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TLFeBOOK NTC’s pocket DICTIONARY Of words and phr ases TLFeBOOK This page intentionally left blank. TLFeBOOK NTC’s pocket DICTIONARY Of words and phr ases 12,000 Words, Idioms, and Phrasal Verbs for Travelers and Learners Editor-in-Chief Richard A. Spears, Ph.D. Chicago New York San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto TLFeBOOK Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-143405-4 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-65801700-4. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgrawhill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGrawHill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS”. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGrawHill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071434054 TLFeBOOK For more information about this title, click here. Contents Introduction vii How to Use This Dictionary Useful Spelling Rules xi Lists of Words xvii Abbreviations and Symbols Pronunciation xxxii Entries 1 ix xxxi . Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use. TLFeBOOK v This page intentionally left blank. TLFeBOOK Introduction NTC’s Pocket Dictionary of Words and Phrases is for persons who are seeking to improve their ability to speak, read, write, and understand American English. It is a small, portable dictionary that will help learners with spelling, pronunciation, parts of speech, meaning, irregular forms, and the appropriate use of 12,000 common words and phrases. This dictionary defines words using the smallest possible vocabulary, but when it is necessary, additional words are used to define difficult concepts. In many cases, more than one definition is given, so the learner has additional help in figuring out the meaning of a word or expression. Phrases are entered in the dictionary in their normal alphabetical positions. Phrases are also indexed within the dictionary by means of cross-references. A cross-reference to each phrase is found at the entry of each non-initial, major word in the phrase. Thus, after account we find the cross-references: → cook the accounts → give a good account of oneself → savings account → turn something to good account These cross-references enable a reader who can’t remember an exact phrase to find it just by looking up one of the phrase’s key words. . Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use. TLFeBOOK vii This page intentionally left blank. TLFeBOOK How to Use This Dictionary Many of the entry words in the dictionary have more than one sense. Please study all the relevant senses to make sure you have found the right one. Nominals (n.) that do not follow the regular spelling or pronunciation rules in the formation of the plural are marked irreg., and the form of the plural is given in the entry. Verbs (tv., iv.) that do not follow the regular rules for the formation of the past tense and past participle are marked irreg., and the proper forms are given in the entry. The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives (adj.) and adverbs (adv.) are listed when there are forms—as with red, redder, reddest—that replace, or that exist in addition to, the comparatives and superlatives formed with more and most. After many of the definitions, you will find comments, enclosed in parentheses, containing further information about the entry word. Keep in mind that the goal in using a monolingual learner’s dictionary is not only to find the meanings of specific words, but also to develop the skills needed to acquire new words and senses of words from their actual use in context. . Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use. TLFeBOOK ix This page intentionally left blank. TLFeBOOK Useful Spelling Rules The following basic spelling rules equip the learner to create and identify the most important derived and inflected forms of regular English nouns and verbs. Words that have important irregular forms that do not follow these rules are identified in the dictionary. Regular Verb Forms Note: Many verbs that have irregular past-tense forms or irregular past participles nevertheless form the present tense and the present participle regularly. For the third-person singular (the form used with he, she, it, and singular nouns) in the present tense: ■ Add -s to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in y preceded by a consonant, change y to ie and then add -s. If the bare verb ends in s, z, x, ch, or sh, add -es. like > Bill likes cry > the baby cries walk > Anne walks buy > the man buys carry > a truck carries fix > she fixes pass > it passes notify > he notifies catch > she catches . Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use. TLFeBOOK xi Useful Spelling Rules For the past tense and the past participle: ■ Add -ed to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i before adding -ed. If the bare verb ends in e, just add -d. walk > walked like > liked judge > judged try > tried carry > carried measure > measured For the present participle: ■ Add -ing to the bare verb. If the bare verb ends in a single e preceded either by a consonant or by u, drop the e before adding -ing. If the bare verb ends in ie, change ie to y before adding -ing. judge > judging take > taking ask > asking carry > carrying pay > paying pursue > pursuing hoe > hoeing see > seeing go > going lie > lying xii TLFeBOOK Useful Spelling Rules Doubling of consonants in participles and past-tense forms: ■ When -ed or -ing is added to a word that ends in a consonant (other than h, w, x, or y) preceded by a single vowel, and the final syllable is stressed, then the consonant is normally doubled. Thus commit and control, which are accented on the last syllable, become committed and controlling, but limit and cancel, which are accented on the first syllable, become limited and canceling. Similarly, stop becomes stopping, but look, in which the consonant is preceded by two vowels, becomes looking. Within the dictionary, forms that do not follow these doubling rules are noted in individual entries. The