhöõng ñaùm maây ñoù kìa. Trôøi saép möa.) X- Töông lai tieáp dieãn (Future Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + be + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing? Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 5 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ ñang dieãn ra ôû moät thôøi ñieåm hay moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. Ex: This time next week I will be playing tennis. We’ll be working hard all day tomorrow. XI- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh (Future Perfect): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + V3/ed - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + V3/ed? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû: 2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai. Ex: It’s now 7pm. I will have finished teaching this class by 8.30. (Baây giôø laø 7 giôø toái. Toâi seõ daïy xong lôùp naøy luùc 8g30.) 2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By the time you come back, I will have written this letter. (Vaøo luùc anh trôû laïi, toâi seõ vieát xong laù thö naøy.) * Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng By + time (By then, By the time, By the end of this week/month/year). XII- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Future Perfect Continuous): 1) Caùch thaønh laäp: - Caâu khaúng ñònh S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing - Caâu phuû ñònh S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing - Caâu hoûi Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing? 2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng so vôùi moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù hoaëc haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai. Ex: By next month, he will have been working in the office for ten years. When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for four years. All things are difficult before they are easy. Vaïn söï khôûi ñaàu nan. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 6 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG I- Caùc böôùc ñoåi caâu chuû ñoäng sang caâu bò ñoäng: 1) Xaùc ñònh S, V, O trong caâu chuû ñoäng (V coù theå laø ñôn hoaëc keùp. Neáu laø V keùp thì V cuoái cuøng-V chính- ñöôïc ñoåi thaønh V3/ed.) 2) Xaùc ñònh thì cuûa ñoäng töø 3) Ñem O trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm S trong caâu bò ñoäng, ñem S trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm O trong caâu bò ñoäng 4) Laáy V chính trong caâu chuû ñoäng ñoåi thaønh V3/ed roài theâm BE thích hôïp tröôùc V3/ed 5) Ñaët BY tröôùc O trong caâu bò ñoäng Ex: (A) The cat ate the mouse. by the cat. ---> (P) The mouse was eaten Trong (A), The cat laø S, ate laø V chính, the mouse laø O. Ñem the mouse laøm S vaø the cat laøm O trong (P). Laáy V chính ñoåi thaønh V3 laø eaten. Do V chính trong (A) ôû thì quaù khöù ñôn vaø The mouse trong (P) soá ít neân BE phaûi laø was. Ñaët by tröôùc the cat. * Caáu truùc cô baûn cuûa caâu bò ñoäng laø BE + V3/ed. Sau khi laøm xong, caàn kieåm tra laïi coù thieáu moät trong hai yeáu toá ñoù khoâng. II- Ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: Tenses Simple present Simple past Present continuous Past continuous Present perfect Past perfect Simple future Examples Lan cleans the floor every morning. --> The floor is cleaned by Lan every morning. Nam broke the glasses. --> The glasses were broken by Nam. The pupil is not doing some exercises. --> Some exercises are not being done by the pupil. Mother was cooking dinner at 6 yesterday. --> Dinner was being cooked by mother at 6 yesterday. The secretary has just finished the report. --> The report has just been finished by the secretary. The boy had found the key before 9 yesterday. --> The key had been found by the boy before 9 yesterday. Mr. Brown will not teach our class. --> Our class will not be taught by Mr. Brown. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 7 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Future perfect The students will have written many compositions. --> Many compositions will have been written by the students. a) The students must do this exercise in class. Modal --> This exercise must be done in class by the students. b) We ought to overcome these difficulties. verbs --> These difficulties ought to be overcome. III- Moät soá ñieåm caàn löu yù: 1) Caâu hoûi chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng: (A) Did your father make this chair? ---> (P) Was this chair made by your father? (A) Who repaired your bicycle? ---> (P) Whom was your bicycle repaired by? (By whom was your bicycle repaired?) (A) What plays did Shakespeare write? ---> (P) What plays were written by Shakespeare? 2) Löôïc boû tuùc töø trong caâu bò ñoäng: Neáu chuû töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng KHOÂNG chæ roõ laø ngöôøi hay vaät cuï theå, roõ raøng (people, someone, every one, no one, any one, I, we, you, they, s/he, it) thì khi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng (by people /someone / every one / no one / any one / me / us / you / them / her / him / it) coù theå ñöôïc boû ñi. Ex: (A) People built that bridge in 1998. ---> (P) That bridge was built in 1998. 3) Ñoäng töø coù hai tuùc töø: 3.1 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø TO: give, lend, send, show, … (A) John will give me this book. (=John will give this book to me.) ---> (P1) I will be given this book by John. ---> (P2) This book will be given to me by John. 3.2 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø FOR: buy, make, get, … (A) He bought her a rose. (=He bought a rose for her.) ---> (P1) She was bought a rose. ---> (P2) A rose was bought for her. 4) Moät soá daïng bò ñoäng khaùc: 4.1 Caáu truùc They/People say/think/believe… that … - (A) People say that Henry eats ten eggs a day. ---> (P1) It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 8 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> (P2) Henry is said to eat ten eggs a day. - (A) They thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P1) It was thought that Mary had gone away. ---> (P2) Mary was thought to have gone away. 4.2 Caáu truùc HAVE / GET + something + V3/ed - (A) I had him repair my car. ---> (P) I had my car repaired (by him). - (A) I get her to make some coffee. ---> (P) I get some coffee made (by her). Time is gold. Thôøi gian laø vaøng. Baøi 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ I- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá ít hoaëc danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: - Mary lives in China. - Milk is my favorite drink. 2) Danh töø taän cuøng baèng “S” mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics (maths), economics, linguistics, politics, statistics, physics, phonetics, aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, measles, mumps, rickets, diabetes, the Philippines, the United States, … - The news is interesting. 3) Ñaïi töø baát ñònh: every/any/no/some + body/one/thing - Someone is kbocking at the door. 4) Meänh ñeà baét ñaàu baèng THAT/WHAT/WHERE/WHEN… hoaëc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng TO V/V-ing: - That you get high marks does not surprise me. - To master English is not easy. - Growing flowers was her hobby when she was young. 5) Töø chæ thôøi gian, khoaûng caùch, tieàn baïc, ño löôøng, theå tích: - Eight hours of sleep a day is enough. - Five kilometers is not a long distance. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 9 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - Twenty dollars is too much to pay for that stuff. 6) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá ít: - Each of the children has a toy. - One of my friends is coming. II- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu: Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu. 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu: - Engineers are key figures in our life. 2) Caùc danh töø khaùc nhau keát hôïp baèng AND: - Scientists and engineers are very important. 3) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá nhieàu: - Most of the students here work very hard. - Some books I read last week are written by a famous writer. 4) Danh töø luoân ôû daïng soá nhieàu: people, police, cattle, poultry, military, goods, clothes, scissors, glasses,… - The police have arrested the robbers. - Sun glasses are used to protect your eyes from the sunlight. * Chuù yù: A pair of scissors is helpful in this case. 5) The + Adj chæ danh töø soá nhieàu: the rich/poor, the young/old/elderly, the homeless, the handicapped, the blind/deaf/mute, the English/Chinese/Vietnamese,… - The poor have many problems. III- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp caàn löu yù: 1) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi as well as, with, along with hoaëc together with, ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø thöù nhaát. - The students, as well as their teacher, have not come yet. - The teacher, as well as his students, has not come yet. 2) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi either … or, neither … nor, hoaëc not only … but also ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø gaàn nhaát. - Neither she nor her friends have arrived. - Not only the dogs but also the cat is mine. 3) A number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá nhieàu, The number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá ít: - A number of applicants have been interviewed. (Nhieàu) - The number of days in a week is seven. (Soá löôïng) Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 10 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 4) Chuû töø laø danh töø taäp hôïp: family, class, crowd, group, club, association, company, team, … 4.1 Xem nhö MOÄT ÑÔN VÒ - ñoäng töø soá ít: - My family has three members. 