Tài liệu Mind Map English Grammar (Nguyễn Đắc Tâm)

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Mind Map English Grammar (Nguyễn Đắc Tâm)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Original title: Mind Map English Grammar By: N G U Y E N D A C T A M , P h . D . Tac pham: N G U P H A P T I E N G A N H H I E N D A I Tac gia: Tien si N G U Y E N D A C T A M Ban quyen © 2013 Nguyen D i e Tarn Cong ty First News - T r i Viet giu ban quyen xuat ban va phat hanh an ban tieng Viet tren toan the gidi theo hop dong liy quyen xuat ban vdi tac gia thang 12 nam 2013. Bat cii su sao chep nao khong duoc su dong y ciia First News deu la bat hop phap va vi pham Luat Xudt ban Vict Nam, Luat Ban quyen Quoc te va Cong uoc Bao ho Ban quyen So huu T r i tue Berne. Giao trinh hoc va tham khao danh cho ngirofi hoc va giang vien tieng Anh A SELF-STUDY R E F E R E N C E AND PRACTICE T E X T B O O K FOR A L L L E A R N E R S A N D T E A C H E R S O F E N G L I S H CONG T Y VAN HOA SANG TAO TRI V I E T - FIRST NEWS 11H Nguyen Thj Minii Khai, Quan 1, TP. H C M Tel: (84.8) 38227979 - 38227980 - 38233859 - 38233860 Fax: (84.8) 38224560; Email: tnviel@firslnews.com. vn Website: www.firstnews.com.vn N H A XUAT BAN TOWG H U F T M O - t H I M I N H V E TAG GlA (About the author) Tien si NGUYEN D A CTAM TAM D A C NGUYEN, Ph.D. i TAI LIEU T H A M KHAO " H O W E N G L I S H W O R K S : A GRAMMAR P R A C T I C E B O O K Michael Swan and Catherine Walter, Oxford University Press (1997) *• L I V I N G S T R U C T U R E E N G L I S H WilUam Stannard Allen, Longman Press (1974) BRIGHTER GRAMMAR Q u e q u a n : Thira T h i e n ( H u e ) T n i quan : Blnh D i n h - 1989 - 1996 - 2011: G i a n g day va q u a n l y - G i a m doc T m n g tarn Ngoai n g u Lfng d u n g k h u che xuat Sai G o n (Director o f SepZone Foreign Language Center) - H i e u t r u o n g T r u o n g Ngoai n g u N G U Y E N D U SAl G O N (Principal o f N G U Y E N D U SAI G O N Foreign Language School) - G i a m doc co so dao tao d a i hoc tai chiic t h u o c D a i hoc N g o a i n g u H a N o i tai T P H C M ( D i r e c t o r o f JOINT IN-SERVICE T r a i n i n g College o f H a N o i University f o r Foreign Studies) - 1995 - nay: G i a n g day va q u a n ly - Pho C h i i tich H o i d o n g Q u a n t r i D a i hoc V a n Lang ( D e p u t y C h a i r m a n o f The Board o f Trustees) C.E. Eckersley & Margaret Macaulay, Longman I*ress (1982) *' H E A T H H A N D B O O K O F E N G L I S H Henry L Christ & Margaret M. Starkey &J.C Jressler, D.C. and Company (1965) Heath ,„. M I N D MAP G R A M M A R (Thai) M.Eng. Sc., The University of New South Wales, Australia *• P R A C T I C A L E N G L I S H U S A G E ( 2 n d E d i t i o n ) Michael Swan, Oxford University Press (1997) • A UNIVERSITY C O U R S E IN E N G L I S H GRAMMAR Angela Downing and Philip Locke, Phoenix ELT (1995) U N D E R S T A N D I N G A N D U S I N G E N G L I S H GRAMMAR (3rd E d i t i o n ) Betty Schrampfer Azar, Prentice-Hall, Inc. (1981) M O D E R N ENGLISH: A PRACTICAL REFERENCE G U I D E (2nd Edition) - Pho H i e u t r u o n g T r u o n g D a i hoc V a n Lang Marcella Frank, Prentice-Hall, (Vice Rector o f Van Lang University) T H E L O N G M A N STUDENT'S GRAMMAR O F S P O K E N - Khoa t r u o n g Khoa N g o a i n g i i ( D e a n o f the Faculty o f Foreign Language) - 2000: - Phu ta giao su D a i h o c O R E G O N , H o a Ky (Assistant Professor o f the University o f Oregon, USA) - Nghien cuu va giang day tai Dai hoc Oregon State University. Inc. (1993) AND WRITTEN ENGLISH Prof Douglas Biber, Dr. Susan Conrad, and Geoffrey Leech Longman (2002) *" E N G L I S H G R A M M A R I N U S E (4th E d i t i o n ) Raymond Murphy - Cambridge University Press (2012) LOI NOI D A U - 9 LOI NOI D A U day, khi tieng Anh chua