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E I Challenging and Enjoyable Lessons in English Usage by R.E. Myers illustrated by Bron Smith Teaching & Learning Company This book belongs to ____________________________________________________________ This book is dedicated to David Kwiat with sincere appreciation and admiration. Cover design by Sara King Illustration on page 56 by Ernie Hager. Used with permission. Copyright © 2005, Teaching & Learning Company ISBN No. 1-57310-450-7 978-1-4291-1285-7 Printing No. 987654321 Teaching && Learning Teaching LearningCompany Company 1204 Buchanan St., P.O. Box 10 Dayton, OH 45401-0802 Carthage, IL 62321-0010 www.LorenzEducationalPress.com The purchase of this book entitles teachers to make copies for use in their individual classrooms only. This book, or any part of it, may not be reproduced in any form for any other purposes without prior written permission from the Teaching & Learning Company. It is strictly prohibited to reproduce any part of this book for an entire school or school district, or for commercial resale. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. ii TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Table of Contents Progressions Sequencing . ......................6 Sequencing . A Trip to Remember Moths Fly at Night Mostly ...............8 Sequencing . Following Directions. Unscramble the Letters Following Directions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Alliteration, Syllabication . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Bankers Aren t So Dumb Similes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 It s a Pleasedness to Do Business Nouns Name Fitting Partners Dynamic Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Proper Nouns Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Motoring with Nervous Nellie Phrases with Prepositions Sentences Verbs: Gerunds . . 29 Prepositional Phrases, Nouns, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Agreeable and Disagreeable Verbs The Word Game Ice and Fog Rhyme, Synonyms . Spelling . A Lot of Alliteration Agreement . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Mindy s Annual Checkup Spelling Alliteration . More Sentence Sense Impressions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Sentences . Vocabulary Building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Categories Vocabulary Building, Abstracting . . . . 59 Vocabulary Building, Word Usage . . . . . 60 I m Thinking . . . Magic Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 What Do They Have in Common? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Sentences Homonyms . Suffixes Spoonerisms Sentence Sense Punctuation, Vocabulary Building with You Tons of Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Paddy Antonyms . Riddles, Puns . Natural Riddles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Predicates, Subjects Capitals, Punctuation In Contrast Word Play . Occupational Names Shuffled Syntax Susan Maria s Problem . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Palindromes . . . . 13 Unscramble More Letters Sounds and Syllables . . . . . . . 10 Either Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Brieflies Adverbs, Puns . Abstracting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Buzz, Swish and Slurp Onomatopoeia . Statements to Ponder Ambiguity . Ready by Five Proofreading Tito s License Game . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Subjects, Predicates, Paragraphs . . 70 Practice Makes Perfect Proofreading, Self-Evaluation. . 73 Mixed-Up Maxims Maxims, Subjects, Predicates . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The Sow s Plow Quatrain, Rhyme Time Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Titles The Game of Naming Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Answer Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 iii Dear Teacher or Parent, This book is a collection of activities that combine the elements of grammar, syntax and sentence structure instruction in a palatable way, by adding humor and whimsy. Students are encouraged to use their own ideas and language as they learn through old-fashioned language instruction and creative thinking. E. Paul Torrance has offered some excellent advice to teachers who want to motivate their students to learn. In effect, he tells them to set the stage in order to get them ready to think and to act. To prepare your students for a meaningful learning experience, Torrance advises you “heighten anticipation.” This state of the pedagogical process has also been called the “warm-up.” The following expressions he uses to describe this process are highly suggestive: Create the desire to know. Heighten anticipation and expectation. Get attention. Arouse curiosity. Tickle the imagination. Give purpose and motivation. As he points out, you need to have your students’ attention. Without that, the “warming up” will be ineffectual. Capture the attention of your students. You are probably an expert in several ways. (We don’t advise you to go at it in a high-handed fashion, however. The mood for any of these units would therefore be destroyed.) After you have their attention, heighten anticipation with some introductory remarks. Tease students with an item from one of the activities. For example, you might allude to the way headline writers regularly use puns in the sports pages. Ask students to react to a