Tài liệu Nghiên cứu sản phẩm sữa bổ sung kẽm, canxi và lysine cho trẻ em 4-5 tuổi

  • Số trang: 58 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 43 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nguyetha

Đã đăng 8490 tài liệu

Mô tả:

BOYTE VIEN DINH DirONG /O V BAO CAO DE TAI Nghien cuu san pham sGa bo sung kem, canxi, lysine cho tre 4 - 5 tuoi. Chu nhiem de tai: ThS. Nguyln Thi Hong Minh Co quan chii tri: Vien Dinh duong Dia chi : 48B Tang Bat Ho Hanoi 12/2008 A/j/oi'i/il} Mtf dau Suy dinh duang tre em la moi quan tam chung ciia nhieu qu6c gia tren the giai. Hien nay, uac tinh CO khoang 178 trieu tre em duai 5 tuoi bi suy dinh duang the thap coi. Dac biet, a vung Trung va Dong Phi ty le tre em suy dinh duang thip coi len d8n 42% - 50%. 74 trieu tre em bj thap coi song a Nam va Trung A [1]. C) nhieu nuac tren thd giai, suy dinh duang van la nguyen nhan hang dau dan den tu vong a tre nho. Thieu dinh duang vua phai va keo dai dang la tra ngai cho sir phat trien ve the chat va tri tue con nguai, vi vay viec thanh toan nan doi va suy dinh duang la muc tieu trong tam [2]. Nhieu nghien cuu tren the giai da chung minh viec cho tre bii me hoan toan trong 6 thang diu sau khi sinh, cham soc y te, phong chong nhiem khu4n va cho tre an bo sung day dii so lugng va chat luang la cac yeu to lien quan chat che tai tinh trang dinh duang cua tre sau nay. Theo khuyen nghi cua WHO, thai gian thich hgp nhit d6 hk dhu cho tre an b6 sung la sau 6 thang. Tre dugc an bo sung diing thang tuoi se phong cac benh coi xuang, suy dinh duang va thieu mau vi then diem nay sua me khong du thoa man nhu chu ngay cang tang cua ca the tre, dac biet la cac nhu cau ve vitamin va khoang chat. Tuy lugng can rat nho, chi khoang vai miligam moi ngay nhung thieu vitamin va khoang chat se lam roi loan chuyen hoa trong ca the va gay ra nhieu benh dac hieu. Sua bgt la mot loai thuc pham cung cap tuang doi day dii va can doi cac duang chat cho tre vi vay viec cho tre an bo sung them siia la rat can thiet de giiip tre phat trien toan dien. Sua la san pham uong lien lai rat giau thanh phan dinh duang, de hiit am, vi vay viec quan li chat lugng sua khi san xuat la rat can thiet. HACCP la cong cu quan li ve sinh an toan thuc pham thuc sir co hieu qua. La he thong co kha nang ngan ngira mot each chu dgng nguy ca 6 nhiem thuc pham trong qua trinh san xuat, che bien tao ra thuc pham an toan. Ap dung he thong HACCP, nguai tieu dung se giam nguy ca nhiem cac benh truyen qua thuc pham, tang sir tin cay vao viec cung cap thuc pham, cai thien chat lugng cuoc song. Lgi ich doi vai doanh nghiep la tang so lugng nguofi tieu dung va do tin cay cua chinh phu, dam bao gia ca, tang kha nang canh tranh tiep thi, giam chi phi do san pham hong va phai thu hoi, cai tien qua trinh san xuat va dieu kien moi truang, cai tien nang lire quan li, dam bao an toan thuc pham, tang ca hoi kinh doanh [3]. Mac du tren thi truong co rat nhieu loai sua, nhung gia ciia cac loai siia noi chung la rat cao. Vigc nghien cuu san xuat sura bgt co bo sung cac vi chat can doi de cung cap day du duang chat va cai thien chieu cao ciia tre vai gia hgp li dong vai tro quan trgng nhu mot giai phap de can thiep phong chong suy dinh duang, vi vay chiing toi tien hanh de tai ^''Nghien ciru xay dung vd hodn tfiien qui trinh san xuat sira bgt co bo sung kem, canxi, lysine va prebiotic cho tre tir 1 5 tudi". Ngi dung nghien ciiu ciia de tai bao gom: * Nghien cim xay dung cong thiic premix va cong thiic phoi tron de tao san pham siia bgt danh cho tre tir 1 - 5 tuoi * Xay dung qui trinh san xuat sua bgt va theo doi chat lugng ciia san pham theo thai gian bao quan * Buac dau xay dung tai lieu quan li san xuat sira an toan VSTP theo HACCP code 2003 Phan I: TONG QUAN 1.1. Vai tro cua vi chat dinh du-ong va prebiotic Ty le suy dinh duang thap coi ciia tre em Viet Nam chi8m 1/3, dac biet la v^ chieu cao cua tre em nong thon va cac dan tgc thieu so [4]. Nguyen nhan chinh do thiic an bo sung ciia tre thieu ve so lugng va chdt lugng, nhSt la a vung nong thon ngheo. DS cai thien tinh trang dinh duang cho tre em, ngoai viec chii y cung cap day dii cac chat dinh duang nhu protein, gluxit, lipit ma con dam bao day dii cac yitamin va khoang chdt. Tuy la nhom chdt khong sinh nang lugng nhung vitamin va khoang chat co vai tro vo cung quan trgng vai ca th6, dac biet vai tre em. Vitamin la cdu tii cua cac men can thiet cho qua trinh chuyen hoa vat chdt trong ca the. Nhieu vitamin ca the khong the tir tong hgp dugc ma phai dua tir thiic an vao ca th8. Thieu viatmin anh huang nhieu tai su phat trien, sue khoe va gay nhilu benh dac hieu. He thong mien dich dac bietrihay cam vai tinh trang kem ciia ca thg. Thieu