la ngon ngii quoc te trong moi diing ngon ngu (not knov^ing about the language, but knowing the language). Dieu nay cho thay hgc ngu phap tieng Anh a Viet Nam la diing vi tieng Anh la EFL (ngoai ngu), khong phai ESL (ngon ngu thii hai), tuy nhien su yeu kem trong viec hgc va day ngu phap la de lam bai tap, sau do la bai thi ma khong diing ngu phap trong cac hoat dong ngon ngu (activities) va thuc hanh ngon ngu (tasks). tmong toan cau hoa, xu huong viec giang day va h Q C tap tieng Nham gop phan ho trg hgc ngu phap, M I N D MAP ENGLISH »- Truac Anh tai Viet Nam thien ve hai ky nang DOC HIEU va VIET. He qua la trong cac the he truoc, nhieu ngudi doc hieu va viet tieng Anh thong thao khong kem nguoi ban x i i dugc hoc hanh t u te; ngugc lai, gap kho khan khi giao tiep nghe-noi bang tieng Anh. Tu thap nien 90 the ky truac day, giao tiep ngon ngu bao gom bon ky nang co ban: NGHE-NOI-DQC-VIET Do vay khi noi den tieng Anh giao tiep c6 nghia la can phai giao tiep dugc ca bon ky nang tren. Phucmg phap giao tiep dua tren su phat trien ky nang ngon ngu cua tre em: giai doan dau tap trung vao phat trien NGHE-NOI; giai doan phat trien tap trung DQC VIET Noi n h u vay khong c6 nghia la khi day ky nang nghe noi thi khong CO yeu cau phat trien ky nang doc viet va ngugc lai. Doi vai moi truong giao luu ngon ngu va kinh te toan cau va phat trien khoa hoc ngay nay, ky nang dich thuat va phien dich cung nkm trong giao tiep ngon ngu bac cao trong m o i truong toan cau hoa. Vai tro ciia ngu phap trong phat trien ngon ngu luon la nen tang de hoc va phat trien mpt ngon ngu. De phat trien mot ngon ngu, d i i do la ngoai ngu nhu tieng Anh, nen tang cua ngon ngu la ngu phap, tir vung va phat am. Do vay, vai tro ngu phap la de phat trien ngon ngu diing va du de phat trien ky nang giao tiep; ngu phap khong chi de hieu ve ngon ngu ma de su dung GRAMMAR la cong cu de hieu biet tieng Anh duoi hinh thiic tom luge theo t u duy logic. Do vay nguoi hgc can sii dung hieu biet ve ngu phap va quan trgng hon la ling dung vao nhieu hoat dgng thxfc hanh de phat huy cac chii de ngu phap trong cuon sach. Cuon sach nay ciia chiing toi c6 nhiing dac diem sau day: - Giang vien c6 the huang dan cho nguoi hgc cac chii de va chii diem ngii phap theo t u duy logic qua cac so do t u duy tom t^t de nho va de hieu. - Ngugi hgc de dang t u hgc va tham khao truac khi lam cAc bai tap ngu phap hoac sii dung tieng Anh. - He thong bai hgc dugc trinh bay dang "mind map" each tan tir thap len cao nen ngugi hgc yeu thich ngii phap tieng Anh hon. - Sau khi hgc, hieu, nam viing cac chu de, chii diem ngii phap, nguoi hgc c6 the t u ve lay "mind map" ciia rieng minh. Nguoi soan sach rat mong quy dong nghiep, ban dgc va hgc vien gop y xay dung cho cuon sach nay de c6 the hoan thi^n dan trong cac Ian tai ban toi. Xin chan thanh don nhan y kien ciia quy vi. , TP. H C M , ngay3 thangS nam2014 Tien si NGUYEN DAC TAM LOI G i a i T H I E U M i n d Map hay so do t u duy la mot phuong phap hoc tap c6 hieu qua cao va dang dugc ap dung cho kha nhieu mon hoc. Tuy nhien, tai Viet Nam, khi nhac den so do tu duy thi thuong it ai nghi den mon ngu phap, vi day la mot mon hoc kho khan, chi can theo dung quy luat va khong doi hoi (tham chi khong cho phep) su sang tao. Vi vay, tai lieu " M i n d Map Enghsh Grammar" CO the se lam cho doc gia c6 mot chut ngac nhien, va khong loai trir kha nang c6 the c6 ngudi con c6 chiit nghi ngai nua. Thuc ra, viec su dung Mind Map de giang day ngu phap tieng Anh khong he la mot dieu gi qua mdi me ma da duac ap dung 6 nhieu noi tren the gioi vol cac miic do hieu qua khac nhau. Vi vay, viec ap dung phuong phap hoc nay vao viec hoc ngu phap tieng Anh tai Viet Nam ciia TS. Nguyen Dac Tam la mot sang kien dang khich le. MUG LUC Ve Tac Gia 6 Tai Lieu Tham Khao 7 Loi N o i Dau 8 