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RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GRADUATES’ COMPETENCIES TO THE INDUSTRY NEEDS A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines In Collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management Bui Ngoc Tuan (Future) April, 2014 0 APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management, this research entitled “RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY GRADUATES’ COMPETENCIES TO THE INDUSTRY NEEDS” has been submitted by Bui Ngoc Tuan (Future) and is hereby recommended for oral examination. DR. CONRADO ABRAHAM Research Adviser Approved by the Oral Examination Committee, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam DR. …………………….... Member DR………………………… Member DR…………………………. Member DR. ……………………… Member DR. ………………………… Chairman Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management offered by Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines in collaboration with Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate School WALBERTO A. MACARAAN, Ed .D Vice President, Academic Affairs Date___________________ i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Sincerest appreciation is extended to the following individuals who in their own special ways have made this dissertation a reality: Hon. Dr. Cecilia Gascon, President of Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines, for her immeasurable contribution in the development of the joint program of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management between Southern Luzon State University and Thai Nguyen University; Prof. Dr. Dang Kim Vui, President of Thai Nguyen University, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for his approval in the offering of Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management program in cooperation with the Southern Luzon State University, Philippines; Prof. Dr. Tran Van Dien, Rector of Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, for his invaluable assistance in the establishment of the Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management program in cooperation with the Southern Luzon State University, Philippines; Dr. Nguyen Tuan Anh, Former Director of the International Training Center, Thai Nguyen University, for his enthusiasm in the establishment of the Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management program in cooperation with the Southern Luzon State University, Philippines; The Panel of Examiners, for their remarkable comments, suggestions and recommendations to enhance this thesis manuscript; Dr. Conrado Abraham, his thesis adviser, for his unparalleled guidance and advice in conducting this research; The Visiting Professors including Dr.Arivalan, Dr. Balakrishnan, Dr. Walberto A. Macaraan, Dr. Lee Kar Ling, Dr. W.Johnson, Dr. Teresita V. de la Cruz, and Dr. ii Apolonia A. Espinosa and other professors, for sharing their most precious time and abundance of knowledge during the whole duration of this study; The information and communication departments in the provinces: Thai Nguyen, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Police Bac Kan, National Academy of Public Administration for approving the request to conduct the study; The Graduates – respondents of the study, for their active involvement, without their cooperation, the result of this dissertation could not have been possible; His loving classmates and colleagues, for the endless support and friendship which inspired the researcher to do his best in finishing the study; His wife, his son and his parents, for their encouragement, financial, moral and spiritual supports for continuously believing that he can finish the task to the best of his abilities Bui Ngoc Tuan (Future) iii TABLE OF CONTENTS APPROVAL SHEET ..................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................ iv LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................... vi LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................... viii ABSTRACT......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study .............................................................................................5 Objectives of the study ................................................................................................8 Hypothesis ...................................................................................................................8 Significance of the study .............................................................................................8 Scope and limitations...................................................................................................9 Definition of terms.....................................................................................................10 II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Research paradigm ....................................................................................................35 Relevance and satisfaction.........................................................................................35 III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Locale of the Study ....................................................................................................37 Research Design ........................................................................................................39 Population and sampling ...........................................................................................39 Research instrumentation ..........................................................................................41 Data gathering procedure...........................................................................................41 Statistical Treatment ..................................................................................................41 iv Descriptive interpretation of the scale .......................................................................43 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS V SUMMARY, FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary ....................................................................................................................69 Conclusions ...............................................................................................................70 Recommendations .....................................................................................................70 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................... 