kem gay suy giam mien dich, lam anh huang xau den sir phat trien va chiic nang ciia hdu het cac te bao miln dich. Kem tham gia vao thanh phan cua tren 300 enzyme kim loai, co vai tro di6u hoa hoat dgng ciia mot so loai hormon. Thieu kem thuang gay ra mot so bieu hien lam sang nhu: luai an, giam kha nang mien dich, ton thuang da va niem mac, cham phat trien the lire. Thong ke nhirng nghien curu chung tren the gidi cho tha'y bo sung kem lam giam 30 - 60% so lan mdc benh tieu chay, miic do nang ciia benh cung giam co y nghia, tac dung ciia bo sung kem lam giam so lan mdc benh tieu chay keo dai sau 2 -3 thang bo sung [5]. WHO udc tinh co khoang tren 30% tre em dudi 5 tuoi bi thieu kem va thucmg tap trung a nhOng nude co thu nhap thap [6]. Trong CO the canxi chiem vi tri dac biet, canxi chiem 1/3 khoi lugng chat khoang trong ca the va 98% canxi nam a xuang va rang - la thanh phan co ban ciia xuong va rang. Cho nen doi vai tre em canxi rat can thiet vi chiing co bg xuong dang phat trien. Mot so nghien ciiu a Nhat cho thay khau phan an ngheo canxi thuang ket hgp vai chieu cao thap. Khau phan ngheo canxi thuang ket hgp vai thap protein, mot yeu to quan trgng cho su phat trien co the va phat trien xuong. Lysine la mot trong cac axit amin can thiet cho ca the ma ca the khong tu tong hgp dugc. Lysine giiip tre an ngon mieng, gia tang chuyen hoa, tang cuong hap thu, duy tri canxi, ngan can su bai tiet chat khoang nay ra khoi ca the [7]. Vi vay, thieu Lysine co the khien tre cham lan, bieng an, giam tang truang chieu cao. Cac ket qua nghien ciiu cho thay trong ca the tre dang trong giai doan tang truang, vi khuan tot trong he tieu hoa co xu huong giam. Dong thdi, khi tre ngay cang tiep xuc nhieu hon vdi moi trudng ben ngoai, cac vi khuan gay benh de dang xam nhap vao ca the. Khi so lugng vi khuan gay benh manh hon vi khuan tot, he mien dich suy giam, ca the se yeu di va tre de bi nhiem benh. De kich thich sir tang trudng ciia vi khuan cd lgi cd the diing chat xa nhu oligosaccharit (FOS/inullin) la loai thiic an cho vi khuan cd lgi phat trien. Day la Prebiotic cd tac dung gian tiep giiip tang cudng he mien dich. Sfta da dugc cong nhan la mot thuc pham hoan hao nhat trong thien nhien, vi trong sira cd dii cac chat dinh duang can thiet giiip cho sir tang trudng cua co the va de dugc ca the hap thu. Ngoai cac thanh phan chinh la protein, lactoza, lipit, mudi khoang cdn cd tat ca cac loai vitamin chii yeu, cac enzim, cac nguyen td vi lugng khdng the thay the. Protein cua sua rat dac biet, cd chiia nhieu va hai hda cac axit amin can thiet. Lipit ciia sua giii vai trd quan trgng trong dinh duang, chiing chiia nhieu nhdm axit beo khac nhau, chiia nhieu vitamin va cd do tieu hda cao do cd nhiet dg ndng chay thap va chat beo d dudi dang cac cau ma cd kich thudc nhd. Nhu vay, siia la thiic an can thiet cho sir phat trien va tang trudng cua tre em, sir dung sua nhu la thirc an bo sung cho tre giiip du phdng suy dinh dudng la can thilt. 1.2. Tinh hinh nghien ciru va san xuat thirc pham dinh dvotig o" Viet Nam Theo ket qua dieu tra cua vien dinh dudng, thuc phdm che biln thiic an cho tre d Viet Nam chu ylu la gao, cac thirc an giau dinh dudng khac (thiic an dgng vat va rau xanh) chi dugc 22,3% (VpD - TCTK 2005). Trong khi nhieu nude trong khu vuc va tren thi gidi da sii dung cac thuc pham cd tang cudng vi chat cho tre em d Viet Nam vdn cdn han chi vl loai san phdm ciing nhu pham vi sir dung. Gdp phdn phdng va dilu tri suy dinh dudng tre em, Vien Dinh dudng da tim hieu, nghien cuu cac quy trinh cdng nghe san xudt mdt sd san phdm dinh dudng cho tre em nhdm tao ra cac san pham dinh dudng cd chat lugng trong thdi gian qua nhu bgt dinh dudng, banh qui tang cudng vi chat, vien pepsin....Hieu qua ciia cac san phdm nay da dugc danh gia va cho kit qua rdt tdt [8, 9]. Theo nghien ciiu cua Ninh va cs (1996), da bd sung kem cho tre em tir 4 - 36 thang tudi bi suy dinh dudng, cho tre em d liia tudi bdt ddu an bd sung ( 5 - 7 thang tudi), da nhan thay tre suy dinh dudng dugc bd sung kem cd miic do tang can va chilu cao tdt hon, ty le mdc tieu chay thap hon nhdm kiem chiing [10]. 