Lai GioiThieu 10 Muc Luc 11 Chuong Dan Nhap 20 PHAN 1 (PART 1) ^_ • CHUONG 1 - VAI D I N H NGHIA T U KHO (Chapter 1 - Some definitions of difficult terms) 25 1. Sentence (Cau) 26 dong gop quan trong khi sii dung so do t u duy de dua ra nhung 2. Subject (Chu ngu) 28 tom tat vira ngan gon vtia day du cho nhiJrng van de ngu phap 3. Object (Tan ngu) 28 4. Complement (Bo ngu) 29 Pronouns), trang 110 (Adjectives), hoac cac hinh anh, so do giiip 5. Antecedent (Tir diing truoc/Tien ngu) 30 nguoi hgc hieu mot each true tiep ve gioi tii chi noi chon/khong 6. Appositive ( D o n g v i ngu) 30 7. Person (Ngoi) 31 8. Number (So) 31 9. Gender (Giong) 32 10. Verbal (Thugc dgng tu) 32 11. Ellipsis (Phep tinh luge) 34 12. Idiom (Thanh ngCr) 34 Ve npi dung ciia tai lieu, toi cho rang tac gia da c6 nhung dugc xem la kho khan va roi ram ciia tieng Anh. Toi dac biet thich cac so do atrang29 (Complement), trang54 (Interrogative gian (trang 125 va 126). Toi cho rang cuon sach nay xiing dang dugc Truong Dai hoc Van Lang dau t u them de c6 the dugc xuat ban va pho bien rpng rai. TP.HCM, ngay 11/4/2013 Tien si VU T H I PHUONG A N H Director, Research and International Relations Director, Educational Testing and Quality Assurance University of Economics and Finance Muc Luc-13 12 • M I N D M A P ENGLISH GRAMMAR • CHUONG 4 - DONG TU P H A N 2 (PART 2) 8 H I L O A I ( 8 PARTS OF SPEECH) • C H U O N G 2 - D A N H Tir (Chapter 2 - N o u n s ) ?: 37 (Chapter 4 - Verbs) 56 Cac l o a i d p n g t u ( K i n d s o f verbs) 58 1 . D o n g t u b i e n v i / D p n g t u g i o i h a n (Finite verbs/Finites) 60 1.1 Ngoai d o n g tit (Transitive verbs) 60 39 1.2 N o i d o n g tir (Intransitive verbs) 60 2. Cac chiic nang cua d a n h tir (Grammatical functions o f n o u n s ) . . 40 1.3 D o n g t u lien ket ( L i n k i n g verbs) 62 1 . Cac l o a i d a n h t u ( K i n d s o f n o u n s ) 2. D o n g t u k h o n g b i e n v i / D p n g t u k h o n g g i o i h a n 3. D a n h tir d e m duoc va d a n h t i t k h o n g d e m d u o c ( C o u n t nouns/Countable n o u n s & Mass nouns/ Uncountable nouns) 41 (Chapter 3 - P r o n o u n s ) 42 Cac l o a i d a i tir (Kinds o f p r o n o u n s ) 43 1 . D a i tir N h a n x u n g (Personal P r o n o u n s ) 44 1.1 Dai tir nhan xung lam chu ngu (Subjective Personal Pronouns)... 44 1.2 Dai tir nhan xung lam tan ngu (Objective Personal Pronouns).. 45 46 3. D a i tir Phan t h a n & D a i t i i N h a n m a n h (Reflexive a n d E m p h a s i z i n g P r o n o u n s ) 64 2.1 D o n g tir nguyen the hoac nguyen mau (Infinitives) 64 2.1.1 Nguyen the c6 "To" (Infinitive with "To") • CHUONG 3 - DAI TU 2. D a i t i t So h u u (Possessive P r o n o u n s ) ( N o n - f i n i t e verbs/Non-finites) 47 4. D a i tir C h i d i n h ( D e m o n s t r a t i v e P r o n o u n s ) 49 5. D a i tir Bat d i n h ( I n d e f i n i t e P r o n o u n s ) 50 6. D a i tir Q u a n he (Relative P r o n o u n s ) 51 7. D a i tir N g h i v a n (Interrogative P r o n o u n s ) 54 8. D a i t i i H o t u o n g (Reciprocal P r o n o u n s ) 55 9. D a i tir Phan p h o i ( D i s t r i b u t i v e P r o n o u n s ) 55 2.1.2 Nguyen the khong "To" (Infinitive without "To") 65 67 2.2 D a n h t u dong (Gerund) 68 2.3 Phan t u (Participles) 70 2.3.1 Phan t u hien tai (Present Participle) 70 2.3.2 Phan t u qua k h i i (Past Participle) 72 2.3.3 N o i them ve phan t u (Participle) 74 3. T r p d p n g t u / D p n g tir k h i e m k h u y e t ( A u x i l i a r y verbs/Defective verbs) 76 3.1 Trp d o n g t u (Auxiliary verbs) 76 3.2 D p n g t u k h i e m khuyet (Defective verbs) 77 3.2.1 N o i them ve Defective verbs 77 3.2.2 Cach diing khac nhau giua dong t u khiem khuyet va dong t i i thuong 78 • C H U O N G 5 - CAC P H A N C H I N H CUA D O N G T U (Chapter 5 - The p r i n c i p a l