4.2 Ñeà caäp ñeán TÖØNG CAÙ NHAÂN - ñoäng töø soá nhieàu: - My family were watching TV at 7 yesterday. Health is better than wealth. Söùc khoeû laø vaøng. Baøi 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP I- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì HIEÄN TAÏI hoaëc TÖÔNG LAI, ta chæ ñoåi NGOÂI nhö sau: 1) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù NHAÁT phuø hôïp vôùi CHUÛ TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 2) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù HAI phuø hôïp vôùi TUÙC TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính 3) Ngoâi thöù BA khoâng ñoåi Ex: He says to me, “I and you will go with her father tomorrow.” ---> He tells me (that) he and I will go with her father tomorrow. * Chuù yù: say to ---> tell II- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù: Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù, ta ñoåi ba yeáu toá laø ngoâi, thì cuûa ñoäng töø vaø traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán. 1) Ngoâi: (nhö treân) 2) Thì cuûa ñoäng töø: V1 ---> V2/ed shall ---> should V2/ed ---> had + V3/ed may ---> might can ---> could must ---> had to will ---> would 3) Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán: today ---> that day next week ---> the week after tonight ---> that night tomorrow ---> the day after now ---> then this ---> that ago ---> before these ---> those yesterday ---> the day before here ---> there last week ---> the week before Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 11 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: She said to me, “I met your brother yesterday.” ---> She told me that she had met my brother the day before. III- Caùc daïng caâu töôøng thuaät: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø said/told. Ex1: He said, “I have seen her today.” ---> He said (that) he had seen her that day. Ex2: The teacher said to Peter, “The prize was not given to you.” ---> The teacher told Peter (that) the prize had not been given to him. * Chuù yù: said to ---> told 2) Caâu hoûi: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø asked/wondered/wanted to know (hoûi/töï hoûi/muoán bieát). 2.1 Y/N: Ex1: She asked me, “Do you like him?” ---> She asked me if I liked him. Ex2: He said, “Can you speak English, Nam?” ---> He asked Nam whether he could speak English. 2.2 WH-: Ex1: He said, “What is her name?” ---> He asked what her name was. Ex2: She said to him, “Where do you live?” ---> She asked him where he lived. * Chuù yù traät töï cuûa S vaø V: Caâu hoûi tröïc tieáp ---> Caâu hoûi giaùn tieáp - Y/N: “V + S?” if/whether + S + V - WH-: “WH- + V + S?” WH- + S + V * said to ---> asked 3) Caâu meänh leänh: Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø told/asked/ordered (baûo/yeâu caàu/ra leänh). 3.1 Khaúng ñònh: Ex: The teacher said, “Go to the board, John.” ---> The teacher told John to go to the board. 3.2 Phuû ñònh: Ex: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t shut the door.” Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 12 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy ---> Nam asked his friend not to shut the door. Many a little makes a mickle. Goùp gioù thaønh baõo. I- Baøi 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC Caâu ñieàu kieän: 1) Ba loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän: 1.1 Loaïi moät: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex: If it rains heavily, I will stay at home. 1.2 Loaïi hai: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai. Ex1: I would buy a new bicycle if I had enough money. (Hieän taïi toâi khoâng coù ñuû tieàn.) Ex2: If I were a king, you would be a queen. (Toâi khoâng theå laø vua.) 1.3 Loaïi ba: Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû quaù khöù. Ex: If John had worked harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam. (Söï thaät laø John ñaõ khoâng chaêm chæ vaø ñaõ thi rôùt.) 2) Toùm taét coâng thöùc: Loaïi IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE 1 V1(s/es) will/can/may… + V 2 V2/ed/WERE would/could/should… + V 3 had +V3/ed would/could/should…+ have + V3/ed 3) Nhöõng ñieåm caàn löu yù: 4.1 “If … not” coù theå ñöôïc thay baèng “UNLESS” (tröø phi): Ex: We will be late if we don’t hurry. ---> We will be late unless we hurry. Ex: If I have time, I’ll help you. ---> Unless I have time, I won’t help you. 4.2 Boû IF trong 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän (phaûi coù ñaûo ngöõ vôùi SHOULD/WERE/HAD): Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 13 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: If it should be necessary, I will go. ---> Should it be necessary, I will go. Ex: If I were rich, I would buy a new car. ---> Were I rich, I would buy a new car. Ex: If you had asked me, I would have told you the answer. ---> Had you asked me, I would have told you the answer. 4.3 Moät soá töø/cuïm töø coù theå thay cho IF vôùi nghóa töông ñöông: provided that/so(as) long as (mieãn laø)/in case (trong tröôøng hôïp)/on condition that (vôùi ñieàu kieän) Ex: You can borrow my book provided that you bring it back. II- Caâu ao öôùc: WISH (öôùc)/IF ONLY(giaù maø) 1) Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: V2/ed/WERE - I wish Peter were here now. (He isn’t here now.) - If only I had more money. 2) Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: WOULD + V - She wishes Tom would be here tomorrow. - If only Tom would be here tomorrow. 3) Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: HAD + V3/ed - We wish she had passed her exam last year. - If only you hadn’t told Peter about our plan. Where there’s a will there’s a way. Coù chí thì neân. Baøi 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ Moät soá töø/cuïm töø sau khi ñaët ñaàu caâu caàn ñaûo ngöõ: 1) Nhöõng traïng töø coù nghóa phuû ñònh hoaëc gaàn phuû ñònh: never, no longer, nowhere else, rarely, seldom, little, not until - He knows little about what she has done. ---> Little does he know about what she has done. - She is not only beautiful, but she is also very intelligent. ---> Not only is she beautiful, but she is also very intelligent. 2) Caùc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng AT, IN, ON, UNDER: - At no time was Tom aware of what was happening. - In no circumstances would I agree such a proposal. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 14 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 3) Caâu dieàu kieän löôïc boû IF: (xem Baøi 5, I, 3.2) - If anyone asks me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. ---> Should anyone ask me, please tell them I will be away for a few days. - If I knew him better, I would give him advice. ---> Did I know him better, I would give him advice. 4) SO/SUCH: - I am a student, so is she. - The day was so hot that we had to stay indoors. ---> So hot was the day that we had to stay indoors. - It is such a good book that I can’t put it down. ---> Such a good book is it that I can’t put it down. 5) ONLY when/after/by/then/if … - Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work. - Only by working harder will you pass your final exam. 6) HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY … WHEN; NO SOONER … THAN: - Hardly had I arrived home when I had a new problem. - No sooner had she handed in her paper than she realized her careless mistakes. Necessity is the mother of invention. Caùi khoù loù caùi khoân. Baøi 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG VI- Töø chæ soá löôïng lôùn/nhoû: 1) A lot of, lots of, many, much: (nhieàu) - A lot of, lots of + danh töø soá nhieàu/danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc trong caâu khaúng ñònh Ex: He has a lot of / lots of friends here. We need a lot of / lots of time to learn a foreign language. - Many, much: duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán. MANY + danh töø soá nhieàu MUCH + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: There aren’t many people living here. Does the newspaper have much information? - Many, much sau VERY, SO, TOO, AS: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 15 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: Very many crimes go unreported. We had so many exercises to do. There is too much salt in the soup. He hasn’t got as much patience as I thought. 2) A few, a little / few, little: (moät vaøi, moät ít / (raát) ít) - A few, a little: duøng vôùi nghóa xaùc ñònh A few + danh töø soá nhieàu A little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: We’ve got a little bacon and a few eggs. - Few, little: duøng vôùi nghóa phuû ñònh Few + danh töø soá nhieàu Little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: Few people can say that they always tell the truth. There is little sugar in my coffee. 3) A large number of, a great deal of/a large amount of: (soá löôïng lôùn) - A large numer of + danh töø soá nhieàu Ex: He has a large number of English books. * A number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá nhieàu The number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá ít (xem ví duï Baøi 3, III,3) - A great deal of + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc Ex: A dishwasher uses a great deal of electricity. VII- Töø chæ soá löôïng toaøn theå/boä phaän: 1) All, most, some, any, no: - Vôùi danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu vaø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: My brother likes all music. Ex: All rabbits love green food. Most students love football. Most pollution can be avoided. I’ve just bought some books. Would you like some beer? She didn’t have any friends. Have you got any wood? We have no Sundays free. I have no time to talk to you. * SOME duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. ANY duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø caâu hoûi. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N (ít/nhieàu) Ex: Most of my students like English. Some of the food is delicious. - Vôùi caáu truùc OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them/it) Ex: Some of you have made careless mistakes in your tests. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 16 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * Khoâng duøng caáu truùc NO OF + … 2) Every, each, both, either, neither: - Every, each + N ñeám ñöôïc soá ít (haøm yù taát caû hoaëc moãi moät ngöôøi/vaät trong nhoùm) Ex: Every/Each room has a number. I go for walk every day. (moãi ngaøy) Each day seems to pass very slowly. (töøng ngaøy) - Each of + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Each of the students has a personal computer. - Each of + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Each of us has our own desk. - Each ñöùng moät mình hoaëc ñi sau ñaïi töø Ex: They gave us each an English book. Each has an English book. - Both, either, neither + N (ñi vôùi hai ngöôøi hoaëc hai vaät) Ex: Both his parents are from Europe. You can read either book. (one of 2 books) Neither car is very economical to run. (2 cars) - Both, either, neither + OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu Ex: Both of his parents are from Europe. You can read either of the books. Neither of the cars is/are very economical to run. - Both, either, neither + OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them) Ex: Both of us were tired. Beauty is but skin-deep. Caùi neát ñaùnh cheát caùi ñeïp. Baøi 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ VI- Meänh ñeà tính töø: Meänh ñeà tính töø hay meänh ñeà quan heä ñöôïc ñaët sau danh töø noù phuï nghóa, ñöôïc noái baèng caùc töø quan heä: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, WHOSE, WHERE, WHY, WHEN. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 17 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy DANH TÖØ CHUÛ TÖØ TUÙC TÖØ SÔÛ HÖÕU Ngöôøi WHO/THAT WHO(M)/THAT WHOSE Vaät/Ñ.vaät WHICH/THAT WHICH/THAT WHOSE/OF WHICH Nôi choán WHERE Lyù do WHY Thôøi gian WHEN Ex: - The woman who/that is standing over there is my sister. - I know the boy who(m)/that I spoke to. - She works for a company which/that makes cars. - The girl whose photo was in the paper lives in our street. - John found a cat whose leg/the leg of which was broken. - The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. - Tell me the reason why you are so sad. - Do you remember the day when we first met? 1) Meänh ñeà quan heä haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính seõ khoâng roõ nghóa. Ex: I saw the girl. She helped us last week. ---> I saw the girl who/that helped us last week. 2) Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh: Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc, laø phaàn giaûi thích theâm. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính vaãn roõ nghóa. Meänh ñeà naøy thöôøng ñöôïc taùch khoûi meänh ñeà chính baèng daáu phaåy “,”. Ta duøng meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh khi: - Tröôùc danh töø quan heä coù: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/… - Töø quan heä laø teân rieâng hoaëc danh töø rieâng. Ex: My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old. ---> My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor. Mr Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him. ---> Mr Brown, who(m) we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT trong meänh ñeà naøy. Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. 3) Giôùi töø ñaët tröôùc meänh ñeà tính töø: (WHOM/WHICH) Ex: The man speaks English very fast. I talked to him last night. ---> The man to whom I last night speaks English very fast. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 18 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy The house is for sale. I was born in it. ---> The house in which I was born is for sale. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT, WHO sau giôùi töø. The house in that I was born is for sale. 4) Ñaïi töø quan heä THAT: 1.1 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp thöôøng duøng THAT: - Sau cuïm töø quan heä vöøa chæ ngöôøi vaø vaät: Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London. - Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting. - Sau caùc tính töø so saùnh nhaát, ALL, EVERY, VERY, ONLY: Ex: This is the most beautiful dress that I have. All that is mine is yours. You are the only person that can help us. - Trong caáu truùc It + be + … + that … (chính laø …) Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence. (Chính laø baïn toâi ñaõ vieát caâu naøy.) 1.2 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp khoâng duøng THAT: - Trong meänh ñeà tính töø khoâng haïn ñònh (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 2)) - Sau giôùi töø (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 3)) 5) OF WHICH / OF WHOM: Ex: Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers. ---> Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers. He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. ---> He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. 6) Ruùt goïn meänh ñeà tính töø thaønh cuïm tính töø: 1.1 Duøng V-ing hoaëc boû BE: Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå CHUÛ ÑOÄNG hoaëc laø BE. Ex: Those people who are taking photos over there come from Sweden. ---> Those people taking photos over there come from Sweden. Fans who want to buy tickets started queuing early. ---> Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. The books which are on that shelf are mine. ---> The books on that shelf are mine. 1.2 Duøng V3/ed: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 19 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå BÒ ÑOÄNG. Ex: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. ---> The books written by To Hoai are interesting. Most students who were punished last week are lazy. ---> Most students punished last week are lazy. 1.3 Duøng (FOR + O) TO V: Ex: This is the hotel where we can stay. ---> This is the hotel (for us) to stay. VII- Meänh ñeà traïng töø: 1) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nôi choán: where (nôi, choã) hoaëc wherever (baát cöù nôi naøo) Ex: He told me where he had seen the money. I will go wherever you go. 2) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ theå caùch: as (nhö), as if/as though (nhö theå) Ex: We should do as our teacher tells us. She looks as if she’s going to cry. * Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi as if/as though + S + WERE/V2/ed Ex: He looked at me as if I were mad. * Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù as if/as though + S + had + V3/ed Ex: He ran as if he had seen a ghost. 3) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nguyeân nhaân / lyù do: because, since, as (bôûi vì) Ex: She sold the car because she needed some money. * So saùnh because vaø because of: BECAUSE + S + V BECAUSE OF + V-ing/N/N phrase Ex: I’m late because I’m sick. I’m late because of being sick. I’m late because of my sickness. 4) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ muïc ñích: so that/in order that (ñeå) + S + (can/could) + V Ex: She wants to stay here so that she can perfect her English. 5) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 20 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy when (khi), as (khi/trong khi), while (trong khi), after (sau khi), before (tröôùc khi), until/till (cho tôùi khi), since (töø khi), as soon as (ngay khi), whenever (baát cöù khi naøo), no sooner … than/ hardly … when (vöøa môùi … thì) Ex: When it rains, I usually go to school by bus. We should do a good deed whenever we can. * Ñaûo ngöõ vôùi no sooner … than/ hardly … when (xem Baøi 1, III, 3) * KHOÂNG duøng thì TÖÔNG LAI trong meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian. I’ll tell you the news when I will come. * Thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong MÑ chính vaø MÑ traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Meänh ñeà chính Meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian - Present - Present - Past - Past - Future - Present 6) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ keát quaû: - so + adj/adv + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …) Ex: The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it. - such (+ a(n)) + adj + Noun + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …) Ex: It was such a hot day that we stopped playing. They are such interesting books that I want to buy them all. - so + many/much/few/little + Noun + that … (quaù nhieàu/ít…ñeán noãi…) Ex: There are so many people in the room that I feel tired. 7) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ söï nhöôïng boä: though/although/even though (maëc duø) + S + V Ex: Though he looks ill, he is really strong. * LÖU YÙ: - in spite of/despite (maëc duø) + V-ing/N/N phrase Ex: In spite of having little money, they always enloy themselves. (Although they have little money, they always enloy themselves.) - in spite of/despite + the fact that (maëc duø) + S + V Ex: Despite the fact that they have little money, they’re always happy. - no matter where = wherever (duø baát cöù ñaâu) Ex: No matter where you go, you need to have friends. Diligence is the mother of success. Coù coâng maøi saét coù ngaøy neân kim Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 21 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO” I- DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ: (Gerund) Ex: She enjoys listening to music. V + V-ing (Gerund) Moät soá töø/ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù V-ing theo sau: * enjoy (thích, thöôûng thöùc), finish (hoaøn thaønh), postpone (trì hoaõn), avoid (traùnh), keep (vaãn coøn), practise (thöïc haønh), miss (boû lôõ), be/get used to (quen vôùi), spend (tieâu xaøi, traûi qua), allow/permit (cho pheùp), advise (khuyeân), recommend (ñeà nghò, khuyeân baûo), give up (töø boû, ñaàu haøng), suggest (ñeà nghò), deny (töø choái), consider (xem xeùt), quit (rôøi boû), dislike (khoâng thích), like (thích), can’t help (khoâng theå khoâng), … * it’s no use/good (khoâng lôïi ích gì), would you mind (baïn coù phieàn) * worth (ñaùng, ñaùng ñöôïc), busy (baän roän) II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO”: Ex: I want to learn English well. V + TO V Moät soá ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù to V theo sau: want (muoán), expect (mong chôø, kyø voïng), refuse (töø choái), hope (hy voïng), decide (quyeát ñònh), agree (ñoàng yù), plan (döï ñònh), would like (muoán), like (muoán), fail (thaát baïi, hoûng), learn (hoïc), afford (coù ñuû khaû naêng/ñieàu kieän), manage (xoay sôû), choose (choïn löïa), demand (ñoøi hoûi, yeâu caàu), prepare (chuaån bò), pretend (giaû boä), promise (höùa), seek (tìm kieám), threaten (ñe doaï), train (ñaøo taïo, huaán luyeän), wish (ao öôùc), … III- TO INFINITIVE OR GERUND? 1) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau khoâng laøm thay ñoåi nghóa: begin/start (baét ñaàu), continue (tieáp tuïc), hate (gheùt), can’t bear (khoâng chòu ñöôïc), intend (döï ñònh), love (yeâu thöông), prefer (thích…hôn), hesitate (do döï), … 2) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau laøm thay ñoåi nghóa: - stop + to V: döøng laïi ñeå laøm Ex: I stop to eat lunch. (Toâi döøng laïi ñeå aên tröa.) - stop + V-ing: döøng haønh ñoäng ñang laøm Ex: You should stop smoking. (Baïn neân boû huùt thuoác.) Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 22 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy - try + to V: coá gaéng Ex: He tries to get ten marks. (Anh ta coá gaéng ñaït möôøi ñieåm.) - try + V-ing: thöû Ex: She tried writing with her left hand. (Coâ ta thöû vieát baèng tay traùi.) - need + to V: caàn (nghóa chuû ñoäng) Ex: They need to work harder. (Hoï caàn laøm vieäc chaêm chæ hôn.) - need + V-ing: caàn ñöôïc (nghóa bò ñoäng) Ex: This room needs cleaning. (Caên phoøng naøy caàn lau chuøi.) - remember/forget + to V: nhôù/queân laøm ñieàu gì (chöa xaûy ra) Ex: Remember to post the letter when you get to the post office. (Nhôù gôûi laù thö khi baïn ñeán böu ñieän.) - remember/forget + V-ing: nhôù/queân ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: I will never forget seeing you here last year. (Toâi seõ khoâng bao giôø queân gaëp baïn taïi ñaây vaøo naêm roài.) - regret + to V: tieác phaûi laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng saép xaûy ra) Ex: I regret to tell you that you failed the exam. (Toâi laáy laøm tieác baùo cho anh hay anh ñaõ thi hoûng.) - regret + V-ing: tieác ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra) Ex: She regretted going to New York for holiday. (Coâ aáy tieác ñaõ ñi nghæ ôû New York.) * LÖU YÙ: Caáu truùc S + V + O + TO V vaø S + LET/MAKE + O + V Ex: I permit you to go out tonight. They let me visit my parents. Make haste slowly Duïc toác baát ñaït Baøi 10: TÖØ LOAÏI I- Danh töø: 1) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc: 1.1 Hình thöùc soá ít: a/an + N - “a” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät phuï aâm. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 23 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: a book, a pen, … - “an” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät nguyeân aâm. Ex: an apple, an orange, an egg, an umbrella, an island, … 1.2 Hình thöùc soá nhieàu: 1.2.1 Hôïp quy taéc: Ns/es Ex: books, pens, boxes 1.2.2 Baát quy taéc: Soá ít Soá nhieàu Soá ít Soá nhieàu a man men a foot feet a woman women a tooth teeth a child children a bacterium bacteria a person people a curriculum curricula a mouse mice a datum data a louse lice a criterion criteria a goose geese a phenomenon phenomena 1.2.3 Danh töø luoân coù hình thöùc vaø mang nghóa soá nhieàu: clothes, scissors, spectacles, shorts, pants, jeans, trousers, pyjamas, binoculars, belongings, … 1.2.4 Danh töø soá ít vaø soá nhieàu coù hình thöùc gioáng nhau: sheep, deer, aircraft, craft, fish, … 1.2.5 Danh töø luoân mang nghóa soá nhieàu: (xem Baøi 3, II, 4) police, cattle, people, … 1.2.6 Danh töø coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu nhöng mang nghóa soá ít: news, mathematics, the United States, … (xem Baøi 3, I, 2) 2) Danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Laø nhöõng thöù ta khoâng theå ñeám ñöôïc tröïc tieáp (moät, hai, ba, …) nhö milk, water, rice, sugar, butter, salt, bread, news, information, advice, luggage, health, knowledge, equipment, iron, paper, glass, … (one milk, two milk) * Chuù yù: - Khoâng coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu (s/es) - Khoâng duøng vôùi a/an/one/two… - Coù theå ñi vôùi töø chæ dôn vò ñònh löôïng + of: a bottle of milk, two litters of water, a loaf of bread, three sheets of paper, four pieces of chalk, a bar of chocolate, a gallon of petrol, … 3) Danh töø vöøa ñeám ñöôïc vöøa khoâng ñeám ñöôïc: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 24 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Moät soá danh töø trong tröôøng hôïp naøy laø ñeám ñöôïc nhöng trong tröôøng hôïp khaùc laïi khoâng ñeám ñöôïc. Ñeám ñöôïc Khoâng ñeám ñöôïc a glass (moät caùi li) glass (thuûy tinh) two papers (hai tôø baùo) paper (giaáy) three coffees (ba taùch caø pheâ) coffee (caø pheâ) two sugars (hai muoãng ñöông) sugar (ñöôøng) II- Tính töø: 2) Vò trí cuûa tính töø: 6.1 Tröôùc danh töø: Ex: She is a beautiful girl. 6.2 Sau danh töø: g) Chæ söï ño löôøng, tuoåi taùc: Ex: This table is two meters long. He’s twenty years old. h) Tính töø coù tieáp ñaàu ngöõ “a”: asleep (ñang nguû), ablaze (buøng chaùy), alight (böøng saùng), awake (thöùc), alive (coøn soáng), alike (gioáng nhau), afloat (noåi), … Ex: I saw my son asleep on the floor. i) Tính töø boå ngöõ cho tuùc töø: Ex: We should keep our room clean. 6.3 Sau Linking verbs: be, become, feel, look, taste, sound, smell, seem, get, turn, appear Ex: It becomes hot today. 6.4 Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh: something, someone/body, anything, anyone/body, everything, everyone/body, nothing, no one, nobody Ex: Do you have anything important to tell me? 6.5 Sau traïng töø: Ex: Your story is very interesting. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc tính töø tröôùc danh töø: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 25 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy TÍNH TÖØ SÖÏ THAÄT Hình Maøu saéc daïng YÙ KIEÁN nice, Kích Tuoåi Quoác Chaát good, bad, thöôùc tòch/nôi lieäu ugly, choán beautiful big, old, fat, thin, white, Vietnamese, wooden, small, young round black English, golden tall French Ex: A beautiful tall thin Vietnamese girl is standing over there. 4) Tính töø duøng nhö danh töø: (xem theâm Baøi 3, II, 5) THE + ADJ ---> NOUN the poor, the rich, the blind, the deaf, the old, the handicapped, the sick, the strong, the weak, the hungry, the disadvantaged, the unemployed, the disabled, the living, the dead, the young, the middle-aged Ex: The rich should help the poor. 5) Phaân töø duøng nhö tính töø: Tính töø taän cuøng baèng –ING –ED –ING –ED amazing amazed exciting excited amusing amused frightening frightened boring bored interesting interested confusing confused pleasing pleased depressing depressed relaxing relaxed deserving deserved satisfying satisfied disappointing disappointed shocking shocked distinguishing distinguished surprising surprised encouraging encouraged tiring tired 1.1 Hình thöùc hieän taïi phaân töø (-ING): Dieãn taû nhaän thöùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi veà ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù. Ex: That film is interesting. (Boä phim ñoù hay.) (Ngöôøi xem nhaän thaáy boä phim hay.) He is boring. He always talks about the same things. (Haén ta chaùn thaät. Haén luoân baøn veà nhöõng thöù gioáng nhau.) (Ngöôøi nghe nhaän thaáy haén ta chaùn.) 1.2 Hình thöùc quaù khöù phaân töø (-ED): Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 26 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Dieãn taû caûm giaùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi do ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù ñem laïi. Ex: I am confused about the question. (Toâi bò boái roái veà caâu hoûi.) (Caâu hoûi laøm toâi boái roái.) III- Traïng töø: 1) Phaân loaïi traïng töø: 4.1 Traïng töø chæ theå caùch: - Cho ta bieát moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc thöïc hieän nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi HOW? - Caùch thaønh laäp: ADJ + LY (moät caùch …) angrily anxiously badly beautifully brightly carefully cleverly colorfully continuously easily fluently happily heavily loudly nervously giaän giöõ lo laéng dôû, teä (haùt/muùa) hay töôi saùng caån thaän kheùo leùo, khoân saëc sôõ lieân tieáp deã daøng troâi chaûy haïnh phuùc naëng neà aàm æ, inh oûi hoài hoäp peacefully politely quickly quietly rapidly safely sensibly seriously silently skillfully slowly specially stupidly successfully warmly hoaø bình lòch söï, leã pheùp nhanh nheïn yeân tónh nhanh choùng an toaøn hôïp lyù nghieâm tuùc im laëng kheùo tay chaäm chaïp ñaëc bieät ngu ngoác thaønh coâng aám aùp * LÖU YÙ: - fast (nhanh), early (sôùm), late (treã), hard (chaêm chæ) vöøa laø tính töø vöøa laø traïng töø. Tính töø Traïng töø Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast. Ann is hard worker. Ann works hard. (hardly) The train was late. I got up late this morning. - Phaân bieät: Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 27 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy late (treã) lately (gaàn ñaây) (= recently) You come home late today. He hasn’t been to the cinema lately. (Hoâm nay con veà treã.) (Gaàn ñaây anh ta khoâng ñi xem phim.) hard (chaêm chæ) hardly (haàu nhö khoâng) I’ve worked very hard. She’s hardly got any money left. (Toâi laøm vieäc raát chaêm.) (Coâ aáy haàu nhö khoâng coøn tieàn.) - Moät soá tính töø taän cuøng –LY: friendly (thaân thieän), lovely (deã thöông), lively (soáng ñoäng), ugly (xaáu xí), silly (ngôù ngaån). Nhöõng töø naøy khoâng phaûi laø traïng töø, neân ta duøng “in a ……way/manner” thay cho traïng töø. Ex: She spoke to me in a friendly way/manner. (Coâ ta noùi chuyeän vôùi toâi moät caùch thaân thieän.) 4.2 Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra luùc naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHEN? now, today, yesterday, tomorrow, last year, then, still, no longer, already, immediately, just, soon, finally, recently, lately, at once, 2 months later/after, … Ex: I’m leaving for Hanoi tomorrow. 4.3 Traïng töø chæ nôi choán: Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra ôû ñaâu ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHERE? here, there, somewhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs, everywhere, in Paris, at the supermarket, … Ex: Tom is standing there. 