1.3. Dac diem thi trirong sira a Viet Nam Trong tu nhien khdng cd san pham thuc pham nao ma thanh phan dinh dudng lai kit hgp hai hoa nhu sua. Viec tieu thu sua tren the gidi ngay mdt tang. Tdng san lugng sua toan cdu nam 2007 udc tinh 678 trieu tdn, tang 2,3% so vdi nam 2006. San xuat sua phat triln manh d Chau A vdi san lugng udc tinh tang 5% trong nam 2007 (Food Outlook, N-02, 2007). Hien nay thi trudng sua Viet Nam da cd gan 20 hang ndi dia va rat nhieu doanh nghiep phan phdi sua. Tdng lugng tieu thu sua Viet Nam lien tuc tang manh tir 15% - 20%/nam, theo du bao den nam 2010 miic tieu thu sua tai thi trudng se tang gap ddi va tiep tuc tang gap ddi vao nam 2020. Vi vay, san xuat siia van la mot tiem nang. Do ngudn nguyen lieu trong nude cung cap khdng du nen phan ldn nguyen lieu ciia cac nha may sua d nude ta dugc nhap khau. 1.4. He thong HACCP HACCP viet tat cua cum tir Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points la he thdng quan ly chat lugng dua tren ca sd phan tich cac mdi nguy va cac diem kiem soat tdi han. Dd la cdng cu phan tich nham bao dam an toan ve sinh va chat lugng thuc pham. Cdng cu nay cho phep tap trung ngudn lire ky thuat, chuyen mdn vao nhung budc che bien cd anh hudng quyet dinh den an toan chat lugng thuc pham. Phan tich HACCP se dua ra danh muc nhimg diem kiem soat tdi han CCPs cimg vdi nhung muc tieu phdng ngira, cac thu tuc theo ddi, giam sat va nhimg tac ddng dieu chinh timg diem kiem soat tdi han. He thdng HACCP da dugc nhieu td chiic qudc te (nhu: Vien han lam Khoa hgc qudc gia My, Lfy ban Tu van Qudc gia ve tieu chuan vi triing hgc va thuc pham, Uy ban Thuc pham Codex WHO/FAO) thira nhan va xem la he thdng him hieu nhat de cd the vira dam bao an toan, vira dam bao chat lugng cam quan ciia cac san pham thuc pham. Tai Viet Nam, khai niem HACCP dugc tiep can tir nhiing nam dau ciia thap ki 90 ciia the ki XX. Vdi muc tieu bao ve siic khde nhan dan, md rgng thi trudng, nhat la khi nude ta da gia nhap td chiic thuang mai the gidi WTO, nhieu nganh va doanh nghiep, nhat la doanh nghiep san xuat sira da cd rat nhilu hoat ddng thiet thuc de thiic day qua trinh ddi mdi he thdng quan ly chat lugng va an toan ve sinh thuc pham, dac biet la ap dung HACCP, timg budc thay the cho each kiem soat chat lugng truyen thdng la dua tren kiem tra san pham cudi ciing. Ap dung he thdng HACCP mang lai nhieu lgi ich, nhu: - Lgi ich ddi vdi ngudi tieu diing: giam nguy co cac benh truyen qua thuc pham; nang cao nhan thiic ve ve sinh co ban; tang sir tin cay vao viec cung cap thuc pham; cai thien cudc song trong ITnh vuc siic khde va kinh tl - xa hdi. - Lgi ich vdi nganh cdng nghiep: tang sd lugng ngudi tieu dimg va do tin cay ciia Chinh phu; bao dam ^ia ca; tang kha nang canh tranh va tilp thi; giam chi phi do giam san phdm hdng va phai thu hdi; cai tien qua trinh san xudt va dieu kien mdi trudng; cai tiln nang lire quan ly bao dam an toan thuc pham; tang ca hdi kinh doanh va xudt, nhap khdu thuc phdm. - Lgi ich vdi Chinh phii: cai thien siic khde cdng dong, nang cao hieu qua va kilm soat thuc pham; giam chi phi cho siic khde cdng ddng. - Lgi ich vdi doanh nghi?p: nang cao uy tin chdt lugng doi vdi san phdm cua minh, tang tinh canh tranh, kha nang chiem linh va md rdng thi trudng, dac biet ddi vdi thuc phdm xudt khdu. Dugc phep in tren nhan ddu chiing nhan phii hgp he thdng HACCP, tao Idng tin vdi ngudi tieu dung va ban hang, lam can cii de ca quan kiem tra chat lugng ve sinh an toan thuc phdm xem xet che do giarn kiem tra ddi vdi cac Id san pham; la co sd bao dam dieu kien thuan lgi cho viec dam phan, ky ket hgp ddng thuang mai trong nude cung nhu xuat khau va la ca sd cua chinh sach uu tien dau tu, dao tao ciia Nha nude ciing nhu cac ddi tac nude ngoai [3]. Phan II: NGUYEN LIEU VA PHU'ONG PHAP NGHIEN ClTU 2.1. Nguyen lieu - Sira bgt nguyen lieu cua New Zealand, Australia, Trung Quoc dat tieu chudn ve sinh an toan thuc pham. - Fremix: vitamin, khoang chat, lysine, FOS dat tieu chuan ve do tinh khiet theo mot trong nhimg tieu chuan: USP (The United States Pharmacopeia), BPC (British Pharmaceutical Codex), FAO/WHO hoac chirng chi tuong duong. - Nguyen lieu khac: dudng, chat beo siia. - Tlii mang thiec 2.2. Phirong phap nghien cihi 2.2.1 Nghien ciru xay dirng cong thirc san xuat sira hot 2.2.1.1 Lira chon sira hot nguyen lieu Siia bgt nguyen lieu phai la sira bgt hoa tan nhanh, cd mau sac, miii vi tu nhien ciia siia va thanh phan dinh dudng phii hgp vdi tre. Phan tich mot sd thanh phan cua sira bdt nguyen lieu dugc chgn. 2.2.1.2 Xac dinh ti le phoi tron cac loai nguyen lieu Xac dinh ti le phdi trdn cua sira bdt nguyen kem, siia bdt gay, chat beo siia sao cho 3 thanh phan ca ban la protein, lipit cho mdi lan sir dung 45g (200ml sira) dap iing 20 - 30% nhu cau khuyen nghi cua tre tir 1-5 tudi. Du kien thanh phan siia thanh pham cd ham lugng protein va lipid tir 16 - 20%. Dua ra 4 ti le phdi trdn khac nhau. Danh gia cam quan theo phep thir cho diem chat lugng (tieu chuan TCVN 3215 - 79) de tim ra ti le phdi trdn cho san pham cd tinh chat cam quan tdt va thanh phan protein, lipit hgp li. 2.2.1.3 Xay dirng cong thirc Premix va ti le phoi tron ciia Premix vdi sira hot nguyen lieu Dua tren nhu cau dinh dudng khuyen nghi cho ngudi Viet Nam 2007, dua tren khuyen nghi