parts o f a verb) 79 l . T h e (Form) 82 1.1 The tiep dien (Progressive f o r m or Continuous f o r m ) 82 1 4 - MiND M A P E N G L I S H MUC GRAMMAR LUC-15 1.2 The nhan m a n h (Emphatic f o r m ) 83 • C H U O N G 6 - TINH T U 1.3 The truyen khien (Causative f o r m ) 85 (Chapter 6 - Adjectives) 109 86 1. T i n h t u (Adjectives) 110 2. T h i (Tense) 2.1 T h i hien tai (Present Tenses^ 87 1.1 T i n h tir Rieng (Proper Adjective) I l l 2.1.1 Thl hien tai don (Simple Present Tense) 87 1.2 T i n h ttt M i e u ta (Descriptive Adjective) I l l 2.1.2 Thl hien tai tiep dien (Present Continuous Tense) 89 2.1.3 Thl hien tai hoan thanh (Present Perfect Tense) 90 1.3 T i n h t u So l u g n g (Adjective o f Quantity) I l l 1.4 T i n h tir So dem (Numeral Adjective) 112 1.5 T i n h tir C h i d i n h (Demonstrative Adjective) 112 92 1.6 T i n h ttt Phan biet (Distributive Adjective) 113 92 1.7 T i n h tir Nghi van (Interrogative Adjective) 114 2.2.2 Thi qua k h i i tiep dien (Past Continuous Tense) 93 1.8 T i n h ttr So h u u (Possessive Adjective) 114 2.2.3 Thi qua khii hoan thanh (Past Perfect Tense) 94 1.9 T i n h tir Quan he (Relative Adjective) 114 2.1.4 Thi hien tai hoan thanh tiep dien (Present Perfect Continuous Tense) 2.2 T h i qua k h i i (Past Tenses) 2.2.1 Thi qua khii don (Simple Past Tense) 91 2.2.4 Thi qua khii hoan thanh tiep dien (Past Perfect Continuous Tense) 95 2. Cach d i i n g ciia t i n h ttr (The usage o f Adjectives) 115 96 • C H U O N G 7 - TRANG T U / PHO T U 2.3.1 Thi tuang lai don (Simple Future Tense) 96 (Chapter 7 - Adverbs) 117 2.3.2 Thi tuang lai tiep dien (Future Continuous Tense) 99 1. Trang ttr (Adverbs) 118 2.3 Thi tuang lai (Future Tenses) 2.3.3 Thi tuang lai hoan thanh (Future Perfect Tense) 100 2.3.4 Thi tuong lai hoan thanh tiep dien (Future Perfect Continuous Tense) 3. C a c h ( M o o d ) 101 102 3.1 Chi d i n h each (Indicative m o o d ) 102 3.2 M e n h lenh each (Imperative m o o d ) 102 3.3 Dieu kien each (Conditional m o o d ) 102 3.4 Gia d i n h each (Subjunctive m o o d ) 103 4. L o i (Vbice) 105 4.1 Lam the nao d o i tir l o i chii d o n g sang l o i t h u d o n g 105 4.2 Gian do t o m tat cac t h i 6 l o i chii d o n g sang thti d o n g 106 4.3 Chii y d o i sang l o i t h u d o n g k h i cau chii d o n g a dang dae biet iS^ 1.1 Trang tir N o i ket (Conjunctive Adverb) 119 1.2 Trang tir Nghi van (Interrogative Adverb) 119 1.3 Trang tir Quan he (Relative Adverb) 119 1.4 Trang tir T h a i gian (Adverb o f Time) 120 1.5 Trang tir N o i chon (Adverb o f Place) 120 1.6 Trang tir Cach thiic (Adverb o f Manner) 120 1.7 Trang tir So l u g n g (Adverb o f Quantity) 121 1.8 Trang ttr Xac d i n h va Phil d i n h (Adverb o f Affirmation & Negation) 121 1.9 Trang ttr Tan suat/So dem (Adverb of Frequency or N u m b e r ) 2. Cach d t i n g ciia trang ttr (The usage o f adverbs) 121 122 16 Muc Luc 17 - MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR • C H U O N G 8 - GIOI • C H U O N G 1 1 - M E N H DE T U ( C h a p t e r s - Prepositions) 123 1 . G i o i ttr (Prepositions) 2 . Phan biet cac l o a i g i o i t u ? 144 124 1 . M e n h de c h i n h ( M a i n / Independent clause) 145 125 2 . M e n h de p h u (Subordinate / D e p e n d e n t clause) 2 . 1 Menh de danh t u ( N o u n clause) 2 . 2 M e n h de t i n h t u (Adjective clause) 145 147 148 3 . Vai h i n h a n h de p h a n biet g i o i tir 126 4 . Cach d t i n g cua g i o i t u 127 • C H U O N G 9 - LIEN T U VA THAN (Chapter 1 1 - Clauses) 2 . 3 M e n h de trang tir (Adverb clause) • CHUONG 1 2 - T U 149 CAU (Chapter 1 2 - Sentences) 152 (Chapter 9 - C o n j u n c t i o n s a n d Interjections) 129 1 . Lien t u ( C o n j u n c t i o n s ) 130 1 . Cau d o n gian ( S i m p l e sentences) 152 1 . 