4.4 Traïng töø chæ söï thöôøng xuyeân: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng xaûy ra thöôøng xuyeân nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi HOW OFTEN? never, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, often, always, once/twice a week, every day, daily, weekly, monthly, … Ex: I often get up at 5 in the morning. 4.5 Traïng töø chæ möùc ñoä: Cho bieát haønh ñoäng, tính chaát cuûa söï vieäc dieãn ra ñeán möùc naøo. very, too, so, quite, rather, extremely, absolutely, terribly, completely, really, pretty, fairly, entirely, hardly, scarcely, somewhat, enough,… Ex: I come here quite often. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 28 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 2) Vò trí cuûa traïng töø: 2.1 Ñaàu caâu: Ex: Where are you going? 2.2 Giöõa caâu: 2.2.1 Tröôùc ñoäng töø thöôøng: Ex: They often play football after class. 2.2.2 Sau ñoäng töø TO BE, trôï ñoäng töø hoaëc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát: Ex: Our teacher is still sick. She doesn’t often go with him. He can seldom find time for reading. 2.3 Cuoái caâu: Ex: You sang that song well. 3) Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø: Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø trong caâu thöôøng nhö sau: Thöôøng Nôi choán Möùc ñoä Theå caùch Thôøi gian xuyeân He walked to the church very slowly twice last Sunday. * Chuù yù: Traät töï treân coù theå thay ñoåi tuyø vaøo muïc ñích nhaán maïnh cuûa ngöôøi noùi/vieát. 4) Chöùc naêng cô baûn cuûa traïng töø: Boå nghóa cho Ví duï* 1) Ñoäng töø They danced beautifully. 2) Tính töø She is very lovely. 3) Traïng töø khaùc He studied extremely hard. 4) Caû caâu Fortunately, he was not injured in that accident. * Phaàn in ñaäm, gaïch döôùi boå nghóa cho phaàn in nghieâng. IV- Giôùi töø: 1) Phaân loaïi giôùi töø: 1.1 Giôùi töø chæ nôi choán: IN, ON, AT a) IN (trong): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ moät ngöôøi hoaëc vaät ôû trong moät nôi naøo ñoù. in a box / room / building / park / garden / bag / pocket / kitchen / cinema / restaurant / book / lesson / newspaper / picture / pool / sea / river/ water / sky / world / queue / row / line … Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 29 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: My mother is cooking in the kitchen. - Vôùi phöông tieän xe hôi, taxi hoaëc ñöôøng phoá. in a car / taxi, in/on the street Ex: Peter arrived at the party in a taxi. They live in Hung Vuong Street. - Vôùi danh töø khoâng coù maïo töø ñeå dieãn taû moät ngöôøi ñang ôû taïi ñoù. in bed / hospital / prison Ex: Tom hasn’t got up yet. He’s still in bed. - Tröôùc caùc ñaát nöôùc, thaønh phoá, phöông höôùng. in Vietnam / England / France / Hanoi / London / Paris / the east / west / south / north Ex: Ho Chi Minh City is in the south of Vietnam. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. in the front/back of (a car/room/theater …), in the middle of (the room …) Ex: I was in the back of the car when the accident happened. There’s a computer in the middle of the room. b) ON (treân): ñöôïc duøng - Chæ vò trí beân treân vaø tieáp xuùc vôùi beà maët cuûa moät vaät gì ñoù. on the door / floor / wall / ceiling / river / beach / coast … on/in the street, on a page Ex: I sat on the beach. They live on Wall Street. The picture you’re looking for is on page 7. - Vôùi phöông tieän ñi laïi coâng coäng hoaëc caù nhaân (xe ñaïp, honda). on a bus/train/ship/plane/bycicle/motorbike/horse Ex: There were too many people on the bus. Mary passed me on her bycicle. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. on the right / left, on horseback, on the way to (school …) on the back/front of (the envelope/paper …) on top of (the wardrobe …) on/at the corner of a street Ex: In Britain people drive on the left. Write your name on the front of the envelope. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 30 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy c) AT (ôû): ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå dieãn taû moät vò trí ñöôïc xaùc ñònh trong khoâng gian hoaëc soá nhaø. at the door / bus stop / traffic lights / party / meeting / desk … at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street Ex: Someone is standing at the door. She lives at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street. - Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán. at home / school / college / university / work … at the top/bottom of (the page …) at the end of (the street …) at the front/back of (the line …) at/on the corner of the street Ex: Peter’s house is at the end of the street. The garden is at the back of the building. 1.2 Giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian: IN, ON, AT a) IN: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy noùi chung, thaùng, naêm, muøa, thaäp nieân, theá kyû, thieân nieân kyû. in the morning / afternoon / evening in February, in 1999 in (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter in the 1990s, in the 21st century, in the 3rd millennium - Trong moät soá cuïm töø ñeå chæ moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai. in a few minutes, in an hour, in a day / week / month … Ex: Daisy has gone away. She’ll be back in a week. (Daisy ñaõ ñi khoûi. Coâ aáy seõ trôû veà trong moät tuaàn.) - Trong cuïm töø in the end vôùi nghóa cuoái cuøng (finally, at last), in time vôùi nghóa kòp luùc. Ex: Peter got very angry. In the end, he walked out of the room. (Peter raát giaän. Cuoái cuøng, noù ra khoûi phoøng.) Will you be home in time for dinner? (Baïn seõ veà nhaø kòp giôø aên toái?) * Chuù yù: on time (ñuùng giôø) b) ON: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thöù trong tuaàn, ngaøy trong thaùng. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 31 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy on Monday, on 5th March, on this/that day Ex: I was born on 27th June, 1983. - Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy cuï theå hoaëc moät ngaøy cuï theå. on Friday morning / Christmas Day / New Year’s Day / my birthday Ex: See you on Friday morning. c) AT: ñöôïc duøng - Ñeå chæ thôøi gian, caùc böõa aên trong ngaøy. at 5 a.m., at sunrise / sunset / dawn / noon / twilight / night / midnight at breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper Ex: I get up at 5 o’clock every morning. - Ñeå chæ moät dòp leã hoäi, moät thôøi khaéc naøo ñoù. at/on the weekend, at Christmas / Easter at present / the moment / the same time / this (that) time Ex: Mr. Brown is busy at the moment. - Ñeå taïo thaønh caùc cuïm giôùi töø. at the end/beginning of, at the age of, at first/last Ex: He came to live in London at the age of 25. * LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng IN, ON, AT tröôùc all, every, this month/year, next, last, tomorrow, yesterday, today. Ex: He has worked hard all morning. (in all morning) I hope to see you next Friday. (on next Friday) * Caùc giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian khaùc: FROM … TO/UNTIL/TILL (töø … ñeán) (= BETWEEN … AND) Ex: Every morning he plays tennis from 6 to 7. (Every morning he plays tennis between 6 and 7.) SINCE (töø khi - moác thôøi gian) Ex: I’ve been waiting for her since 5pm. FOR (khoaûng) Ex: He has lived in Paris for three months. DURING (trong suoát) Ex: You have to be quiet during the performance. UNTIL/TILL (cho tôùi khi) Ex: She’ll be here until Thursday. BY (vaøo khoaûng - tröôùc hoaëc ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù) Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 32 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: You must be home by 9. BEFORE (tröôùc luùc) / AFTER (sau khi) Ex: Come and see me before / after lunch. 2) Giôùi töø theo sau tính töø: 1.1 Adj + TO acceptable: coù theå chaáp nhaän loyal: trung thaønh accustomed: quen lucky: may maén agreeable: coù theå ñoàng yù married: keát hoân applicable: coù theå öùng duïng open: môû appropriate: thích hôïp pleasant: vui contrary: traùi vôùi pleasing: laøm vui loøng dedicated: hieán daâng polite: lòch söï essential: caàn thieát preferable: thích hôn friendly (to/with): thaân thieän related: lieân quan generous: haøo phoùng rude: thoâ loã harmful: coù haïi similar: gioáng important: quan troïng strange: xa laï kind: töû teá subject: deã bò, khoù traùnh known: ñöôïc bieát ñeán true: trung thaønh likely: coù khaû naêng/coù theå thích hôïp 1.2 Adj + OF afraid: sôï full: ñaày aware: yù thöùc glad: vui möøng boastful: khoe khoang innocent: voâ toäi capable: coù khaû naêng jealous: ghen tò careful(of/with/about): caån thaän proud: töï haøo careless: baát caån sure(of/about): chaéc chaén certain: chaéc chaén thoughtful: chu ñaùo, aân caàn confident: tin Sthoughtless: khoâng chu ñaùo, aân caàn desirous: khao khaùt tolerant: khoan dung fond: thích worthy: xöùng ñaùng forgetful: queân 1.3 Adj + FOR anxious(for/about): lo aâu available: coù theå duøng ñöôïc appropriate: thích hôïp difficult: khoù Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 33 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT eager: haùo höùc, haêm hôû enough: ñuû famous: noåi tieáng good (for health/so.): toát grateful (for s.th.): bieát ôn late: treã necessary: caàn thieát 1.4 Adj + AT amazed(at/by): ngaïc nhieân angry (at/with s.o./to s.th.): giaän giöõ annoyed(at/by): böïc mình astonished(at/by): ngaïc nhieân bad(at s.th.): dôû clever: thoâng minh excellent: xuaát saéc 1.5 Adj + WITH acquainted: quen annoyed: giaän bored / fed up: chaùn covered: bao phuû crowded: ñoâng 1.6 Adj + IN honest: löông thieän interested: thích thuù proficient (at/in): thaønh thaïo 1.7 Adj + FROM absent: vaéng different: khaùc distinct: khaùc bieät 1.8 Adj + ABOUT confused: boái roái curious: toø moø, hieáu kyø enthusiastic: nhieät tình excited: höùng thuù 2 ) Giôùi töø theo sau ñoäng töø: Study, study more, study forever!!! Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy perfect: hoaøn haûo responsible: coù traùch nhieäm sorry: laáy laøm thöông haïi sufficent: ñaày ñuû suitable(for/to): thích hôïp useful: coù lôïi ích good (at s.th.): gioûi hopeless: voâ voïng present: coù maët quick: nhanh skilful: coù naêng khieáu disappointed: thaát voïng pleased: haøi loøng popular: noåi tieáng satisfied: thoaû maõn rich: giaøu successful: thaønh coâng weak: yeáu keùm free: ñöôïc mieãn safe: an toaøn separate: rieâng leû happy: vui veû sad: buoàn serious: ñöùng ñaén, nghieâm tuùc worried: boàn choàn, lo laéng Trang 34 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT accuse … of: buoäc toäi apologise to … for: xin loãi apologize for: xin loãi veà apply for: noäp ñôn xin vieäc arrive in/at: ñeán (nôi) ask … for: hoûi … cho believe in: tin töôûng vaøo belong to: thuoäc veà blame … for: ñoå loãi borrow … from: möôïn care about: quan taâm veà care for: chaêm soùc/thích/yeâu caàu charge … with: phaït come across: tình côø gaëp complain to … about: than phieàn concentrate on: taäp trung congratulate … on: chuùc möøng consist of: bao goàm crash into: va chaïm vaøo deal with: giaûi quyeát decide on: quyeát ñònh veà depend on: thuoäc vaøo die of: cheát vì divide into: chia (ra) dream of / about: mô veà escape from: thoaùt khoûi explain … to: giaûi thích feel like: caûm thaáy nhö happen to: xaûy ñeán hear about/from/of: nghe veà hope for: hi voïng veà insist on: khaêng khaêng invite … to: môøi laugh/smile at: cöôøi vaøo leave … for: rôøi … ñeå ñeán listen to: nghe Study, study more, study forever!!! Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy live on: soáng nhôø vaøo look after: chaêm soùc look around: nhìn quanh look at: nhìn look back on: nhìn veà quaù khöù look down on: khinh reû look for: tìm look forward to: mong ñôïi look into: ñieàu tra object to: phaûn ñoái participate in: tham gia vaøo pay for: traû tieàn cho point / aim at: chæ … vaøo prefer … to: thích … hôn prepare for: chuaån bò provide … with: cung caáp regard … as: coi … nhö rely … on: döïa vaøo remind … of: nhaéc nhôû result from: do bôûi result in: gaây ra run into: tình côø gaëp search for: tìm kieám send for: cho môøi (ai) ñeán shout at: la, heùt speak/talk to: noùi vôùi spend … on: chi tieâu … cho succeed in: thaønh coâng veà suffer from: ñau, chòu ñöïng take after: gioáng think about / of: nghó veà throw … at: neùm … vaøo translate … from … into:dòch…töø…sang wait for: chôø warn … about: caûnh baùo … veà write to: vieát thö cho Trang 35 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * LÖU YÙ: Ñoäng töø hai chöõ ñi vôùi GO go after: ñuoåi theo, theo sau go down: (giaù caû) giaûm (# go up) go ahead: tieán haønh, thaúng tieán go off: chaùy, noå go along: tieán trieån go on: xaûy ra, dieãn ra, tieáp tuïc go away: ñi khoûi go out: taét, bò daëp taét go back: trôû veà go over: xem xeùt, kieåm tra kyõ go by: (thôøi gian) troâi qua go with: hôïp vôùi 4) V + N + Giôùi töø: catch sight of: thoaùng thaáy make use of: söû duïng, taän duïng give place to: daønh choã cho pay attention to: chuù yù ñeán give way to: nhöôïng boä put a stop to: chaám döùt keep pace with: theo kòp put an end to: chaám döùt lose sight of: maát huùt set fire to: laøm chaùy, ñoát lose touch with: maát lieân laïc vôùi take account of: tính ñeán lose track of: queân maát take advantage of: lôïi duïng,taän duïng make allowance for: chieáu coá ñeán take care of: chaêm soùc make fun of: choïc gheïo, cheá nhaïo take note of: ghi chuù, ghi nhaän make a fuss over/about: laøm loän xoän take notice of: löu yù, ñeå yù make room for: nhöôøng choã cho Better than never. Thaø muoän coøn hôn khoâng Baøi 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ I- So saùnh baèng: 1) Caâu khaúng ñònh: as + adj/adv + as (baèng/nhö) Ex: I’m as tall as Tom. (Toâi cao baèng Tom.) John works as hard as his father. (John laøm vieäc chaêm chæ nhö cha cuûa anh aáy.) 2) Caâu phuû ñònh: not as/so + adj/adv + as (khoâng baèng/nhö) Ex: This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch) (Ñoàng hoà naøy khoâng ñaét nhö cuûa toâi.) She doesn’t sing as/so well as her sister. (Coâ aáy haùt khoâng hay baèng chò coâ aáy.) Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 36 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy * LÖU YÙ: - Khi so saùnh danh töø vôùi nghóa gioáng/baèng hay khoâng gioáng/khoâng baèng, ta coù theå duøng caáu truùc: (not) + the same + (noun) + as Ex: He is the same age as I am. (Anh ta baèng tuoåi toâi.) Ann’s salary isn’t the same as Jane’s. (Löông cuøa Ann khoâng baèng löông cuûa Jane.) - Coù theå duøng less + adj/adv + than (keùm … hôn) thay cho not as/so + adj/adv + as Ex: This watch is less expensive than mine. She sings less well than her sister. - Khi noùi gaáp bao nhieâu laàn, ta duøng caáu truùc … times as + adj/adv + as. Ex: Their house is three times as big as ours. (Nhaø cuûa hoï lôùn gaáp ba laàn nhaø chuùng ta.) II- So saùnh hôn: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER + than Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén laø töø coù moät vaàn hay hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng “y”. fast ---> faster cold ---> colder thick ---> thicker lucky ---> luckier happy ---> happier dry ---> drier … Ex: John is stronger than his brother. (John khoeû hôn anh cuûa caäu aáy.) This athlete runs faster than that one. 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more + adj/adv + than Tính töø/traïng töø daøi laø töø coù hai vaàn trôû leân. modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, … Ex: This problem is more difficult than we thought. (Vaán ñeà naøy khoù hôn chuùng ta nghó.) He speaks English more fluently than his friend. (Anh ta noùi tieáng Anh troâi chaûy hôn baïn cuûa anh ta.) III- So saùnh nhaát: 1) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: the + adj/adv + EST cold ---> the coldest thick ---> the thickest fast ---> fastest lucky ---> the luckiest happy ---> the happiest ….. Ex: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 37 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy (Hoâm qua laø ngaøy noùng nhaát trong naêm.) 2) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: the + MOST + adj/adv Ex: She is the most beautiful girl in the class. (Coâ aáy laø coâ gaùi ñeïp nhaát trong lôùp.) * LÖU YÙ: - Ta coù theå duøng the least ñeå chæ möùc ñoä keùm … nhaát. Ex: This story is the least interesting of all. (Ñaây laø caâu chuyeän keùm thuù vò nhaát trong caùc caâu chuyeän.) - Tính töø/traïng töø baát qui taéc Tính töø/traïng töø So saùnh hôn So saùnh nhaát good/well (toát) better the best bad/badly (xaáu, dôû) worse the worst far (xa) farther/further the farthest/furthest little (ít) less the least many/much (nhieàu) more the most IV- Caùc daïng so saùnh khaùc: 1) Caøng ngaøy caøng … - Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER Ex: Betty is younger and younger. (Betty caøng ngaøy caøng treû.) He runs faster and faster. (Anh ta chaïy caøng ngaøy caøng nhanh.) - Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more and more + adj/adv Ex: My wife is more and more beautiful. (Vôï cuûa toâi caøng ngaøy caøng ñeïp.) They work more and more carefully. (Hoï laøm vieäc caøng ngaøy caøng caån thaän.) 2) Caøng … caøng … - The more + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The more I know him, the more I like him. (Caøng bieát anh aáy, toâi caøng thích anh aáy.) - The + SS hôn + S + V, the + SS hôn + S + V Ex: The older he gets, the weaker he is. (OÂng ta caøng giaø caøng yeáu.) The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parents are. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 38 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy (Coâ ta caøng ñeïp thì cha meï coâ ta caøng khoå.) - The more + S + V, the adj + ER + S + V Ex: The more he works, the richer he is. (OÂng ta caøng laøm caøng giaøu.) - The adj + ER + S + V, the more + S + V Ex: The hotter it is, the more tired I feel. (Trôøi caøng noùng toâi caøng thaáy meät.) V- Qui taéc theâm ER vaø EST ñoái vôùi tính töø/traïng töø ngaén: 1) Töø taän cuøng baèng “e” hay phuï aâm + “y” large lager largest Ex: easy easier easiest 2) Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm: Ex: hot hotter hottest Misfortune has its uses. Trong caùi ruûi coù caùi may. Baøi 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ Moät töø coù theå ñöôïc thaønh laäp baèng caùch theâm vaøo tieáp ñaàu ngöõ hoaëc tieáp vó ngöõ. I- DANH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: super-/under-/sur-/sub-/over- + N ---> N DANH TÖØ NGHÓA DANH TÖØ NGHÓA overdose söû duïng quaù lieàu surface beà maët overexpenditure chi tieâu quaù möùc supermarket sieâu thò overproduction saûn xuaát vöôït möùc underachievement ñaït döôùi möùc subcontinent tieåu luïc ñòa undercurrent doøng nöôùc ngaàm subway taøu ñieän ngaàm undergrowth buïi raäm superman sieâu nhaân underpass ñöôøng chui 2) Haäu toá: a) V + -ion/-tion/-ation/-ition/-sion ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa add addition söï theâm vaøo permit permission söï cho pheùp combine combination söï keát hôïp pollute pollution söï oâ nhieãm Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 39 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy conserve conservation söï baûo toàn preserve preservation correct correction söï söûa chöõa prevent prevention decide decision quyeát ñònh produce production discuss discussion thaûo luaän provide provision inform information thoâng tin repeat repetition invite invitation lôøi môøi rotate rotation b) V + -ment/-ance/-ence/-age/-ery/-ing/-al ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Danh töø accept acceptance chaáp nhaän enrich achieve arrange achievement arrangement thaønh töïu söï saép ñaët exist feel arrive arrival söï ñeán improve attend attendance söï coù maët move build building toaø nhaø pay depend dependence söï leä thuoäc perform development söï phaùt trieån develop söï khaùc nhau disappoint disappointment thaát voïng discover discovery khaùm phaù söï thaùo drain drainage nöôùc differ employ difference employment vieäc laøm accountant keá toaùn Study, study more, study forever!!! ngaên ngöøa saûn xuaát söï cung caáp söï laëp laïi luaân phieân Nghóa söï laøm enrichment giaøu existence söï toàn taïi feeling caûm xuùc söï caûi