ve vitamin, khoang chat cua WHO/FAO - 2002 ddi vdi tre tir 1 - 5 tudi, du kien ham lugng vitamin va khoang chat cua siia thanh pham. Lira chgn ty le dudng, huong lieu, premix, lysine, FOS - inullin vdi siia nguyen lieu de: - Ham lugng lysine trong 45 g (200ml sira) dap iing ham lugng can duy tri theo khuyen nghi cua WHO/FAO ddi vdi tre tir 1- 5 tudi (lugng lysine can duy tri 3 Img/kg/ngay) - Ham lugng vitamin va khoang chat trong 45g (200ml siia) dap ung 20 - 30% nhu cau cua tre tir 1-5 tudi. - Bd sung them FOS - inullin de ham lugng chat xa hda tan trong siia thanh pham dat 5%. - Bo sung them cac phu gia (dudng, huong lieu) de dap iing thi hieu cua ngudi tieu diing Danh gia cam quan siia cdng thiic da trdn nguyen lieu phu (dudng, lysine) theo phuang phap cho diem thi hieu (thang diem 1 - 5) de lira chgn siia cd chat lugng cam quan tdt nhat. 2.2.2 Xay dung quy trinh san xuat sira hot 2.2.2.1 Quy trinh san xuat sira hot du- kien Lysine, premix, Siia bdt nguyen lieu, FOS/inullin, dudng Dinh lUdng Trdn cap 1 Dinh liTdng hdn hgp premix, lysine Trdn cap 2 Ddng gdi 2.2.2.2 Danh gia chat lirong sira bpt san xuat - Phuang phap danh gia cam quan: + Phep thir cho diem thi hieu (thang diem 1-5) nhu sau: 1: Rdt ghet 4: Thich 2:Ghet 5: Rdt thich 3: Khdng thich, khdng ghet so sanh miic do yeu thich ciia siia thanh pham vdi cac san pham sira hien cd tren thi trudng. Nlu ket qua phan tich cd F >Ftc (Tuong quan phuang sai tra bang) thi chat lugng cac mau khac nhau cd nghia [11]. Hdi ddng danh gia cam quan gdm 10 chuyen gia. + Theo phep thir cho dilm chdt lugng (tieu chudn TCVN 3215 - 79) Thanh lap mdt hdi dong danh gia gom 10 chuyen gia cd ky thuat va kinh nghiem v6 danh gia cam quan, danh gia bdng phuang phap cho diem theo thang diem tir 0 — 5 cac chi tieu cam quan da dinh sSn cho sd mdu xac dinh. (miic 0 la san pham khdng dugc cha'p nhan, miic 5 la miic san pham dat do hoan thien cao nha't - cd quy dinh cu the theo TCVN 3215 - 79) [11]. Chat lugng san phdm dugc tinh la diem trung binh cua timg chi tieu nhan vdi he so trgng lugng cua nd. Diem cha't lugng cia cac san pham cd gia tri tir 0 de'n 20 theo 6 miic chat luong sau: Rat kem: 4,0 - 7,1 Tdt: 18,6- 20,0 Trung binh: 11,2 - 15,1 Kha: 15,2-18,5 Kem: 7,2-11,1 Hdng: 0-3,9 - Phuong phap phan tich: angZ.l: *hu-ong phap phan tich cac thanh phan cua sira hot Phirong phap STT Ten chi tieu 1 Dd am Do bdng may do do dm (H/QT/19.62) KNLTTP - 75 Ham lugng Gluxit 2 3 Ham lugng Lipit KNLTTP - 75 4 Ham lugng Protein NMKL N"6 5 Ham lugng Canxi AAS(H/QT/19.93) AAS(H/QT/19.52) 6 Ham lugng Kem 7 HPLC(H/QT/19.46) Ham lugng Lysine 8 TCVN 4884: 2001 Tdng sd VSV hieu khi 9 TCVN 4882: 2001 Tdng sd Conforms 10 TCVN 6846: 2001 E.coli 11 TCVN 4830: 1989 S.aureus 12 TQBYT 3350: 2001 B.cereus 13 TCVN 4829: 2001 Samonella ISO 11290-1 - 2 : 1996 14 L. monocytogenes AOAC 2000 15 Vitamin A AOAC 2000 16 Vitamin D 2.2.3 Xay dung hf thong tai lieu quan li san xuat sira theo HACCP code 2003 - Thanh lap dgi HACCP - Soan thao tai lieu quan li san xudt sira theo HACCP bao gdm 12 budc ap dung HACCP. Phan III: KET QUA VA THAO LUAN 3.1. Nghien ciru xay dung cong thirc san xuat sira bpt 3.1.1 Lira chon sira bQt nguyen lif u Thi trudng sira bdt nguyen lieu d Viet Nam rdt phong phii va da dang, trong dd sira bgt nguyen kem la san pham cd nhieu nhat. Ngudn nguyen lieu siia bdt chii yeu dugc nhap tir cac nude New Zealand, Australia, Trung Qudc...vdi hai loai siia bgt la sira bdt tan nhanh va sua bdt. Thanh phan, ti le cac chat trong nguyen lieu siia bdt cua cac nude khac nhau la khac nhau, tham chi nguyen lieu ciing xudt xii ciing cd sir thay ddi vl thanh phdn. Bang 3.1: Bang tong ket cac loai nguyen lieu hien co tren thj trirong Viet Nam (Theo phan tich ciia nha cung cap) Sii-a bot nguyen kem: • • TT 1 2 3 4 5 Ten san pham Xuat xir Siia bdt nguyen kem tan nhanh New (Wholemilk Powder Zealand Instant) Siia bdt nguyen kem New (Wholemilk Power) Zealand Siia bdt nguyen Trung kem. (Wholemilk Qudc Power) Siia bdt nguyen kem tan nhanh (Instant Australia fiill cream milk powder) Siia bdt nguyen kem (Wholemilk Australia Powder) Protein (%) • • • • • • " ^ Thanh phan Chat Do am Do hoa beo (%) tan (ml) (Vo) Gia Thanh (dong) >34 >28 <5 <0,1 99 000 26,5 24,8 3,1 <1 94 000 >34 >26 <5 <1 92 000 34 >28 <3 <0,5 100 000 >24,8 >18,8 <2,24 <1 98 000 Sira hot gay TT Thanh p lan Ten san pham Xuat xir Protein (%) Chat beo (%) Do am (Vo) Do hoa tan (ml) Gia Thanh (dong) 1 Sira bdt gay tan nhanh (Skimmilk Powder Instant) New Zealand >34 <1,5 <5 <0,5 95 000 2 Sira bdt gay tan nhanh (Instant skim milk powder) Australia >34 <1,25 <4 <0,5 100 000 Chat beo sira (Non Dairy Creamer) Thanh phan STT Ten san pham Xuat xu- 1 Chat beo sira Malaysia 