72 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................. 75 Apendices A…………………………………………………………………………………..76 Apendices B……………………………………………………………………………………77 RESEARCH PROFILE…………………………………………………………………….163 v LIST OF TABLES Table1 : Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents 40 Table 2: Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the units surveyed 40 Table 3: Graduation student capacity about qualifications and skills 45 Table 4 : Specialized capacity of graduation students 46 Table 5: Assessing work ability of graduation students 48 Table 6: Industry’s knowledge requirement to IT graduation students Table 7: Industry’s skill requirement to IT graduation students 49 50 Table 8: Industry’s working attitude requirement to IT graduation students 52 Table 9: Level Knowledge training needs of industry for IT graduates 53 Table 10: Level Skills training needs of industry for IT graduates 54 Table 11: Level Attitude training needs of industry for IT graduates 54 Table 12: The Mean and Standard Deviation 55 Table 13: Correlations 56 Table 14: The Mean and Standard Deviation 58 Table 15: Correlations 58 Table 16: The Mean and Standard Deviation 58 Table 17: Correlations 59 Table 18: Level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training needs 60 of the industry (Skill and qualities- knowledge) Table 19: Level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training needs 61 of the industry (Professional capacity - knowledge) Table 20: Level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training needs 63 of the industry (Work ability - Attitude) Table B 1.1 Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha of Skill and qualities - 75 Professional capacity - Work ability Table B.1.2 : Frequency, percentage and Distribution of the Respondents 78 Table B 1.3: The IT curriculum of Thai Nguyen University. 81 Table B 1.4 : Questionnaire for employer survey 85 vi Table B.1.5 SURVEYS FORM LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF GRADUATES COMPETENCIES 89 Table B 1.6: Online questionnaire 92 Table B 1.7: SURVEYS FORM LEVEL OF SATISFACTION OF GRADUATES 98 COMPETENCIES Table B 1.8: Mean Distribution of the Responses According to Skill and qualities Needs 104 Table B 1.9: Mean Distribution of the Responses According to Professional capacity Needs 105 Table B 1.10: Mean Distribution of the Responses According to Work ability Needs 105 Table B 1.11: Mean Distribution of the Responses According To Knowledge Needs 106 Table B 1.12: Mean Distribution of the Responses According to Skills Needs 106 Table B 1.13: Mean Distribution of the Responses According To Attitude Needs 107 Table B 1.14: Level Knowledge training needs of industry for IT graduates 108 Table B 1.15: level Skills training needs of industry for IT graduates 108 Table B 1.16: level Attitude training needs of industry for IT graduates Table B 1.17: The Mean and Standard Deviation 109 109 111 Table B 1.18: Correlations Table B 1.19:The Mean and Standard Deviation 111 112 Table B 1.20: Correlations Table B 1.21:The Mean and Standard Deviation 112 113 Table B 1.22: Correlations Table B 1.23: level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training 113 needs Table B 1.24: level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training 114 needs Table B 1.25: level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training 116 116 Table B 1.25: Da ta industry’s need Table 126: Data graduates need 131 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Competencies model 23 Figure 2. Research diagram 35 Figure 3. Location of Thai Nguyen University 37 viii INTRODUCTION According to international assesment agencies on Information Technology and Communication, Vietnam has informantion technology and communication development index (IDI) ranking at 86 out of 161 nations and rank 4th position in Southern East Asia (2012). Networked Readiness Index (NRI) of Vietnam ranked at 84 out of 144 nations and 5th position in Southern East Asia in 2012. Regarding to information technology industry, Vietnam ranked at 8th worldwide on software processing activities (according to Tholon Corporation, 2011), stays on top ten nations in Pacific Asia and top thirty worldwide (according to report of Gartner Corporation in 2012). Vietnam has been highly considered on public service and application of information technology on State Agencies. For the norms of electronic Administration/Government, Vietnam has been classified at 4th position in South East Asia and 81 out of 190 nations in 2012. Regarding human resource quality, Vietnam has ranked at 101 out of 161 nations in 2012 and highly considered on education qualification of mathematics and scientific subjects. Nowaday human resource on information technology is not only very limited in number in Vietnam, but it is also lack in the world. Now the world is in shortage of 4 million engineers on information technology (IT). And in Vietnam demand of humand resource on software industry (PM) has been drammatically increasing. From 2011 to 2015, Vietnam is estimated to need about 20.000 - 25.000 engineers on IT. While education and training capacity of human resource on information technology provides about 34.448 engineers, 41.048 ones in 2010 and 2012 respectively.In fact number of qualified IT enginners under employer’s requirements are even much smaller. According to employer’s statistics database, Vietnamese IT engineers are very weak in communication skill, professional working style, and English proficiency. Moreover, about 64% of human resource is weak in group working ability. Thus they could not integrate and adapt to employer’s standards after being recruited. Up to 71% graduation students have not adapted to technology advance change, 90% foreign language insufficient students. Therefore Vietnamese IT staffs could only utilise 60% their capacity and big obstacles for enterprise’s recruitment. ix According to, Deputy Prime Miniser Nguyen Thien Nhan: “In IT industry, Vietnam has very good potentials to cooperate with international partners. And a question is how to attract more and more foreign investors participating in IT human resource education and training”. Therefore, I have conducted this study “Relevance of information tecnology graduates’ competencies to the industry needs”. The objective of this study is to assess IT student capacity of Thai Nguyen University in meeting to enterprise’s demand and to find out gap between training education quality and real requirements. The findings of this study will be scientific evidences