1 Lien tir ket hop (Co-ordinating conj.) 131 2 . Cau kep ( C o m p o u n d sentences) 152 1.2 Lien tir p h u thuoc (Subordinating conj.) 132 3 . Cau p h i i c ( C o m p l e x sentences) 152 2 . T h a n ttr (Interjections) 134 4 . Cau h o n h o p ( C o m p o u n d - C o m p l e x sentences) 152 2 . 1 Q u y tac ngu phap 1 134 2 . 2 Q u y tac ngu phap 2 135 P H A N 4 ( PART 4 ) • C H U O N G 1 3 - C A C H DUNG (Chapter 1 3 - Usage) P H A N 3 ( PART 3 ) • C H U O N G 10 - C U M T U / N H O M 153 A. T r u o n g h o p (case) T U 154 136 1 . T r u o n g h g p c h i i each ( N o m i n a t i v e case) 154 C u m t u (Phrase) 137 2 . T r u o n g h g p t a n each (Accusative case) 155 1 . C u m g i o i ttr (Prepositional phrase) 138 3 . T r u o n g h g p d u each (Dative case) 157 2 . C u m t h u o c d o n g ttr (Verbal phrase) 2 . 1 C u m phan t u (Participle phrase) 2 . 2 C u m danh d o n g ttr (Gerundial phrase) 140 141 142 4 . T r u o n g h g p so h u u each (Possessive case) 157 5 . T r u o n g h g p h o each (Vocative case) 160 B. Sir h o a j i g p dai tir ( P r o n o u n agreement) 160 (Chapter 1 0 - C r o u p o f w o r d s ) 2 . 3 C u m d o n g t u nguyen the (Infinitive phrase) 143 ^ ^ c , « < ^ .... 18 Muc Luc - 1 9 M I N D M A P ENGLISH GRAMMAR C. Su hoa hop giua chu ngu va dong t u (Subject - Verb Agreement) 163 Phu luc 5 - Phep so sanh cua tinh tu va trang tCr (Appendix 5 - The comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs) Phu luc 6 - So sanh kep • C H U O N G 14 - P H A N T I C H T U L O A I 166 (Appendix 6 - Double Comparison) 1. D a n h t u ( N o u n ) 167 2. Dai t u (Pronoun) 169 Phu luc 7 - Cau noi true tiep va cau noi gian tiep (Appendix 7 - Direct speech and indirect speech/ 3. T i n h t u (Adjective) 170 4. Trang t u (Adverb) 171 (Appendix 8 - Shortened form of verbs) 5. Dong t u bien vi/gidi han (Finite verb) 172 Phu luc 9 - Bang dong t u bat quy tac 6. Danh dong tit (Gerund) 173 (Appendix 9 - List of irregular verbs) 7. Phan t u (Participle or Verbal adjective) 173 Phu luc 10 - Huc^ng dan each ve Ban Do Tu Duy (Chapter 14 - Parsing) 174 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • P H U L U C (APPENDIX) Phu luc 1 - Dau nhan am/Dau trong am (Appendix 1 - Accent mark/stress mark) 177 Phu luc 2 - Cau dieu kien (Appendix 2 - Conditional sentences-If clause) 182 -Phu luc 3 - Ung dung dac biet cua dong tu - Cau tra loi ngan (Appendix 3 - Short responses) Phu luc 4 - Cau hoi duoi (Appendix 4 - Tag questions) Reported speech) 182 ' 191 207 212 Phu luc 8 - Dang rtit ngan ciia dong t u (Appendix 10 - How to draw M i n d Maps) 8. Dong t u nguyen the/ Dong t u khong bien vi (Infinitive or Non-finite verb) P H A N 6 ( PART 6) 200 221 223 231 De cuon sach "Mind Map Enghsh Grammar" giiip nguoi hoc dat hieu qua, tac gia thiet nghi can neu ra mot so vuong mac neu C O , de duoc su dong thuan va thong hieu ciia nguoi hoc truoc khi bat tay vao viec hoc tap. C H a O N G DAN N H A ? f " M I N D MAPS" LA GI? ) i Theo tieng Viet, " m i n d maps" duoc dich la "ban do t u duy". No la mot cong cu hoan hao de giiip ta thiet lap thong t i n chi tren mot to giay. N h a no nguoi ta c6 the tom tat toan bo mot cuon sach theo each la nguoi do chi can nha lai nhung dieu ca ban. Dieu chinh a day la khong duoc chii y den chi tiet vi bo 6c cua chiing ta chi thich nha nhung y tuang hay tir ngu chu yeu ma thoi. T U D A U C O " M I N D MAPS"? ) Cha de ciia "mind maps" la Tony Buzan. Ong sinh nam 1942 tai Luan Don va tot nghiep tai truang Dai hoc British Columbia nam 1964 vai hoc vi danh du kep ve Tarn ly hoc, Tieng Anh, Toan va Khoa hoc thuang thiic. Tony Buzan va cong su cua ong da giiip cho hang trieu nguai tren the giai sii dung tri 6c ciia ho mot each c6 hieu qua. Viec ve ban do t u duy nay la mot ky thuat cua nghe thuat tao hinh giiip lam phong phii tiem nang ciia nao bo. Nguai ta c6 the ting dung ky thuat phac hpa nay trong mpi khia canh ciia dai song de cai tien viec hpc hoac vach r6 nhung muc tieu dang thach thiic chiing ta. LAM T H E NAO D E BIET VE V " M I N D MAPS"? . Tham khao phan phu luc a cuoi sach: "Huong dan each ve Ban doTuduy". 