2 Chat beo siia Ha Lan Chat beo Do am (%) (%) (Vo) Gia Thanh (dong) 2,5 ± 0,3 33 ±1 <3 33 000 2 33 <3,5 43 000 Protein Vi san xuat san pham siia bdt nen ca sd tuyen chgn sira nguyen lieu la sira bdt hda tan nhanh, cd mau sac, miii vi tu nhien ciia sira. Dua tren muc tieu sira thanh pham phai cd ham lugng protein va lipit cho moi lan sir dung (45g) img 20-30% nhu cau cua tre 1-5 tudi vi vay can chgn 3 loai nguyen lieu la siia bdt nguyen kem, sira bgt gay va chat beo sira de phdi trdn nham tao dugc sira thanh pham cd ham lugng protein, lipit yeu cau. Siia New Zealand cd nha cung cap tai Ha Ngi, cd loai siia hoa tan nhanh, cd mau sac, miii vi dSc trung ciia sira va gia san pham hgp ly. Vi vay, chgn sira bdt nguyen kem, sira bdt gay cua New Zealand. Chgn chat beo siia cua Malaysia vi cd gia thanh re hon va chat lugng tuong duong vdi chat beo siia cua Ha Lan. Tien hanh phan tich thanh phan Kem, Lysine, Canxi cua nguyen lieu da chgn dugc ket qua bdi bang 3.2 Bang 3.2: Ket qua phan tich Kem, Lysine, Canxi cua nguyen lieu sira bpt TT Thanh phan Nguyen lieu Ca (g/lOOg) Zn (mg/lOOg) Lysine (g/lOOg) 1 Siia bdt nguyen kem 0.98 2.68 1.85 2 Siia bgt gay 1.15 3.93 1.65 3.1.2. Xac dinh ti le phoi tron cac loai sira nguyen lieu Dua tren nhu cdu protein, lipit doi vdi tre 1-5 tudi, theo tinh toan sira thanh pham du kien cd ham lugng protein va lipit tir 16% - 20% va ket qua phan tich thanh phan ciia nguyen lieu, dua ra mot sd ti le phdi trdn cac thanh phdn nguyen lieu cd thanh phan dinh dudng ca ban va nhu bang sau: Bang 3.3: Thanh phan mot so cong thirc phoi tron nguyen lieu sura TT CTl CT2 CT3 CT4 0:45:45 10:30:50 10:35:45 15:40:35 1 Ti le SiJa bdt nguyen kem: Siia bdt gay: Chat beo 2 Protein (%) (theo tinh toan) 16,4 14,8 16,4 19,6 4 Lipit (%) (theo tinh toan) 15.4 19,6 18,1 16,3 Tien hanh trdn siia bdt nguyen lieu theo cac cdng thiic dua ra d bang tren. Sau dd danh gia chat lugng cam quan theo phep thir cho dilm chdt lugng (TCVN 3215 - 79) cua cac mau sura da trdn de tim dugc ti le phdi trdn cho siia bdt cd chat lugng cao nhat. Bang 3.4 : Ket qua danh gia cam quan sii-a cong thirc Tong TB chu-a CO HS trong lirong HS trong Iirong TB CO HS trong lirong Mau 45 4,5 0,6 2,7 Mill 44 4,4 1 4,4 Vi 45 4,5 1,2 5,4 Do hda tan 43 4,3 1,2 5,16 Mau 43 4,3 0,6 2,58 Mill 42 4,2 1 4,2 Vi 34 3,4 1,2 4,08 Do hda tan 38 3,8 1,2 4,56 Mau 45 4,5 0,6 2,7 Mui 45 4,5 1 4,5 Vi 38 3,8 1,2 4,56 Do hda tan 38 3,8 1,2 4,56 Mau 47 4,7 0,6 2,82 Mill 46 4,6 1 4,6 Vi 46 4,6 1,2 5,52 Do hda tan 48 4,8 1,2 5,76 Cong thirc CTl Diem chat lu-ong 17,66 15,42 C'r2 16,32 CT3 18,7 CT4 Bang ket qua danh gia cam quan cho thay sira dugc phdi trdn theo CT4 cd diem chat lugng cao nhat va bdng 18,7 xip loai Tot [10]. Chgn CT4 lam cdng thiic phdi trdn cac loai nguyen lieu. 3.1.3. Xay dirng cong thirc premix diing de phoi tron vol sira hot nguyen lieu Dua tren nhu cdu dinh dudng khuyin nghi cho ngudi Viet Nam 2007 [12] dua tren khuyin nghj vl vitamin, khoang chat cua WHO/FAO - 2002 ddi vdi tre tir 36 din 60 thang tudi, dua ra du kien ham lugng vitamin va khoang chat cua sira thanh pham trong lOOg va trong 45g (1 lan sii dung) 9 Bang 3.5: Thanh phan vitamin va khoang chat du- kien cua sira thanh pham Thanh phan Don vi Trong lOOg Trong 45g Thiamin mg 0.5 0.23 V-itamin A meg 390 175.5 Vitamin D meg 9 4.05 Vitamin E mg 6 2.7 Acid folic meg 120 54 Vitamin B12 meg 1.1 0.49 Vitamin B2 mg 0.6 0.27 Vitamin Be mg 0.5 0.23 Vitamin C mg 30 13.5 sdt mg 8 3.6 Selen meg 11 4.95 Kem mg 10 4.5 Canxi mg 700 315 Photpho mg 530 238.5 Dua tren ham lugng du kien cua vitamin va khoang chat, tinh toan ham lugng vitamin va khoang chat ciia sira phdi trdn theo ti le da chgn. Ham lugng vitamin va khoang chat can bd sung vao lOOg siia bdt thanh pham dugc the hien d bang 3.6 Bang 3.6: Ham Iirong cac vitamin va khoang chat can bo sung vao lOOg san pham Thanh phan Don vi Ham lu-ong Vitamin Bi mg 0.3 Vitamin D meg 1.3 Vitamin E mg 5.9 Acid folic meg 120 Niacin mg 5.9 Vitamin B2 mg 0.16 Vitamin Be mg 0.3 Vitamin C mg 26.1 sdt mg 7.6 Selen meg 11 Kem mg 8.1 Canxi mg 190 Photpho mg 19.5 10 Dua tren ket qua du tinh lugng vitamin va khoang chat can bd sung vao lOOg sira thanh pham, ciing vdi sir tham khao cua cac chuyen gia cdng thiic premix dugc xay dung de bd sung vao siia dugc thi hien d bang 3.7 Bang 3.7. Cong thirc premix Thanh phan Vitamin Bi Vitamin D Vitamin E Acid folic Niacin Vitamin B2 Vitamin Be Vitamin C Don vi Ham lu-ong/lOOg mg meg g mg g mg mg 67 295 1.4 27 1.4 37 70 5.9 1.7 2.5 1.8 43 4.5 g sdt g Selen mg Kem g Canxi g Photpho g Du kien bd sung 460mg premix vao lOOg sira thanh phdm 3.1.4. Nghien cihi cong thirc phoi trpn de tao sira bpt danh cho tre tir 1-5 tuoi 3.1.4.1. Lira ch9n ty le