improvement thieän söï di movement chuyeån söï traû payment tieàn performance maøn trình dieãn poison poisoning recycle recycling refuse rob refusal robbery laøm nhieãm ñoäc vieäc taùi söû duïng töø choái vuï cöôùp teach teaching daïy hoïc use usage caùch duøng c) V + -er/-or/-ar/-ant/-ent/-ee/ ---> N Ñoäng töø Danh töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø account söï baûo quaûn employ Danh töø employee Nghóa ngöôøi laøm coâng Trang 40 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy act actor dieãn vieân nam fertilize fertilizer apply applicant ngöôøi xin vieäc inhabit inhabitant assist assistant ngöôøi phuï taù instruct attend attendant beg beggar ngöôøi tham döï ngöôøi aên xin build builder thôï xaây pay calculate calculator maùy tính serve contest cook contestant cooker interview own ngöôøi döï thi sing beáp naáu aên teach ngöôøi gôûi deposit depositor train tieàn drive driver taøi xeá walk edit editor bieân taäp vieân work d) N + -ist/-an/-ian/-ess ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø act actress nöõ dieãn vieân music America American ngöôøi Myõ physics history historian nhaø söû hoïc prince host hostess baø chuû nhaø science journal journalist nhaø baùo tiger library librarian thuû thö tour lion lioness sö töû caùi wait e) N + -ism/-ship ---> N Danh töø Danh töø Nghóa Danh töø capital capitalism phaân boùn cö daân ngöôøi instructor höôùng daãn ngöôøi ñöôïc interviewee phoûng vaán owner ngöôøi chuû ngöôøi ñöôïc payee traû tieàn ngöôøi giuùp servant vieäc singer ca só teacher giaùo vieân ngöôøi ñöôïc trainee ñaøo taïo walker ngöôøi ñi boä worker coâng nhaân Danh töø musician physicist princess scientist tigeress tourist waitress Nghóa nhaïc só nhaø vaät lyù coâng chuùa nhaø khoa hoïc coïp caùi khaùch du lòch nöõ haàu baøn Danh töø Nghóa CN anh huøng CN tö baûn hero heroism champion championship chöùc voâ ñòch scholar scholarship hoïc toång friend tình baïn sportsman sportsmanship tinh thaàn theå thao friendship Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 41 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy f) Adj + -y/-ity/-ty/-cy/-ness/-ism/-dom ---> N Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa Tính töø Danh töø able ability khaû naêng dark darkness söï chaéc certain certainty popular popularity chaén Nghóa boùng toái söï phoå bieán söï caån thaän söï giaøu coù söï baát caån söï buoàn baõ clear clarity söï roõ raøng careful carefulness difficult difficulty khoù khaên rich richness fluent fluency söï troâi chaûy careless carelessness national nationality quoác tòch sad sadness possible real possibility reality ill/sick cold illness/sickness söï ñau yeáu söï laïnh leõo coldness söï haïnh happiness phuùc söï coù theå söï thaät traùch responsible responsibility nhieäm söï ñaàn stupid stupidity ñoän g) Adj taän cuøng “ent” ---> “ence” Tính töø Danh töø Nghóa söï vaéng absent absence maët happy free Tính töø freedom Danh töø intelligent intelligence confident confidence söï töï tin patient patience diligent diligence söï sieâng naêng silent silence violent violence independent independence söï ñoäc laäp II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) dis-/mis-/re-/over-/under-/out- + V ---> V Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa khoâng nhieàu/ disagree outnumber ñoàng yù ñoâng hôn Study, study more, study forever!!! Ñoäng töø rewrite söï töï do Nghóa söï thoâng minh söï kieân nhaãn söï yeân laëng söï baïo löïc Nghóa vieát laïi Trang 42 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy disappear bieán maát outrun chaïy undercharge nhanh hôn dislike khoâng thích outweigh naëng hôn misbehave cö xöû sai overact cöôøng ñieäu misspell ñaùnh vaàn nhaàm overcook naáu quaù chín misunderstand hieåu nhaàm overstay misuse söû duïng sai overwork lôùn/phaùt redo trieån hôn soáng laâu outlive remarry hôn b) en- + N/V/Adj ---> V Ñoäng töø Nghóa Ñoäng töø laøm cho coù theå enable enclose (laøm gì) enact ban haønh (luaät) endanger 2) Haäu toá: Adj/N + -ize/-en/-ate/-fy ---> V Adj/N Ñoäng töø Nghóa beauty beautify laøm ñeïp bright brighten laøm raïng rôõ outgrow industrial industrialize CN hoaù legal legalize less light loose lessen lighten loosen hôïp phaùp hoaù giaûm bôùt laøm nheï ñi laøm loûng ra Study, study more, study forever!!! tính giaù quaù thaáp naáu chöa undercook chín laøm underdo khoâng troïn veïn ñaùnh giaù underestimate thaáp cho aên underfeed khoâng ñuû ôû quaù laâu laøm vieäc quaù laâu, quaù söùc underlay ñaët ôû döôùi laøm laïi undersell baùn reû hôn keát hoân laàn nöõa undersign kyù ôû döôùi Nghóa Ñoäng töø Nghóa gôûi keøm enlarge môû roäng gaây nguy hieåm enrich laøm giaøu Adj/N origin real Ñoäng töø originate realize sharp sharpen short shorten tight weak white tighten weaken whiten Nghóa baét nguoàn nhaän ra laøm cho saéc, nhoïn laøm ngaén laïi sieát chaët laøm yeáu ñi laøm traéng Trang 43 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT modren modernize Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy hieän ñaïi hoaù wide III- TÍNH TÖØ: 1) Tieàn toá: a) un-/in-/im-/ir-/il-/dis- + Adj ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa khoâng khoâng ñaày dishonest incomplete trung thöïc ñuû baát hôïp illegal inconvenient baát tieän phaùp khoâng hôïp illogical independent ñoäc laäp lyù chöa chín khoâng theå immature indivisible chaén chia ñöôïc khoâng khoâng impatient inexact kieân nhaãn chính xaùc impossible khoâng theå irregular widen laøm roäng ra Tính töø unemployed unequal unhappy unlucky unreal baát qui taéc unsatisfactory voâ traùch khoâng untrue irresponsible thöïc teá nhieäm b) inter-/super-/under-/over-/sub- + Adj/N ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø international quoác teá overnight quaù ñeâm supernatural haûi ngoaïi supersonic overanxious quaù lo aâu overseas overconfident quaù töï tin oversized quaù côõ undercover quaù caân, overcrowded quaù ñoâng overweight underdeveloped beùo phì tieàm overelaborate quaù tæ mæ subconscious underpaid thöùc döôùi bình overjealous quaù ghen subnormal underweight thöôøng sieâu overjoyed quaù vui superhuman phaøm 2) Haäu toá: a) N + -ly/-like/-less/-ish/-y/-ful/-al/-ic/ ---> Adj impractical Study, study more, study forever!!! Nghóa thaát nghieäp khoâng bình ñaúng khoâng haïnh phuùc khoâng may khoâng thaät khoâng haøi loøng khoâng ñuùng Nghóa sieâu nhieân sieâu aâm kín,bí maät keùm phaùt trieån traû thaáp quaù nheï caân, thieáu caân Trang 44 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa manly coù tính caùch ñaøn oâng dusty coù buïi brotherly thuoäc veà anh em snowy coù tuyeát worldly thuoäc veà theá giôùi rainy coù möa hourly haèng giôø sandy coù caùt yearly haèng naêm dirty baån daily haèng ngaøy healthy khoeû maïnh childlike nhö con nít magical tuyeät vôøi godlike nhö thaàn thaùnh agricultural noâng nghieäp statesmanlike nhö nhaø chöùc traùch industrial coâng nghieäp lifelike gioáng nhö thaät natural thieân nhieân speechless khoâng lôøi national thuoäc quoác gia carelesss khoâng caån thaän harmful coù haïi harmless khoâng ñoäc haïi useful coù ích childless khoâng coù con delightful vui veû treeless khoâng coù caây successful thaønh coâng odourless khoâng muøi vò hopeful hi voïng foolish ñieân daïi helpful hay giuùp ñôõ selfish ích kyû peaceful hoaø bình childish coù tính caùch treû con scientific khoa hoïc b) V/N + -ive/-able/-ible ---> Adj Tính töø Nghóa Tính töø Nghóa acceptable coù theå chaáp nhaän defensible coù theå baûo veä ñöôïc achievable coù theå ñaït ñöôïc eatable coù theå aên ñöôïc active naêng ñoäng effective hieäu quaû agreeable taùn thaønh excusable coù theå tha thöù attractive haáp daãn informative coù nhieàu thoâng tin comprehensible coù theå hieåu manageable coù theå quaûn lyù countable coù theå ñeám washable coù theå giaët ñöôïc IV- TRAÏNG TÖØ: Phaàn lôùn: Adj + -ly ---> Adv (xem Baøi 10, III, 1.1) Never quit certainty for hope. Thaû moài baét boùng. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 45 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Baøi 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU Caùc daïng bieán ñoåi caâu thöôøng gaëp 1) Chuû ñoäng – bò ñoäng: (xem laïi Baøi 2) 2) Tröïc tieáp – giaùn tieáp: (xem laïi Baøi 4) 3) Ñaûo ngöõ: (xem laïi Baøi 6) 4) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ lyù do, söï nhöôïng boä:(xem laïi Baøi 8, II, 3&7) though/although/even though + S + V ---> despite/in spite of + V-ing/N/N phrase * LÖU YÙ: BUT ---> ALTHOUGH Ex: Cars cause pollution but people still want them. ---> Although cars cause pollution, people still want them. 5) So saùnh: (xem theâm Baøi 11, so saùnh baèng/nhaát/hôn) Ex: Mary is not as tall as Alice. ---> Mary is not so tall as Alice. ---> Mary is less tall than Alice. ---> Alice is taller than Mary. 6) Ñieàu kieän: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ÑK loaïi 2 vaø 3) 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: I’m busy. I don’t go to the concert. ---> If I were not busy, I would go to the concert. ---> Unless I were busy, I would go to the concert. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: Peter missed the train because he woke up too late. ---> If Peter hadn’t woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. ---> Unless Peter had woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train. 7) Ao öôùc: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ao öôùc) 7.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi: Ex: Tom is not happy because his girlfriend is not here. ---> Tom wishes his girlfriend were here. 1.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù: Ex: I am sorry I missed your wedding party. ---> I wish I hadn’t missed your wedding party. 1.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai: Ex: They will not attend my birthday party next week. ---> I wish they would attend my birthday party next week. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 46 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 8) Thueâ/nhôø ai laøm vieäc gì: (xem theâm Baøi 2, 4.2) S + V + O ---> S + have + O + V ---> S + have + O + V3/ed ---> S + get + O + to V ---> S + get + O + V3/ed Ex: The machanic repairs my car every month. ---> I have the machanic repair my car every month. ---> I get the machanic to repair my car every month. ---> I have/get my car repaired by the mechanic every month. 