22 C H U O N G D A N N H A P - 23 MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR D I E M G I O N G VA K H A C N H A U GILTA " E N G L I S H GRAMMAR M I N D MAPS" VA " M I N D MAP E N G L I S H GRAMMAR" LA GI ? G i o n g n h a u : cting m u c di'ch hoc tap Khac n h a u : p h u a n g phap hoc jtap ( t h u d o n g va c h i i d o n g ) * "ENGLISH GRAMMAR MIND MAPS": hup://www. usingmindmaps.com/enghsh-grammar-mind-map-tutor.html Tac gia t r l n h bay tat ca cac n p i d u n g b a i hoc b a n g b a n d o t u duy. ( V o i each hoc nay n g u o i hoc se b i t h u d o n g . ) * " M I N D MAP E N G L I S H GRAMMAR'": N o i d u n g b a i hoc dupe tac gia t r l n h bay t o r n tat, de h i e u , de n h o , v u i mat theo b a n d o t r i thuc, m o t dang each t a n ciia b a n d o t u duy. Tuy n h i e n , yeu eau n g u o i h p c sau k h i hpc, h i e u , thupe n p i d u n g bai hpc. H p p h a i t u ve b a n d o t u d u y bai h p c d o de n h a lau h o n . C u o i quyen sach c6 h u a n g d a n n g u o i hpc each ve. ( V o i each h p c nay n g u o i hpc se chu dong hon.) V i d u : N p i d u n g bai h p c dupe the h i e n theo 2 each sau: English G r a m m a r Mind Maps Mind Maps English G r a m m a r CHAPTER 1 V A I D I N H NGHiA • T i r KHO SOME DEFINITIONS OF DIFFICULT TERMS C H U O N G 1 - VA! DINH NGHiA TU KHO - 2 7 2 6 - MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1. SENTENCE (Cau) SENTENCE Cau la m o t n h o m t u d i e n dat t r p n ven m o t y nghia. M o t cau g o m c6 m o t c h i i l i g i i (a subject) va m o t v i n g u (a predicate). Predicate Subject Auxiliary as Operator ; Vd: a sentence - He (S) -We (S) -I (S) ', .We .We walks. (V) (V) (D.O.) send a letter (to) him. (D.O.) (I.e.) (V) SENTENCE J Predicate Leader Viet tat: • S: Subject (Chu ngu) • D.O.; Direct object (Tan ngu true tiep) • V;- Verb (Dpng tit) search the room carefully, do so. would didn't love h i m . Y Subject Predication • I.O.: Indirect object (Tan ngugidn tiep) •4 Story Told T yCompai ny •4 \r \ ^ Salary Labor 28 CHUONG 1 VAieiNH NGHIATUKHO MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR 2. S U B J E C T (Chu ngfl) 4. goes - Bo ngu thuong diing sau mot so dong t u n h u : to be (th'i, la, 6), appear (c6 ve), feel (cam thay), look (c6 ve), seem (hinh nhu), taste (c6 vi), smell (c6 m i i i ) , . . . to school. [ Bill la subject ^(V) (S) C O M P L E M E N T (Bo ngfl) - Bo ngu la mot t u hay mot cum tir diing sau noi dong tir / tu dong tir (Intransitive verb) cho biet them thong tin ve chii ngu oiadpngtudo. La mot tir hay mot nhom tir dat ten cho nguoi, con vat hay do vat hoac khai niem ma no thuc hien hanh dong dugc dien,^ta boi dong tu. Vd: Bill 3. O B J E C T (Tan ngir) ^ - Ngoai le: Doi voi cau noi dao ngu (Inversion): + There is a book. [ "a book" la chu ngii ] Tan ngu c6 the la mot danh tu hay mot cum danh tu diing + There are two books. [ "two books" la chu ngu ] ngay sau ngoai dong tu / tha dong tir (Transitive Verb). - Bo ngu c6 the o l\rong 11 dang duoi day : Vd: - Mr. Peter[scoldedj his son last night. (Vt) (D.O.) (Ong Peter mSng con trai ong ta toi qua.) -He [boughtI a shirt yesterday. (Vt) (D.O.) (Anh ta da mua 1 cai ao so m i ngay hom qua.) Naoai le: Mot so ngoai dong tu can c6 hai tan ngu (Distransitive Verbs): nhu: to teach, to give, to buy, to send, to receive, ... Vd: Hay , - Mr. Brown gives his son a watch (Vt) (I.O.) (D.O.) »• - Mr. Brown gives a watch to his son. (Vt) (D.O.) (I.O.) (Ong Brown dua cho con trai mot chiec dong ho.) Hay r - Mrs.Green |buys| her husband a shirt. (Vt) (I.O) (D.O.) • - Mrs.Green |buys| a shirt | for | her husband. (Vt) (D.O.) (Ba Green dua cho chong mot cai ao.) Viet tat: • Vt: Transitive verb (Ngoai dong til) 29 (I.O.) CHUONG 1 - VAI D|NH NGHiA TU KHO - 31 30 - MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR 7. PERSON (Ngoi) 5. ANTECEDENT (Tu" diing trucfc/Tien ngU) La b i e n each ciia d a i tir va d o n g t u . La m o t t u hay m o t n h o m tir d i i n g p h i a trudc, c6 hen he v a i ttr d i i n g sau c6 the la t i n h t u , dai t u q u a n he. Gom: • D a i t u c h u each (dai t u l a m c h i i ngu): Bill his forgets book Ngu&i dang not (I, we). Nguoi nghe, ngu&i duoc noi vai (you). [ B i l l la antecedent ciia his] Ngu&i duQ!c noi ve (he, she, it, they). Mr. B r o w n who (S, I k n o w s T o m is a doctor, j f (V2) {02)(V,) /A • D a i t u t a n each (dai tir l a m tan n g u ) : - 1st Person (ngoi I): me, us (ngoi t h i i nhat so it, so nhieu) Mr. B r o w n la antecedent ciia w h o ] 6. APPOSITIVE (Dong vi ngO) La d a n h t u dat ke l i e n m o t d a n h t u khac (antecedent) c6 dau • - 2 n d Person ( n g o i I I ) : y o u ( n g o i t h i i hai so it, so n h i e u ) ^ - 3rd Person (ngoi III): h i m , her, it, them (ngoi t h i i ba so i t so nhieu) 8. N U M B E R (So) [phay] m a ca h a i cting chi c h u n g m o t n g u o i , m o t vat the de t h o n g t i n r o ve n g u o i hay vat d o . La sv b i e n each ciia d p n g tir, dai tir hay d a n h tir. Gom: - Mr. T a n , the teacher, is m y father. - So i t (singular): C h i tir " 1 " [There is one hag.] - So n h i e u ( p l u r a l ) : C h i tir " 2 " t r a len [There are three bags.] [the teacher la apposittve vai Mr. Tdn.j singular Last n i g h t , there was a b i g fire at Pattaya / a province o f T h a i l a n d . [a province Id appositive voi Pattaya] plural 32 CHUONG 1 - VAl D|NH NGHIA TU KHO - 33 M I N D M A P ENGLISH G R A M M A R 9. GENDER (Giong) Trong tieng Anh, giong khong tac dong, den chiic nang trong ngu phap. Gom: No ciing c6 the la nguyen the / nguyen mau: • Infinitive (Nguyen the) dupe dung nhu: ^ - Due (mascuhne): (Boy, man ...) - Cai (feminine): (Girl, woman ...) - Trung tinh (neuter): (Dog, cat...) - Mot trang tir: bo nghia cho mot tinh tir. - Chung (common): (Parents ...) Vd: It was too expensive • Gerund (Danh dpng tir): Diing nhu mot danh tii, nghia la CO the lam chu each (nominative case) hay tan each (objective case) cho mot dong tu. I (S) is good. I (verb)^ like (verb) I swimmlNG. I CO) • Participle (Phan ttr): Diing n h u mot tinh tir bo nghia cho mot danh ttr (modifying a noun). Vd: An amusING (M) I story * I ; (M) story I • I play (M) I tdt: • S: Subject (CM ngu) • O: Object (Tan ngii) Vd: TO SING is (S) A merry. (verb) (noun = infinitive) (Ca hat la vui ve) - Mot tinh tir: bo nghia cho mot danh tir. (noun) f TO SAVE (adj = infinitive) hoae cau tren c6 the viet: I have a lot of money from saving up. (noun) • (a present participle = adj.) Viet - Mot danh tit: chir ngir cho mot dpng ttr. (Toi CO nhieu tien de danh dum.) (noun) •( a present participle = adj.) An boring (adv = infinitive) Vd: I have much monev A (noun) • (a present participle = adj.) An interesting that book (That qua dat khong the mua noi sach do.) La hinh thiic dong t u phai bo "To", them "ING" vao sau no. No CO the la: Vd: SwimmlNG t (adj) 10. VERBAL (Thuoc dong tii) TO BUY • M: Modify (Bo nghia) 3 4 - M I N D M A P ENGLISH GRAMMAR 11. ELLIPSIS (Phep tinh luoc) La phep bo bat tir ma cau van van diing. [Phan bo bat duac hieu ngam] White " I was" working, saw her. (ciingchu tit) (Trong khi (toi) lam viec, toi trong thay c6 ta.) •• While working, I saw her. The boy ^X^^^)'^/' I'm looking for goes far away. (Cau be ma toi dang t l m kiem di xa roi.) # The boy I'm looking for goes far away. 