phoi tron dirong va FOS/inulin: Thir nghiem phdi trdn dudng vdi cdng thiic sira bdt CT4 da dugc lua chgn theo 3 ti le khac nhau la Ml: 5% dudng+ 5% FOS/inulin, M2: 6% dudng+4%F0S/inulin, M3: 7% dudng + 3% FOS /inulin. Tien hanh danh gia cam quan theo phuong phap cho dilm thi hiiu, danh gia sir yeu thich ve vi (thang diem 1-5) nhu sau: Bang 3.8: Bang ket qua cam quan sira ti le b6 sung du-ong va FOS/inulin NGPS BTD Tvien Ml TBF Tdng M2 M3 Mau 2,00 10,47 1 4 5 3 12 Thanh 2 4 3 3 10 9,00 6,03 vien 3 4 12 3 5 Sai sd 18,00 4,87 4 4 2 9 3 Toan 4 5 2 4 10 29,00 21,37 phan 12 6 4 5 3 4 12 7 3 5 4 3 10 8 3 4 9 4 5 13 4 5 13 10 4 34 Tdng 46 113 33 3,4 4,6 TB 3,3 11 khac nhau BFTB F 5,23 19,36 0,67 0,27 2,48 Tuong quan phuang sai tra bang Ftc = 3,55 d mirc y nghia 0.5% vdi bac tu do mau 2, bac tu do sai sd 18 [10] . F=19,36 > Ftc nen ket luan dugc rang cac mau dugc yeu thich khac nhau cd nghia. Bang ket qua cho thay siia cd ti le phdi trdn theo mau M2 cd diem trung binh cao nhat nen la mau cd vi dugc yeu thich nhat. Vi vay, chgn ti le dudng va FOS/inulin bd sung vao la 6%dudng va 4%F0S/inulin. 3.1.4.2. Lya chon ty le phoi tron Lysine Su dung L-lysine monohydroclorid de bd sung vao siia (l,25g L-lysine monoclorid cd Ig lysine). Du kien trdn de sua thanh pham dat 1378mg lysine/1 OOg va khdng tao vi dang trong san pham. Ket qua phan tich thanh phan lysine cua nguyen lieu (bang 3.2) cho thay nguyen lieu da cd mot phan lysine nen phdi trdn lysine vdi cdng thiic siia da dugc lira chgn d tren theo cac ty le 800, 900, lOOOmg L-lysine/ibOg. Tien hanh danh gia cam quan theo phuong phap cho diem thi hieu, danh gia su yeu thich ve vi, thang diem 1 - 5 . Bang 3.9: Ket qua danh gia cam quan vi cua sira khi bo sung lysine 800 mg 900 mg 1 5 4 4 13 2 4 5 4 13 3 5 4 4 13 4 5 5 3 13 5 4 4 4 12 6 5 5 3 13 7 5 5 4 14 8 4 4 4 12 9 4 5 4 14 10 4 5 4 13 Tdng 45 46 38 130 TB 4.5 4.6 3.8 Tvien 1000 mg Tdng NGPS BTD TBF BFTB F Mau 2.00 4.27 2.13 7.58 Thanh vien 9.00 1.33 0.15 0.53 Sai sd 18.00 5.07 0.28 Toan phan 29.00 10.67 Tuong quan phuang sai tra bang Ftc - 3,55 [10] d miic y nghia 0.5% vdi bac tu do mau 2, bac tu do sai sd 18. F > Ftc nen ket luan dugc rang cac mau dugc yeu thich khac nhau cd nghia. Bang ket qua cho thay siia cd ti le phdi trdn L - Lysine 900mg/100g cd diem trung binh cao nhat nen la mau dugc yeu thich nhat. 3.1.3.3 Xac dinh ti le phoi tron premix vol sira bot nguyen lieu Dat mua Premix cua nha cung cap Fotitech, Malaysia, san xuat theo cdng nghe Dan Mach. Thir nghiem phdi trdn Premix vdi cdng thiic sira bdt da dugc lira chgn d tren theo 3 ti le khac nhau la Ml: 400mg, M2: 460mg, M3: 500mg premix/lOOg sira. 12 Phan tich mdt sd thanh phdn kem va canxi cua siia bdt thanh pham da trdn Premix theo 3 ti le tren. Bang 3.10: Ket qua phan tich thanh phan khoang chat cua sira hot tron Premix Thanh phan Don vi Ml M2 M3 Kem mg/lOOg 8.9 9.8 11.1 Canxi mg/lOOg 621 704 735 Theo ket qua phan tich bang 3.10, mau sira M2 cd ham lugng kem va canxi tuong duong vdi sira du kien. Nhu vay lira chgn bd sung 460mg premix cho lOOg siia thanh pham 3.1.5. D^nh gia chat Iirong sira thanh pham 3.1.5.1: Kiem tra chat Iirong sCra thanh pham Phan tich ham lugng protein, glucid, canxi, kem, lysine. Vitamin A, D, FOS/inulin, do am, vi sinh vat cua siia thanh pham. Ket qua nhu bang sau: Bang 3.11: Bang phan tich cac chi tieu chat lirong cua sira thanh pham STT Ten chi tieu Don vi Ket qua % 4.24 1 Do am 2 Ham lugng Gluxit g/lOOg 53.1 3 Ham lugng Lipit g/lOOg 16.3 4 Ham lugng Protein g/lOOg 19.7 5 Ham lugng Canxi mg/lOOg 706 6 Ham lugng Kem mg/lOOg 9.9 7 Ham lugng Lysine g/lOOg 1.35 8 Tdng sd VSV hieu khi CFU/g KPH 9 Tdng sd Conforms MPN/g KPH 10 E.coli MPN/g KPH 11 S. aureus CFU/g KPH 12 B.cereus MPN/g KPH 13 Samonella /25g KPH 14 L. monocytogenes CFU/g KPH 15 Vitamin A mg/lOOg 0.4 16 Vitamin D meg/1 OOg 8.9 13 Tien hanh danh gia cam quan theo phuong phap cho diem thi hieu, danh gia miic do ua thich cua sira thanh pham vdi cac loai siia hien cd danh cho tre tir 1-5 tudi tren thj trudng Bang 3.12: Ket qua danh gia cam quan su-a thanh pham va san pham sira danh cho tre 1-5 tuoi tren thj trirong Tdng TB chira coHS trong lirong HS trong lirong TBco HS trong lirong Mau 46 4.6 0.6 2.8 Mill 44 4.4 1 4.4 Vi 45 4.5 1.2 5.4 Do hda tan 45 4.5 1.2 5.4 Mau 45 4.5 0.6 2.7 Miii 44 4.4 1 4.4 Vi 41 4.1 1.2 4.9 Do hda tan 48 4.8 1.2 5.8 Mau 45 4.5 0.6 2.7 Miii 45 4.5 1 4.5 Vi 39 3.9 1.2 4.7 Do hda tan 42 4.2 1.2 5.0 Mau 47 4.7 0.6 2.8 Mill 46 4.6 1 4.6 Vi 46 4.6 1.2 5.5 Do hda tan 48 4.8 1.2 5.8 Cong thirc Siia thanh pham Dutch Lady Nutifood Nestle Diem chat lirong 18.0 17.8 16.9 18.7 Ke't qua danh gia cam quan cho thay siia thanh pham dat chat lugng tdt va do ua thich ve tdng the cao hon so vdi siia ciia nutifood va tuong duong vdi sira Dutch Lady 3.1.4.2: Theo doi chat lirong san pham trong thoi gian bao quan Theo ddi chat lugng siia bdt thanh pham theo thdi gian bao quan 6 thang. 