9) Ñeà nghò, lôøi khuyeân: Let’s + V S + advise/suggest + V-ing How/What about + V-ing? S + advise + O + to V Would you mind + V-ing? S + suggest (that) + S (+ should) + V Why don’t we/you + V? Ex: Let’s go for a ride! ---> What about going for a ride? Please don’t play the music so loudly. ---> Would you mind not playing the music so loudly? 10) Nguyeân nhaân – keát quaû: so + adj/adv + that clause such (a/an) + adj + N + that clause too + adj/adv (+ for O) + to + V not + adj + enough (+ for O) + to + V Ex: The water was so cold that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> It was such cold water that the children couldn’t swim in it. ---> The water was too cold for the children to swim in. ---> The water is not warm enough for the children to swim in. * LÖU YÙ: - Trong caáu truùc so/such … that, ta giöõ laïi töø “it”. - Trong caáu truùc too … to vaø not … enough … to, ta boû töø “it”. 11) Muïc ñích/nguyeân nhaân: S + V + to/in order to/so as to + V S + V + so that/in order that + S + can/could + V S + V + because + S + V Ex: They started early to go to school on time. ---> They started early so that they could go to school on time. ---> They started early because they wanted to go to school on time. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 47 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy 12) Laàn thöù … (laøm chuyeän gì): S + have/had + never + V3/ed S + have/had + not + V3/ed + before ---> It/This is/was the first time (that) + S + have/had + V3/ed Ex: I have not eaten this kind of food before. ---> This is the first time that I have eaten this kind of food. 13) YÙ kieán/ñaùnh giaù moät söï vieäc: It + be + adj (for O) + to V ---> To V/V-ing + be + adj (for O) Ex: It is not easy for me to master English. ---> To master/Mastering English is not easy for me. It is more dangerous to drive a motorbike than to drive a car. ---> To drive a motorbike is more dangerous than to drive a car. ---> Driving a motorbike is more dangerous than driving a car. 14) Maát … (thôøi gian) laøm vieäc gì: S + spend + time + V-ing hoaëc S + last + time ---> It + takes/took + O + time + to V Ex: He spent 15 minutes finishing this exercise. ---> It took him 15 minutes to finish this exercise. The flight to Hong Kong lasts about 8 hours. ---> It takes about 8 hours to fly to Hong Kong. 15) Thoùi quen hieän taïi vaø trong quaù khöù: S + often/usually + V S + find + it + adj + to V ---> S + be used to + V-ing Ex: They usually drink beer. ---> They are used to drinking beer. I don’t find it difficult to get up early. ---> I am used to getting up early. S + used to + V ---> S + no longer + V = S + not … any more/any longer Ex: He used to smoke cigarettes. ---> He no longer smokes cigarettes. ---> He doesn’t smoke cigarettes any more / any longer. * LÖU YÙ: be used to + V/ be used for + V-ing: coâng duïng moät vaät Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 48 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Ex: What is money used for? ---> It is used to buy or sell goods. ---> It is used for buying or selling goods. You are never too old to learn. Hoïc khoâng bao giôø muoän. PHUÏ LUÏC 1: Hieän taïi am/is/are arise bear beat become begin bend bet bite bleed blow break breed bring build burn* burst buy catch choose come cost creep cut dig do ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP Quaù khöù was/were Arose Bore Beat Became Began Bent Bet Bit Bled Blew Broke Bred Brought Built Burnt Burst bought Caught Chose Came Cost Crept Cut Dug Did Study, study more, study forever!!! QK PT been arisen borne beaten become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken bred brought built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dug done Nghóa thì, laø, ôû xuaát hieän sinh ra ñaùnh, ñaäp trôû neân baét ñaàu cuùi, gaäp ñaùnh cuoäc caén chaûy maùu thoåi laøm vôõ nuoâi mang xaây döïng ñoát chaùy böøng chaùy mua baét ñöôïc choïn löïa ñeán trò giaù boø caét ñaøo laøm Trang 49 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT draw dream* drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fit fly forecast forget forgive freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn* leave lend let lose Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Drew Dreamt Drank Drove ate Fell Fed Felt fought Found Fit Flew Forecast Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Ground Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held hurt Kept Knew Laid Led Learnt left Lent Let Lost Study, study more, study forever!!! drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fit flown forecast forgot(ten) forgiven frozen got(ten) given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learnt left lent let lost veõ mô uoáng laùi xe aên teù xuoáng cho aên caûm thaáy ñaùnh nhau tìm thaáy vöøa vaën bay döï baùo queân tha thöù ñoâng laïnh ñaït ñöôïc cho ñi nghieàn moïc treo coù; duøng nghe che giaáu ñuïng caàm,naém,toå chöùc laøm ñau giöõ bieát ñaët, ñeå daãn daét hoïc rôøi khoûi cho möôïn ñeå cho ñaùnh maát Trang 50 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT make mean meet overcome pay put quit read ride ring rise run say seek sell send set shake shoot shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell* speak speed spell spend spill spread stand sting strike swear sweep Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Made Meant Met overcame Paid Put Quit Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Sought Sold Sent Set Shook Shot Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Smelt Spoke Sped Spelt Spent Spilt Spread Stood Stung Struck Swore Swept Study, study more, study forever!!! made meant met overcome paid put quit read ridden rung risen run said sought sold sent set shaken shot shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken sped spelt spent spilt spread stood stung struck sworn swept laøm nghóa laø gaëp vöôït qua traû tieàn ñaët, ñeå thoaùt ra ñoïc cöôõi, ñaïp xe reo, rung nhoâ,moäc leân chaïy noùi tìm kieám baùn göûi ñi xeáp ñaët laéc baén ñoùng laïi haùt chìm, ñaém ngoài nguû tröôït ñi ngöûi noùi taêng toác ñaùnh vaàn tieâu xaøi traøn ra lan truyeàn ñöùng chích, ñoát ñaùnh theà queùt Trang 51 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT swim swing take teach tear tell think throw thrust understand wake wear weave weep wet win write Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy Swam Swung Took Taught Tore told Thought Threw Thrust understood Woke Wore Wove Wept Wet Won Wrote swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust understood woken worn woven wept wet won written bôi, loäi ñaùnh ñu caàm, naém daïy xeù raùch baûo, keå suy nghó neùm aán maïnh hieåu ñaùnh thöùc maëc, ñoäi deät khoùc laøm öôùt thaéng vieát * Coù theå theâm “ed” ñeå thaønh laäp V2/3.  ☺  Chuùc caùc em thaønh coâng!!! Haõy vaøo http://vihocsinhthanyeu.tk ñeå tham khaûo theâm taøi lieäu hoïc taäp tieáng Anh. Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 52 Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy MUÏC LUÏC Trang BAØI 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ ............................................................................ 1 BAØI 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG.................................................................................. 7 BAØI 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ.................................... 9 BAØI 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP ........................................... 11 BAØI 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC .............................................. 13 BAØI 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ ..................................................................................... 14 BAØI 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG .............................................................................. 15 BAØI 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ ......................... 17 BAØI 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO” ........ 22 BAØI 10: TÖØ LOAÏI ........................................................................................... 23 BAØI 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ .............................................. 36 BAØI 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ .................................................................. 39 BAØI 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU ........................................................................ 46 PHUÏ LUÏC: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP ............................. 49 TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO 1. John Eastwood, OXFORD GUIDE TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Oxford University Press, 1994 2. Raymond Murphy, ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge University Press, 2000 3. Haø Vaên Böûu, NHÖÕNG MAÃU CAÂU TIEÁNG ANH, NXB TP. HCM, 1998 4. Mai Lan Höông – Nguyeãn Thanh Loan, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH, NXB Treû, 2003 5. Thaùi Hoaøng Nguyeân – Ñoã Vaên Thaûo, BAØI TAÄP NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2003 6. Nguyeãn Vaên Thoï – Huyønh Kim Tuaán, BAØI TAÄP LUYEÄN TIEÁNG ANH THPT: NGÖÕ PHAÙP, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2005 7. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH CAÊN BAÛN, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2006 8. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2000 9. Vónh Khueâ – Traàn Vaên Nhaân, CHUYEÂN ÑEÀ BOÀI DÖÔÕNG ENGLISH 12, NXB Ñoàng Nai, 1997 10. Song Phuùc – Leâ Nguyeãn Minh Thoï, BÍ QUYEÁT LAØM BAØI TAÄP CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÁU TRUÙC CAÂU TRONG TIEÁNH ANH, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2004 Study, study more, study forever!!! Trang 53
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