headline such as “Oilers’ defense too slick for Jets in clutch” (as in the “Twisters” activity). Or read a pun in a newspaper. Leading into a unit this way will get your students in the mood for it. To arouse their curiosity and get them in the mood to think whimsically, present a verbal statement such as: “The girl was heaply dirt by the insult.” Ask them what the statement means. This is the kind of “spoonerism” they will deal with in “Tons of Soil” (page 48). Your students may do a mental double-take at such mixed up language, but it will “tickle the imagination.” You will probably have your own ideas about how to introduce the lessons after looking them over. You’ll want to modify and improve the lessons to make sure they suit your students. Sincerely, R.E. Myers iv TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Introduction Victor Borge proved that punctuation can be funny when made audible. This book is an attempt to consider grammar, capitals and sentence fragments in a similarly humorous way. Teaching basic language skills in a way that involves your students thinking abilities as well as their funny bones will help them remember important facts. The intent of these activities is to cause students to ponder, evaluate, imagine, reconsider and inquire. Critical and creative thinking skills as well as the application of rules are also required. Since an author of educational materials has no way of knowing exactly who the targets of his or her ideas will be, the teacher should alter, delete or supplement any of the ideas in this book in order to fit the needs of the students in the class. TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 5 Name_____________________________________ Activity 1 s n o i s s e r g o r P Sequencing If you were asked to put these words in a logical order woman baby girl, you would probably quickly arrange them this way: baby girl woman. That would be putting the words in a kind of chronological order with the youngest first and the oldest last. There are other ways to order things logically. For example, animals can be ordered by size, speed, intelligence and by many other ways. Arrange each set of three words in a logical order. 1. lunch, breakfast, dinner ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 2. dollar, penny, quarter ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 3. strolling, dancing, racing ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 4. tortoise, porpoise, sparrow ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 6 TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ 5. breeze, tornado, gale __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 6. copying, scribbling, composing __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 7. yelling, whispering, speaking __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 8. daydreaming, inventing, sleeping __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 9. quatrain, couplet, triplet __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 10. letter, e-mail message, telegram __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 11. paragraph, sentence, story __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 12. stranger, acquaintance, friend __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 7 Name_____________________________________ Activity 2 r e b m e m e R o t A Trip Sequencing The teacher asked the class to write a What I Did During Summer Vacation composition. Tawnee Barkas wrote the following narrative: Our Trip to Chicago We left our home in the Marina District of San Francisco on Monday. Our family Dad 36, Mom 32, me 11, Lisa 7 and Brad 5 had gotten up at 5:30 because Mom wanted to get an early start on our trip to Chicago. That was the first mistake, but there were lots more. Maybe I should say that going to Chicago was our first mistake. Somehow I don t really know why Dad forgot to fill up the gas tank of our old Ford station wagon, and we ran out of gas just two miles after we d passed the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge toll plaza on the Oakland side. He had to walk nine blocks and then wait 20 minutes until a service station opened up. It was 7:30 when we ran out of gas. Remember we got up real early! As luck would have it, after Dad got the gas and began walking back to the car, it started to rain hard. That made him almost as mad as when we were in a motel in Omaha and the handle came off the hot water faucet in the shower and he scalded his hand. That experience must have made him decide we could make it all the way to Chicago the next day. We should have been prepared for motel problems because the night before, in Cheyenne, the desk clerk said they didn t have any reservation for our family. There was a convention in 8 town, and there wasn t a room to be had in any motel or hotel. We slept in the car. Uncomfortably, I might add. It was lucky we had a good motel room in Reno after running out of gas in Oakland because I think Mom would have made Dad turn around and go home if it had been a bad one. She didn t want to go to see the Chicago Cubs play anyway. We had some excitement in Wyoming. Before we got to Laramie, Brad spotted some wild burros in a field near the road. He talked Dad into letting him out of the car to see them better, TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ and was a cheap watch you could get at Wal-Mart for $9.99 anyway. Dad