for policymakers, educational institutions, educators, and students in improving education program and efficiency. x CHAPTER I GENERAL INTRODUCTION Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. It is essential for everyone and the level of education helps people earn respect and recognition. It is a fact that the importance of education is undeniable for every single person. It goes without saying that education has a positive effect on human life. All people need to access to education. Only with the advent of education can people gain knowledge and enlarge their view over the world. Education plays such a rudimentary role in our society that we cannot even imagine a life without it. It is a determined element for the civilization of human society. Not only does it helps us develop healthy surroundings but it also generates an advance community. As a matter of fact, everything we create today is based on the knowledge that we obtain throughout our life by way of education. This assists scientists in inventing equipment and devices, resulting in a high technology nowadays. The more developed life becomes, the more necessary education is for everyone because the development of a country depends vastly on the standard of education, it must do everything to improve it. Although the educational systems of different countries are not similar but they have to share a common goal which is to provide its citizens a suitable and proper learning. Education is absolutely beneficial for the society on the whole. It is a life-long process to each person that needs to be reinforced throughout life. However, we need an education system that may eradicate illiteracy and may provide the common man an access not only to basic education but also to higher and technical education. Viet Nam’s competitive advantage in the global economy depends on qualified and skilled workforce. A troubling gap, however, currently exists between the skills and knowledge of the country’s current and projected workforce and the demands of jobs expected to grow most rapidly during the next decade. From 1stof October to 15th of October 2012 in Hanoi, the 11th steering committee of the party held the 6th meeting to discuss and draw the resolutions on 1 building project “Fully and fundamentally innovate the education and training in the market economy which is oriented to the socialist and international integration; and on building project “Develop science and technology to support the industrialization and modernization in the market economy which is oriented to the socialist and international integrations.” The steering committee of the party identified that for a secured leading of the party and for the consideration of the whole nation as well as the efforts of the teachers, managers and scientist communities are the reasons that the science and technology of the nation obtained important achievements on the quantity and quality of the education in all levels, including management, scientific research and applications, market and services for the science and technology, and international collaboration. Developing Viet Nam ICT brand name Products and service On September 22nd, 2010, the Prime Minister promulgated the Decision No. 1755/QD-TTg approving the National Strategy on “Transforming Viet Nam into an advanced ICT country”, which defines strategic missions to accelerate the IT industry of Viet Nam. Some of the important missions are to improve the capacity and competitiveness of Vietnamese enterprises, and to develop Viet Nam’s ICT brandname products and services. To accomplish these missions and implement the campaign, “Vietnamese people prefer Vietnamese products” of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Viet Nam and the Government’s Resolution No. 11/NQ-CP dated February 24th, 2011 regarding measures to control inflation, stabilize the macroeconomy and ensure social welfare. In this regard, the Ministry of Information and Communications launched the Program in Promoting the development of Viet Nam ICT brand-name products and services (VIBrand) in 2011. VIBrand 2011 leverages the nation’s patriotism in encouraging domestic consumers to choose Viet Nam ICT brand-name products and services, thereby creating a competitive market for Vietnamese enterprises to provide highly qualified ICT products and services not only for domestic demands but also for exports. The program brings together government agencies, national and foreign enterprises and 2 investors, as well as Vietnamese consumers to cooperate and enjoy shared benefits for the following: - For government agencies: The program has provided a broad overview of the current development of the IT market in Viet Nam and suggested solutions to the challenges and bottlenecks in order to create a conducive condition and enhance the competitiveness of Vietnamese IT enterprises. These understandings will help responsible agencies build appropriate supporting programs in the upcoming years; - For Vietnamese IT enterprises: The program creates a venue for enterprises to express their needs and recommendations to the state management agencies, share their experiences, promote their images, and seek business cooperation opportunities; - For consumers: Through this program, a variety of top ICT products and services were introduced to the domestic consumers. It was a valuable opportunity for IT enterprises to provide adequate and accurate information on their trademarks and products, thus allowing for stronger trust and higher usage of Viet Nam’s ICT brandname products and services. - For foreign investors and enterprises: The program analyzes the potential developments of IT market in Viet Nam, where demand for specialized products and services in particular technical fields has yet to fully emerged. The program has also allowed investors and foreign enterprises to explore the opportunity for joint ventures with Vietnamese IT businesses providing IT products and services. Thus far, VIBrand 2011 has received the support and participation of various Ministries, agencies, associations and IT enterprises nationwide, as well as international partners. In this context, the Ministry of Information and Communications is developing and implementing the VIBrand 2012 on a larger scale, with a hope to bring about a greater impact. Together with the VIBrand, the Ministry of Information and Communications is conducting several related activities, namely: periodically updating a list of IT products suitable for government-funded organizations and agencies; developing and