Tài liệu Mobile & wireless networking – lecture 1 introduce wireless transmission - geert heijenk

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262001 Mobile & Wireless Networking Lecture 1: Introduction & Wireless Transmission (1/2) [Schiller, Section 1 & Section 2.1 - 2.5] Geert Heijenk Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Outline of Lecture 1   Introduction           About the course “Mobile & Wireless Networking” History Current Wireless Technologies Important trends Wireless Transmission (1/2)           Frequencies Signals Antennas Signal Propagation Multiplexing 2 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Mobile & Wireless Networking   Mobile   user can use network services while moving       Wireless   communications without using a wire       w.r.t. point of attachment to network Usually user is moving with his/her networking device directly between two user nodes, or (often) between user node and access point connected to the fixed (wired) network Networking   roughly, all architectures, protocols, and algorithms at the         link layer (mostly medium access control, MAC) network layer, and transport layer (we will briefly address physical layer as well) 3 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 What is different in wireless networks?               Higher loss-rates Restrictive spectrum regulations Lower transmission rates Higher delays, higher jitter Lower security Shared and unbound medium Mobility       change of point of attachment to network how to find a user / device Limitations of access devices         battery power data loss cpu user interface 4 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Course Outline (Mobile & Wireless Networking, MW&N) Basic principles: •  •  •  •  •  •  Physical layer: propagation, multiplexing, modulation, spread spectrum, OFDM MAC layer: hidden terminals, medium access, random access, CDMA, Hybrid ARQ Cellular concepts: cell layout, interference Dealing with mobility: handover, mobility management Ad-hoc networks: problems of ad-hoc routing Transport layer: problems with TCP over wireless Systems: •  •  •  •  •  Cellular: UMTS, LTE Wireless LAN: IEEE 802.11a/b/g/e/n Low power / short range systems: Bluetooth, Zigbee Mobile IP: + Hierarchical Mobile IP, Fast Handovers for Mobile IP Ad-hoc routing: DSDV, DSR, AODV 5 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Positioning Mobile & Wireless Networking Telematica Systemen & Toepassingen networking overview Mobile & Wireless Networking (1) focus on link- and network layer of m&w networks Telematica Netwerken Mobile & Wireless Networking (2) advanced: ad-hoc networks networking in-depth Mobile Radio Communications focus on physical layer 6 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Course organization See: http://www.cs.utwente.nl/~heijenk/mwn/ 7 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Outline of Lecture 1   Introduction           About the course “Mobile & Wireless Networking” History Current Wireless Technologies Important trends Wireless Transmission (1/2)           Frequencies Signals Antennas Signal Propagation Multiplexing 8 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 History of wireless communication Many people in history used light for communication Discovery of electromagnetic waves       1831 Faraday demonstrates electromagnetic induction 1864 J. Maxwell theory of electromagnetic fields, wave equations 1886 H. Hertz demonstration of the wave character of electrical transmission Hertz: "It's of no use whatsoever[...] this is just an experiment that proves Maestro Maxwell was right - we just have these mysterious electromagnetic waves that we cannot see with the naked eye. But they are there.” 1895 1907 1915 1920 1928 1933 Guglielmo Marconi, first demonstration of wireless telegraphy (long wave) Commercial transatlantic connections Wireless voice transmission New York - San Francisco Marconi, discovery of short waves many TV broadcast trials (across Atlantic, color TV, TV news) Frequency modulation (E. H. Armstrong) 9 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 History of wireless communication II 1956 1972 1979 1982 First mobile phone system in Sweden B-Netz in Germany NMT at 450MHz (Scandinavian countries) Start of GSM-specification »  goal: pan-European digital mobile phone system with roaming 1992 1997 1998 1998 1999 Start of GSM Wireless LAN - IEEE802.11 Specification of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Iridium: portable satellite telephony IEEE Standard 802.11b, 2.4 GHz, 11 Mbit/s Bluetooth, 2.4 GHz, < 1 Mbit/s 10 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 History of wireless communication III 2001 2002 2004 2009 2010 Start of 3G (Japan) UMTS trials in Europe Start of UMTS in Europe IEEE 802.11g mobile subscribers overtake fixed-line subscribers worldwide 1 billion cellular subscribers UMTS launch in Netherlands IEEE 802.11n standard (December) First LTE Network (Stockholm / Oslo) ?? billion cellular subscribers 11 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Wireless systems: overview of the development cellular phones 1981: NMT 450 satellites 1983: AMPS 1986: NMT 900 1992: GSM 1994: DCS 1800 analogue 1982: Inmarsat-A 1991: D-AMPS 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1993: PDC 1991: DECT 1998: Iridium 2000: GPRS 199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802.11 1999: 802.11b, Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802.11a 2001: IMT-2000 digital 4G – fourth generation: when and how? wireless LAN 1980: CT0 1988: Inmarsat-C 1991: CDMA cordless phones 200?: Fourth Generation (Internet based) Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Current wireless technologies (1/2)   Telecommunication Systems           WLAN             initial / primary service: mobile voice telephony large coverage per access point (100s of meters - 10s of kilometers) low - moderate data rate (10s of kbit/s - Mbits/s) Examples: GSM, UMTS, LTE initial service: wireless ethernet extension moderate coverage per access point (10s of meters - 100s of meters) moderate - high data rate (Mbits/s - 10s of Mbits/s) Examples: IEEE 802.11b, a, g, n. Short-range Other systems 13 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Current wireless technologies (2/2) Short-range       direct connection between devices (< 10s of meters) typical low power usage examples: Bluetooth, IrDA, ZigBee Other systems   Satellite systems     global coverage, applications –  audio/TV broadcast; positioning –  personal communications   Broadcast systems       Fixed wireless access     several technologies (DECT, WLAN, IEEE802.16 (11-60GHz)) DECT     satellite/terrestrial DVB, DAB (Support of high speeds for mobiles) Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication TETRA     Terrestrial Trunked Radio Netherlands: C2000 system 14 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Standardization   3GPP (3G partnership project) (UMTS, LTE)         3GPP2 (CDMA2000) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)         www.3gpp.org specification downloadable (free of charge) from ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/ Specs/ 802.11 (Wireless LAN: WiFi) 802.15 (Wireless PAN: Bluetooth, Zigbee) 802.16 (Broadband Wireless Access: WiMAX)) IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)     Mobile IP AODV 15 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Outline of Lecture 1   Introduction           About the course “Mobile & Wireless Networking” History Current Wireless Technologies Important trends Wireless Transmission (1/2)           Frequencies Signals Antennas Signal Propagation Multiplexing 16 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Mobile subscriptions 17 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Mobile subscriptions per region 18 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Trends in computing 18 Mainframe (one computer, many people) PC (one person, one computer) Ubiquitous computing (one person, many computers) 16 14 A proliferation of small, lowcost, embedded devices incorporating computing and communication capabilities 10 8 6 4 Moving towards pervasive computing Yr 2005 2000 1995 1990 1985 1980 1975 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 0 1945 2 1940 Sales/Yr 12 Source: Presentation by Marc Weiser ”Nomadic issues in Ubiquitous computing”, Xerox, Palo Alto. Research Center, 1996. 19 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010 Wireless and mobile systems evolution Vehicle Walk Fixed 4G Cellular Short range 0,1 1 WLAN 10 100 Mbps User Bitrate 20 Mobile and Wireless Networking 2009 / 2010
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