12. I D I O M (Thanh nga) La loai cau noi quen dting ciia ngirai ban xu, khong can chii y den ngu phap va tu vung. Vd: - It rains cats and dogs (Trai mua tarn ta.) - She kicked the bucket. (Ba ta da chau Trai roi.) Tir LOAI 8 PARTS OF SPEECH 3 6 - M I N D M A P ENGLISH GRAMMAR 8 tir loai, gom c6: NOUNS (Danh tir) ONOUNS (Dai tu) VERBS (Dong tu) ADJECTIVES (Tinh tu) ADVERBS (Trang tu hay Pho tu) J l PREPOSITIONS 9k (Gioi tu) CONJUNCTIONS (Lien tu) INTERJECTIONS (Than tu) CHAPTER 2 A.TU' DUNG DE DAT TEN • (NAMING WORDS) DANH TU (NOUNS) A w CHUONG2 DANHTU-39 38 - M I N D M A P ENGLISH GRAMMAR 111 11 I DANH TU (Novins) Danh tu la tu diing de dat ten nguoi, con vat, do vat, su viec, khai niem hay trang thai. I 1. CAC LOAI DANH T t (Kinds of nouns): ! 6. Mass nouns/ Uncountable nouns (Danh tu khong I dem duoc): La danh ' tit chi so dong. > Vd: wood, gold, I iron, copper, I water... 7. Count nouns/ Countable nouns (Danh tti dem duoc): La danh tit chi ten nhtmg gi c6 the dem duoc. Vd: a table, a chair, a boy... 5. Abstract nouns (Danh tir triru tU0ng): La danh til chi mpt y tudng, pham chat ma ta ichong nhan biet duoc bang giac quan. Vd: peace, love, success, friendship... 4. Concrete nouns (Danh tir cu the): La danh til chi nhang gi nhan bi6't duoc bSng cac giac quan (tai, mSt, mui, tay...). Vd: house, water, hospital, restaurant... I 1. Common nouns (Danh tir chung): La danh tir chi mpt Idp nguoi, con vat, do vat cirng mpt loai. Vd: man, cat, chair, teacher... 2. Proper nouns (Danh tit rieng): La danh tir chi ten rieng nen phai viet hoa. Vd: Mr.Tam, Paris, Micheal Jackson... 5. Collective nouns (Danh tir tap hop): La danh tir chi mpt sd nguoi, cpn vat, do vat duoc coi nhu mOt don vi (a unit). Vd: army, team, government, family, flock (dan) -» a flock of birds (dan chim), herd (bay) -» a herd of horses (bay ngya) CHUONG 2 - DANH TU - 4 1 4 0 ' MIND MAP ENGLISH GRAMMAR 2. C A C C H U C NANG CIJA D A N H T U (Grammatical functions of nouns) 1. Chu ngu cho mot dong t u (Subject of a verb). Vd: Cats eat mice. (Meo an chupt.) JiV) (S) (O) 2. Tan ngu true tiep (D.O.) cho mpt dpng tu. (Object of a verb). Vd: I like apples. (Toi thich tao.) (S) (V)t mpt dpng t u CO hai tan ngu. Vd: I give h i m a hat. (Toi cho anh ta mpt cai non.) (V) (I.O.) COUNT NOUNS or UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS or COUNTABLE NOUNS (Danh t u khong dem dupe) (Danh tir dem dupe) (D.O.) • MILK (Sua) much milk (nhieu sua) a glass of milk (1 ly sua) little milk (it sua) 2 glasses of milk (2 ly sua) • COFFEE (Ca phe) 4. Tan ngu cho mpt gidi t u (Object of a preposition). much coffee (nhieu ca phe) a cup of coffee (1 tach ca phe) Vd: little coffee (it ca phe) 3 cups of coffee (3 tach ca phe) I wait for (S) (V) my friend. (Toi dpi ban toi.) (prep) (O) T 5. Bo ngu /Danh t u vi ngu (Complement or Predicative noun) \ \ MASS NOUNS ^(O) 3. Tan ngu tryc tiep (D.O.) va gian tiep (I.O.) cho (S) 3. DANH T U D E M D U O C VA DANH T U K H O N G DEM DUOC (Count nouns/Countable nouns & Mass nouns/ Uncountable nouns) Vd: This is (to be) 4_ (Day la my book. (predicative noun) cuon sach ciia toi.) 6. D o n g v i ngu (Appositive) Vd: Mr. Robert, my teacher , taught me English yesterday. I = — - I (appositive) [My teacher is an apposition to Mr. Robert.] (6ng Robert, thay toi, da day toi tieng Anh h o m qua.) • GASOLINE (Xang) much gasoline (nhieu xSng) a gallon of gasoline (1 galong xang) litde gasoline (it xang) 4 gallons of gasoline (4 galong xang) • BREAD (Banh m i ) much bread (nhieu banh mi) a loaf of bread (1 6 banh mi) litde bread (it banh mi) 3 loaves of bread (3 6 banh mi) • CHALK (Phan Viet) much chalk (nhieu phan) a piece of chalk (1 vien phan) litde chalk (it phan) 3 pieces of chalk (3 vien phan)
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