14 Sira thanh pham dugc ddng gdi trong bao gdi mang nhdm va dugc de d nai khd mat, dinh ki 3 thang/lan kilm tra ham lugng protein, lipit, gluxit, canxi, kem, lysine, vitamin A, D, do am, vi sinh vat cua sira bdt thanh phdm. Bang 3.13: Ket qua phan tich sira thanh pham khi bao quan STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ten chi tieu Don vj Dd am Ham lugng Gluxit Ham lugng Lipit Ham lugng Protein Ham lugng Canxi Ham lugng Kem Ham lugng Lysine Tdng sd VSV hieu khi Tdng sd Conforms E.coli S. aureus B.cereus Samonella L. monocytogenes Vitamin A Vitamin D % Ket qua g/lOOg g/lOOg g/lOOg g/lOOg mg/lOOg g/lOOg CFU/g MPN/g MPN/g CFU/g MPN/g /25g CFU/g mg/lOOg mg/lOOg Sau 3 thang 4.5 53.1 16.3 19.7 700 9.9 1.35 2.2 KPH KPH KPH KPH KPH KPH 0.38 8.5 Sau 6 thang 4.9 53.0 16.4 19.5 701 9.8 1.35 3.5x10 KPH KPH KPH KPH KPH KPH 0.30 7.8 Vdi ket qua phan tich d bang 3.11 va 3.13 cho thay sau 3 va 6 thang bao quan do am cua sira cd tang len 1 chiit, protein, lipid, gluxit, can xi, lysine, kem gan nhu khdng thay ddi, ham lugng vitamin A va vitamin D cd giam di, ve chi tieu vi sinh vat van dam bao theo tieu chuan 46 cua Bd Y tl. 3.2. So bo tinh toan gia thanh san pham TT Khoan chi/Muc chi A San xuat 1kg su-a hot 1 Siia bdt nguyen kem 2 Sira bdt gay 3 Chat beo 4 Dudng 5 Premix 6 L - lysine 8 FOS - inullin 9 Chi khac B Gia mot goi sfra hot thanh pham Don vi kg kg kg kg g kg kg So lu-ong 0.150 0.400 0.350 0.060 0.460 0.009 0.040 250.000 g 15 Dan gia 99,000 95,000 35,000 15,000 500 130,000 62,000 Thanh tien (d) 76,880 14,850 38,000 12,250 900 230 1,170 2,480 7,000 19,220 3.3. Soan thao tai lieu quan li san xuat sira theo HACCP code 2003 3.3.1 Chinh sach cua nha may, so tay chat luong va an toan. De thuc hien dugc viec quan li chat lugng san pham theo he thdng HACCP, dau tien can cd sir ddng y va cam ket ciia ban lanh dao Trung tam thuc pham dinh dudng - Vien dinh dudng. Ndi dung the hien trong sd tay chdt lugng va an toan (Phu luc 1) bao gdm thdng tin he thdng quan ly, chinh sach an toan ciia Trung tam thuc phdm dinh dudng - Vien dinh dudng 3.3.2 Qui pham thirc hanh san xuat tot GMP la quy pham san xuat, tiic la cac bien phap, thao tac thuc hanh can tuan thii nguyen tac dam bao san xuat ra nhung san pham dat yeu cau chat lugng ve sinh an toan. GMP giup kiem soat tdt ca nhiing yeu td lien quan den CLVSATTP cua san pham trong qua trinh san xuat che biln, tir khau tiep nhan nguyen lieu den thanh pham cudi ciing. Qua trinh san xuat siia bdt bao gdm cac GMP chinh (phu luc 2) nhu sau: GMP 1: Tiep nhan nguyen lieu va luu kho GMP 2: Kiem tra do am GMP 3: Kiem tra siia GMP 4: Kiem tra dudng GMP 5: Kiem tra Premix GMP 6: Nhap kho nguyen lieu GMP 7: Xuat kho nguyen lieu GMP 8: Xay dudng GMP 9: Dinh lugng nguyen lieu GMP 10: Trdn GMP 11: Bao quan thanh pham va ban thanh pham GMP 12: Cdng doan ddng gdi GMP 13: Hoan thien san pham GMP 14: Kiem tra cam quan GMP 15: Luu kho va bao quan GMP 16: Xuat kho san pham 3.3.3. SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures) SSOP Cling GMP, kiem soat tat ca nhung yeu td lien quan den chat lugng ve sinh an toan thuc pham cua san pham trong qua trinh san xuat, che bien, tir khau tiep nhan nguyen lieu den thanh pham cudi ciing. SSOP la Quy pham ve sinh va thii tuc kiem soat ve sinh, nghia la cac quy pham ve sinh dimg de dat dugc cac yeu cau ve sinh chung cua GMP. Qui pham dieu kien ve sinh tdt SSOP (phu luc 3) bao gdm cac quy pham sau: SSOP- sd 1: Ve sinh ngudn nude. SSOP- sd 2: Cac be mat tiep xiic vdi san pham SSOP- sd 3: Ngan ngira sir d nhiem cheo SSOP- sd 4: Ve sinh cdng nhan. SSOP- sd 5: Bao ve san pham de khdng bi nhiem ban. SSOP- sd 6: Sii dung, bao quan diing each cac hda chat cd tinh dgc hai SSOP- sd 7: Kiem soat sue khde cdng nhan. SSOP- sd 8: Kiem soat ddng vat gay hai. SSOP- sd 9: Dan nhan va bao quan diing quy each 3.3.4 Xay dung he thong quan ly chat lu-ong HACCP cho san xuat sira bot 16 3.3.4.1 Nhom HACCP Thdnh vien Nhom cdng tdc HACCP Ten thanh vien Chirc vu cong tac Vitri Giap Van Ha Thanh vien Ky su, giam ddc trung tam Nguyen Hdng Minh Trudng nhdm Thac SI Hoang Cdng Quy Thu ki tdng hgp Ky SU Nguyen Thiiy Ninh Thanh vien Sinh vien thuc tap 3.3.4.2 Mo ta san pham Md ta san pham nhu bang sau: STT 1 2 . 