publishing the “Catalogue of Viet Nam IT products”; implementing the “National Brand” program in cooperation with Ministry of Industry and Trade; and promoting youth innovation in the IT sector in cooperation with Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth 3 Union. These activities will contribute substantially to the development of the IT industry and operationalize the National Strategy on “Transforming Viet Nam into an advanced ICT country”. In recent years, under the leadership of the Party and the Government, the ICT sector of Viet Nam has been continuously moving forward, fostering the development of infrastructure system, and contributing positively to the socio-economic growth. In 2011, although the Vietnamese economy still faced many challenges due to the negative effects of the global economic crisis, this sector maintained its growth and continuously gained many important achievements. The telecommunication infrastructure was modernized to cover the whole country with and had met international standards in providing good quality services and improving customer satisfaction. IT application in government agencies has been adopted widely and contributed to a significant extent to public administration reform efforts. The educational system on ICT human resource was scaled up both in volume and form. In view of this, 290 universities and colleges had ICT faculties or departments (only 13 compared with 2010) and the quota of ICT-related student’s enrolment was 64,796 students (only 4,000 students compared with 2010). In 2011, there were 41,908 students graduating in different ICT majors; 173,107 studying in ICT faculties or departments; and 55,197 ICT students enrolled to these institutions. The policy and regulatory environment for ICT development was gradually improved in order to assure the transparency and clarity to facilitate procedures and to ensure strict law enforcement. Specifically, the establishment of Viet Nam Telecommunication Authority in August 2011 was considered a big step to strengthen the public management capacity in the field of telecommunications and the Internet. In particular, on January 16th, 2012, the 4th Congress of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Viet Nam promulgated the Resolution No. 13-NQ/TW on Building a synchronous infrastructure system with a view to transforming Viet Nam into a modernized industrial country by 2020. The resolution places strong emphasis on “Improving the capacity to leverage technology and manage effectively the information infrastructure and content to assist the Party’s and the Government’s 4 leadership; meeting the demand of information exchange and flow within the society to boost socio-economic development to ensure the national defence and security, information security, state sovereignty over the cyber space. Further the development in the networking system inside the country and with other nations to form the country’s information super highway and in enhancing the application of information technology in the managemet of the socio- economic infrastructure and the whole economy. This is considered a top priority in the industrialization and modernization process of each strategic economic sector; and in accelerating the information technology industry including the software industry in a fast and sustainable manner. Background of the Study The strategy on development of human resources of Viet Nam during the period 2011 – 2020 ( Prime Minister’s No. 579/QĐ-TTg dated Apr 09, 2011) are as follows: The National strategy on “Transforming Viet Nam into an advanced ICT country” (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1755/QD-TTg dated Sep 22, 2010) includes: (1) Planning on the development or digital information security to 2020 (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 63/QD-TTG dated Jan 13, 2010); (2) Master plan on development of information technology human resources of Viet Nam to 2015,orietations toward 2020 (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 698/QĐ-TTg dated Jun 01, 2009); and (3) Planning on the development of information technology human resources of Viet Nam to 2020 (Decision No. 05/2007/QĐ-BTTTT dated Oct 26, 2007). The strategy in the development of information and communication technology of Viet Nam to 2010 and orientations toward 2020 (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 246/2005/QD-TTg dated Oct 6, 2005), includes the following: (1) National strategy on development of posts and telecommunications of Viet Nam to 2010, Orientations towards 2020 (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 158/2001/QD-TTg dated Oct 18, 2001). (2) National Programs and Projects on ICT 2.1 IT industry, posts and telecommunications 5 Project on improvement of computer usage and public Internet access ability in Viet Nam (BMGF), with the Ministry of Information and Communications, implementation duration: 2011 – 2016 as implementing agency. 2.2 Information technology application/E-Government (3) National program on information technology application in state agencies’ operations during the period 2011 - 2015 (Prime Minister’s Decision No. 1605/QDTTg dated Aug 27, 2010). (4) Project on national authentication with the Ministry of Information and Communications, as implementing agency, implementation duration: 2011 – 2015; and (5) Project on investment in devices for information technology application in state agencies with the Ministry of Information and Communications, as implmenting agency, implementation duration: 2011 - 2015. The industry’s success is determined much by the skills of its workforce. This requires focusing on how human resource development activities can be used in ensuring the workforce to be equipped with skills and to successfully meet the challenges. The ICT industry of Viet Nam faces challenges that are complex, and new dimensions, such as the increasing workforce diversity and the rate of technological change make it difficult to ensure human resource development efforts to succeed unless the decision makers make informed choices about the content and methods of delivering the development interventions. Training Needs Assessment provides decision making information on the competency gaps of the training audiences, training providers and courses available, training gaps, appropriate delivery methods, training strategies, recommendations and strategic vision as a way forward for the ICT industry. Training, education and development areas are focused with a Competency Based Training approach in the skill development of