most typical exceptions to the doubling rules are words with a final c that becomes ck rather than doubling, e.g., picnicking, verbs that are compounds, and verbs with closely related noun senses or more than one pronunciation. Outside the dictionary, learners will encounter other exceptions, as well as some variation, because sometimes another option, although less familiar in American English, is also correct. Regular Noun Plurals To form the plural of a regular noun: ■ If the singular form ends in s, z, x, ch, or sh, add -es. kiss > kisses box > boxes match > matches dish > dishes bus > buses xiii TLFeBOOK Useful Spelling Rules ■ If the singular form ends in y preceded by a consonant, change y to ie and then add -s. baby > babies library > libraries university > universities butterfly > butterflies ■ For nouns ending in o, the regular plural form may be formed by adding -es or by adding -s. For some words, both spellings are possible. In this dictionary, each entry for a noun ending in o specifies the correct plural form or forms for that word. radio > radios potato > potatoes tornado > tornados or tornadoes ■ For all other regular nouns, add -s to the singular form to make the plural. table > tables boy > boys television > televisions valley > valleys An Important Note on the English Plural The English plural is something that makes English very difficult for adults to learn. English nouns often cannot be made plural, unlike their counterparts in other languages. There is nothing that sounds more “non-English” than advice, inforxiv TLFeBOOK Useful Spelling Rules mation, or baggage with the plural s on the end. There are many American English nouns in this dictionary that the learner should not attempt to make plural—ever! See a list of these nouns in List A on page xvii. In addition, there are many nouns in English that can be followed by the plural s that seem to be plural, but really refer to kinds or types of the noun in question. In the following entry, when the word margarine has an s on the end, it refers to different kinds, types, or varieties of margarine. margarine ["mar dZ@ rIn] n. a food made from animal or vegetable fats, used in place of butter; a spread for bread. (Plural only for types and instances.) There are many American English nouns that can take the plural s while only referring to different kinds, types, instances, or varieties of the noun. See them in List B on page xx. xv TLFeBOOK This page intentionally left blank. TLFeBOOK Lists of Words These are important lists of words that can be consulted quickly. For further information, definitions, and examples, each word should be looked up in this dictionary. List A Nouns defined in this dictionary that never take the plural s. See the entry heads listed for details. admiration advice anybody anyone anything applause appreciation Arctic arrogance assistance attendance aviation awe baggage bathwater blackness bliss bloodshed bookkeeping bowling bulk carelessness cash Catholicism cattle chaos chatter chess citizenship clothing common sense confusion consent conservation contempt courage cowardice cream cheese dark darkness daybreak daylight decay destruction devout digestion diplomacy dirt disgust dishwater distress distrust drainage dust ease east electricity elegance employment endurance equipment esteem estimation evidence excellence fame few filth flesh former freight frostbite fun furniture fuzz glamour gloom golf gratitude greed grief grime ground beef guilt happiness health hockey homework housework hypnotism ill will . Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use. TLFeBOOK xvii Lists of Words importance independence indigestion information insurance intelligence interference isolation jazz jet propulsion jewelry knowledge laughter law of gravity leakage left legislation leisure lighting lightning likelihood lint literacy livestock logic loot luck luggage machinery magic magnetism maintenance malice mankind math mayonnaise menstruation merchandise Midwest might mirth misconduct mistrust moderation moisture molasses moonlight morale morality more most motherhood much mucus nausea needlework neglect nightlife nonsense north northeast northwest nothing now nutrition obedience occult offspring old age ooze opposition outer space overkill overtime ownership oxygen ozone pantyhose paradise parcel post parsley participation patience peace pep perfection perjury personnel persuasion petroleum photography pity plenty plumbing poetry police poor pork postage poultry poverty precision preservation prevention prey xviii TLFeBOOK produce progress propaganda prose prosperity prudence psychiatry psychology publicity punctuation quickness quiet racism rapidity readiness real estate realism reasoning recklessness recognition recreation redness refuse rejoicing relief research revenge ridicule rot rubbish rudeness running rust sadness safekeeping Lists of Words safety salt water sameness sanitation sanity sarcasm say scenery schoolwork science scrutiny scuba seafood seaside seclusion secrecy segregation selfconfidence self-control self-discipline self-esteem self-respect self-service selfishness senility seniority serenity seriousness several severity sewage sewing sexual intercourse shame shelving shipping shopping shrewdness shrubbery shyness sightseeing significance silver silverware simplicity sincerity sizzle skepticism skiing slander slavery sleep sleet slime slow motion slush small talk smuggling soccer social security software some something sorcery south southeast southwest spaghetti starvation static stationery storage strife stuff stupidity sunlight sunshine supervision surf suspense tact teamwork tennis terrorism thunder tourism traction traffic transportation trash twilight underclothing underwear undoing unrest upkeep uranium valor vanilla veal vegetation vigor violence vomit warmth wastepaper wealth wealthy wear weather welfare west wetness wilderness willpower wisdom woodwork worship worth wrath wreckage young zeal zest zinc xix TLFeBOOK
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