3 4 5 6 7 8 ' 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 BANG MO TA SAN PHAM SLTA B O T Mo ta Sira bdt bd sung kem, canxi, lysine va prebiotic cho tre 1-5 tudi - Siia bdt: Sura bgt nguyen kem, siia bdt gay, chat beo siia Nguyen lieu - Nguyen lieu bd sung: premix, lysine, dudng trang, FOS/inulin San pham dugc bao gdi bang mang phuc hgp, cd khdi lugng Md ta tdm tat qui 250g, cho vao trong hop giay phang, xep vao thiing cattong vdi each thanh pham the tich tuong iing - Ham lugng am < 5% Cac dac tinh quan - Dang bdt min, khdng vdn cue, mau trang hoac kem nhat, mui trgng ciia san pham tham dac tnmg - Sira bdt, chat beo, premix, lysine, FOS/inulin dugc mua d cac Khu vuc khai thac cdng ty nhap khau. nguyen lieu - Dudng dugc mua d cdng ty trong nude Cach thiic bao quan, Nguyen lieu dugc bao gdi theo qui each ciia nha san xuat, van van chuyen va tiep chuyen bang xe day kin ve xudng nhan nguyen lieu Cac cdng doan che Tiep nhan nguyen lieu —> Kiem tra —+ Liru kho —> Xay (Dudng) —> Trdn -^ Ddng gdi -^ Hoan thien san pham —» Nhap kho bien chinh Phuang phap bao Bao gdi each ly quan Mang phiic hgp 3 Idp Bao gdi ben trong Vd hop giay va thiing cattong Bao gdi ben ngoai Nai khd rao, thoang mat, sach se Dieu kien bao quan Dieu kien phan phdi, van chuyen san Van chuyen bang phuong tien sach, cd che day kin pham Thdi gian sir dung 12 thang ke tir ngay san xuat Cac yeu cau ve dan Theo quy dinh hien hanh nhan Cac dieu kien dac Khdng cd biet Phuang thirc sir - Dun sdi nude, de ngudi xudng nhiet do 60°C dung - Dinh lugng nude va sira nhu hudng dan Dac diem Ten san pham 17 - Pha siia vao nude, khuay deu, udng lien - Sau khi md tui, budc kin, khdng de qua 30 ngay Ddi tugng sir dung Tre em tir 1 tdi 5 tudi - Theo yeu cau khach hang Cac qui dinh yeu - Theo cac quy dinh va tieu chuan ciia nha nude cau can tuan thu. - Theo Quylt dinh sd 46/2007/QD-BYT ciia Bd Y tl 17 18 3.3.4.3 Xay dung so do qui trinh san xuat: Dua tren co sd quan ly chat lugng san pham sira bdt cho tre tir 1-5 tudi theo he thdng HACCP. Sff do qui trinh cong nghe san pham sira bot Nhap nguyen lieu: Sira bdt nguyen kem, siia bdt gay, chat beo siia, premix, dudng, lyzine, FOS/inulin. If Kiem tra nguyen lieu 1 r Luu kho 1 r Xuat kho " 1' Dudng Siia, nguyen lieu khac ir Xay (0.15mm; lOkg/me) ^ Dinhlugng ^ ' ' Trdn (50kg/me/20 phiit) 1 t ' Ddng gdi (250g/gdi) ' Hoan thien san pham (40-100 gdi/thimg carton) Nhap kho a. Nhdp nguyen lieu + Siia bdt: Sua bdt (sira bdt nguyen kem va siia bdt gay) dugc mua tir Newzealand, cd day dii CA va bang cdng bd chat lugng cua nha san xuat. Siia bdt nguyen lieu dugc van chuyen bang xe sach, bao bi cd ghi nhan day du va dugc kiem tra tnrdc khi nhap kho. 18 + Nguyen lieu khac: Cac nguyen lieu khac bao gom chdt beo sira, dudng trdng, premix, lysine, FOS - inullin dugc thu mua tir nhung cdng ty uy tin. Cac Id nguyen lieu cd ddy dii CA kem theo bang cdng bd chdt lugng cua nha san xudt. Ngoai ra, nguyen lieu dugc van chuyen bdng xe sach, bao bi dugc ghi nhan ddy dii va dugc kilm tra trudc khi nhap kho. b. Luu kho Nguyen lieu sau khi nhap dugc bao quan trong kho mat chd chi biln. c. Xudt kho Nguyen lieu dua vao san xuat phai cdn han sir dung va tinh chdt cam quan cdn nguyen ven. d. Xay duang Dudng dugc xay tdi kich thudc 0.15 mm, khoi lugng cua mdt me xay la 10 kg. e. Dinh lugng vd tron Cac loai nguyen lieu va dudng da xay dugc dugc dinh lugng rdi dua vao thilt bi phdi trdn. Phuong phap phdi trgn la phuong phap trdn da cdp. Cac nguyen lieu cd khdi lugng it dugc trdn trudc vdi nhau rdi den nguyen lieu cd khdi lugng ldn hon. Mdt me trdn khoang 50 kg, trong 20 phiit. g. Ddng goi Ban thanh pham sau khi trdn dugc dua tdi thiet bi ddng gdi. Khdi lugng moi gdi la 250g. Sau khi ddng gdi cd thao tac kiem tra do kin cua bao bi. h. Hodn thien sdn phdm San pham sau khi ddng gdi dugc dan nhan, in thdi han sir dung, ngay san xuat, ki hieu Id hang cimg vdi nhiing thdng tin khac theo yeu cau cua khach hang. San pham sau khi dan nhan dugc ddng vao thiing cattong, mdi thiing gdm 40-100 gdi. /. Nhap kho San pham hoan thien dugc xep ngay ngan va bao quan trong kho mat. 3.3.4.4 Tham djnh so do quy trinh Nhdm nghien cuu HACCP tien hanh kiem tra, xac nhan lai toan bg cac muc thuc hien trong budc 4, bd sung nhiing thdng tin mdi va dieu chinh nhimg thdng tin cd sy thay ddi. Viec tham tra nay dugc tien hanh trong thuc te san xuat, ca trong ca san xuat, van hanh thiet bi, trong gid nghi... de bao dam mgi mdi nguy trong cac dieu kien khac nhau deu dugc nhan dien chinh xac. 3.3.4.5 Phan tich va lap danh muc cac mdi nguy hai va cac bien phap phong ngu-a - Xac djnh cac CCP Tien hanh phan tich mdi nguy theo so do cay (Phu luc 4) 3 cau hdi (ddi vdi nguyen lieu) va 4 cau hdi (ddi vdi quy trinh). Ndi dung phan tich va xac dinh cac CCP nhu Bang phan tich CCP (Phu luc 5) 3.3.4.6 Thiet lap he thong giam sat cho tirng CCP He thdng giam sat phai dugc xac dinh mdt each cu the bao gdm: - Ndi dung giam sat la gi? 19
- Xem thêm -