the ICT industry workforce. The nature of ‘a never ending cycle’ in training and the role of human resource managers in planning, monitoring, reviewing and evaluating the training outcomes for enhanced and effective work performance emphasize the need for a continuous strategic training process for the industry. The horizontal and vertical career movements in search of 6 higher exposure in gaining strong profiles and the transitory trend of ‘keep learning keep moving’ of the workforce identifies the need for faster learning techniques and acknowledging IT worker as an industry resource rather than an organization resource. The multiple professional expertise’s required in terms of the industry specific technical nature of the ICT capabilities for effective discharge of functions is identified for the industry. The horizontal and vertical career movements in search of higher exposure in gaining strong profiles and the transitory trend of ‘keep learning keep moving’ of the workforce identifies the need for faster learning techniques and acknowledging IT worker as an industry resource rather than an organization resource. The multiple professional expertise’s required in terms of the industry specific technical nature of the ICT capabilities for effective discharge functions is identified. In building a competent ICT workforce to meet the industry’s challenging opportunities, this report presents a detailed list of key findings, recommendations and a way forward that include; Requirement of greater congruence between training organizations and the ICT industry need for training strategy to be implemented as an evolving process and ICT to initiate an accreditation process for training courses as well as on the training entities. Non-technical skills lack in greater proportions across the industry of which effective communication skills in the English language is highlighted Industrial standardization and accreditation of the courses and course curriculums, evaluation mechanisms with the participation of the training institutes and the industry is recommended for skill standardization. Career and transitory trends of individuals identified as seeking greater exposure for building high profiles for future progression rather than titles that require deployment of faster, economical training methods with the increasing demand for value-added services that require higher competencies in both modern technical and non-technical areas. Potential need to incorporate industrial placements to IT related degrees and professional qualifications to give individuals prior exposure to fast-pace the work environment. 7 Information Technology was noted at TNU, The University is mandated to pursue training high quality human resource, conducting researches on scientific technologies and management, verifying and proposing solutions and sustainable development policies, and contributing to the socio-economic development of the region towards industrialization and modernization. It is the vision of TNU to become a world class University within Vietnam and the Southeast Asia in providing higher education in the fields of agriculture and forestry, teacher education, technology, economics, business administration, medicine and pharmacy, information and communication technology, foreign languages, among others. Based on the situation above, the researcher decided to conduct a study on Relevance of Information Technology graduates’ competencies to the industry need. Objectives of the study The study was conducted in order to identify the level of competency, satisfaction, and training needs of Information Technology graduates for the industry need. Specifically, it aimed to: 1. Find out the level of competency, satisfaction and training needs of IT graduates 1.1. Level of competence. 1.2. Level of satisfaction 1.3. Training needs in the industry 2. Find out training needs of industry for IT graduates 3. Relationship level of competency and satisfaction and the training needs HYPOTHESIS There is no significant relationship between the level of competency and satisfaction of IT graduates and the training needs of the industry. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study tried to find out and to identify the level of competency, satisfaction, and training needs of Information Technology graduates for the industry need with the competency and satisfaction of students and the requirements of employers, hence, it will be beneficial to the following: 8 Administrators: It is hoped that this study will provide new solutions to develop training programs in the field of information technology in Thai Nguyen University to meet the industry needs. Teachers: The results of the study are of great help to teachers, since they will be made aware of the development of information technology training programs needed for the development of the school to meet the satisfaction of the students and the requirements of employers. Researchers can contribute to a new path in their search for better ways to improve themse if and their work environment. In this way, eventually it will lead to a better quality performance in the teaching and management human resources. Students: They will benefit in this study because they are the main concerns of higher education and a healthy environment and relationships can create a positive impact on teaching and learning process. The researcher hopes that the results and findings will bring understanding and learning-oriented, harmonious relationship between the school, students and employers. Future Researchers: This study can provide a reference for researchers of Thai Nguyen University in making decision on curriculum development oriented information technology, communication skills, and personal qualities, as the most important competencies, but suggests that the workplace context determines their relative importance. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The main purpose of this study was to investigate the Relevance of Information Technology graduates’ competencies to the industry need at Thai Nguyen University, where training in the field of information technology. Of the 1089 students who have graduated from the faculty of information technology, only 146 respondents were included in the study. Workforce development in the Viet Nam suggested that Thai Nguyen University has to play the role in addressing them by partnering with employers to align college curricula with workplace needs. This in brief describes partnership 9
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