insisted that they take it since we had wasted a lot of time trying to do the right thing. When we finally got into Chicago on Friday and located Wrigley Field, Dad found out that the Cubs were in Boston on a five-day road trip. When he told Mom, she turned purple. Dad was a nice shade of red. I don t want to write about the trip back. It was much worse. Questions 1. Make a list of the places Tawnee said her family stopped on their trip. Put them in the order in which they occurred. After you have completed your list, check a map to see if you have the places in the correct order. but when one of the burros came right up to him he dropped his peanut butter and jelly sandwich and ran back to the car, yelling like crazy. I guess the burro was interested in his sandwich. Both of the little kids were problems that day. A few hours before, we had to stop for gas at Rock Springs and Lisa left her little purse with two dimes and a comb in it in the restroom. Dad refused to go back for it when Lisa discovered she had left it at the service station. She didn t stop crying until Brad spotted the burros. 2. Though Tawnee wrote mostly about the members of her family, you can get an idea of what she is like from reading her account of the trip. How would you describe her personality? Draw a picture of Tawnee on the trip, or tell how you think she might have looked. Getting out of the car on the highway did not seem to work out for us, I guess. Before we got to Salt Lake City and a place to sleep as good as the motel in Reno we hoped, Dad thought it would be nice to have a picnic by the side of the road. By chance, Brad found a wristwatch with a broken band in the dirt. Mom insisted we take it to the police at the nearest town, which took us 12 miles out of the way. The police there checked it out and said it wasn t working TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 9 Name_____________________________________ Activity 3 ) y l t s o M ( t h g i N t a y l F s Moth Sequencing Put the sentences below in a logical order. Write the numbers 1-14 next to the sentences in pencil to indicate their order. You can erase numbers if you change your mind about where they go. Write out these comments about moths and butterflies, in the order in which you think the author meant them to be, on another sheet of paper: ____ Or a butterfly. ____ Why is a jackrabbit a hare? ____ If so, the one with the wings flat when it is resting is the moth, and the one with the wings folded is the butterfly. ____ I confess that I can t tell a moth from a butterfly. ____ When does a butterfly stop flying around? ____ Oh well, it probably doesn t make any difference, except to another moth. ____ Have you ever seen moths and butterflies flying around at the same time? ____ Have you ever seen them compete for space on the same plant? ____ At five minutes before sundown when the weather is good? ____ In fact, a hare and a rabbit look the same to me, too. ____ At an hour before the time given in the newspaper for the sun s setting? ____ Nevertheless, the reference books state that moths fly at night mostly and butterflies don t. ____ But you have to see them at rest. ____ Why isn t it a rabbit, for goodness sakes! Have you ever seen moths and butterflies flying around at the same time?________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 10 TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ Activity 4 s r e t t e L e h t e l b m a r c s n U g Directions Followin Follow the clues below to fill in the blank lines. Then guess the two unknown words. 1. Starting on the first two blank lines, print the abbreviation for the word knock out. 2. On the next four lines, print the color of a clear sky. 3. Change the fourth letter to the letter between n and p. 4. Change the next-to-the-last letter to the 19th letter of the alphabet. 5. Cross out the last letter; you won t need it. 6. Unscramble the letters to see what they spell. Hint: You find them in libraries and schools. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. Starting on the first two blank lines, print the abbreviation for the state south of North Dakota. 2. Print the word for the opposite of far on the next four lines. 3. Put the sixth letter of the alphabet on the last line. 4. Change the fifth letter to I. 5. Unscramble the letters and you should have what everyone needs. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 11 Name_____________________________________ Make up your own game like the two on page 11. Give five or six directions for filling in the lines. When someone has followed your directions correctly, the letters above the lines should spell a familiar word. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Follow the clues below to fill in the blank lines. Then guess the two unknown words. 1. Starting on the first four blank lines, print the thing children love to do. 2. On the next line, print the seventh letter of the alphabet. 3. On the last line, print the first letter in the direction opposite of north. 4. Change the fourth letter to the letter between d and f. 5. Change the next-to-the-last letter to the same as the fourth letter. 6. Unscramble the letters to see what they spell. Hint: One of the magic words taught to children. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 12 TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ Activity 5 s r e t t e L e r o M e l b m a r c s Un ns owing Directio Foll 1. On the first two lines, print the abbreviation for the room in a hospital where badly injured people go. 2. On the next three lines, print the word rude fans yell when they don t like the referee s call. 3. On the last two lines, print the abbreviation for Old English. 4. Change the third and fourth letters to the abbreviation of South America. 5. Change the next-to-the-last letter to the 18th letter in the alphabet. 6. Cross out the fifth letter; you won t need it. 7. Reverse the first two letters. 8. Unscramble the remaining six letters to see what they say. Hint: What every pencil needs. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ People are always giving or asking for directions. Unfortunately, some people are not clear when they give directions and the person trying to follow them gets mixed up or lost. This often happens when directions are given for finding a specific location. What are some of the mistakes people make in giving directions to a town, street address or a place of business? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 13 Name_____________________________________ Activity 6 Susan Capitals, Punctuation The following paragraph is not punctuated. There are no capitals, commas or periods. Write capital letters over those that need to be capitalized and place commas and periods where they are needed. susan has good handwriting she always wears nice clothes in the latest style and her hair is neat susan even gets all her math right she has a twinkie for lunch sometimes but she usually eats only food that is good for you susan had the leading part in our play last month everyone hates susan. Why do you suppose Susan? 14 everyone hates TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ Activity 7 Paddy ilding u B y r a l u b a c o V Punctuation , Add punctuation marks and capitals to make this story readable. Indent wherever a new paragraph is needed. paddy was my pig or maybe he was my hog at any rate he had a curly tail and a blunt snout and so we can assume he was a porker after he was weaned paddy became very fond of me it must have been because I was the only one in the family who would feed him he wanted to go everywhere with me he followed me into the house whenever he could even following me into my bedroom and the bathroom I drew the line there you wait there paddy id tell him a girl needs some privacy the most trouble I ever had with paddy was when he got loose one day and dug up old mrs olivers garden what an awful sight when she came home mrs oliver was as churned up as her garden I will admit there were more furrows and bumps in the garden but not too many more we survived that but mrs oliver was red in the face for a week and she would not speak to me for twenty two days that was all right with me because she had a voice like a sick crow and a laugh that frightened all her livestock they never did get used to her laugh paddy seemed to like it though he was actually fond of mrs oliver too bad that feeling wasnt reciprocated Circle the word that best describes the two characters in the story. Paddy was a affable b perky Mrs. Oliver was a imperious c amiable b irascible TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 d debonair c irritating d tempestuous 15 Name_____________________________________ Activity 8 s e l b a l l y S d n Sounds a ation c i b a l l y S , n o i t Allitera Think of two words equivalent to each two-word definition below. The two words must have the same initial sound as in Big Ben and lovely Louisa . They must also have the same number of syllables as the definition. For example, if unclean canine is the definition, dirty doggy could be an equivalent pair of words with the same number of syllables. Dirty dog would not work because dog has only one syllable and canine has two. 1. smart lad ____________________________________________________________________ 2. honest bum __________________________________________________________________ 3. cool wind ____________________________________________________________________ 4. mighty thrower ______________________________________________________________ 5. hirsute people ________________________________________________________________ 6. gloomy male ________________________________________________________________ 7. good food ____________________________________________________________________ 8. weary boxer __________________________________________________________________ 9. insane throng ________________________________________________________________ 10. stumpy body ________________________________________________________________ 11. soaked ladies ________________________________________________________________ 12. lovely bouquet ________________________________________________________________ 13. lively Franklin ________________________________________________________________ 16 TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ Activity 9 m e l b o r P s ’ a i r a M Homony ms Homonyms are words that sound alike but are not usually spelled the same, and have different meanings. In the following story choose the correct words from the 14 sets of homonyms. Cross out the incorrect words in parentheses. Maria was knew, new at her job and, more importantly, new, knew in town. She didn t know her way around and had a grate, great deal of trouble finding good stores in which to buy, by the articles she needed. She probably was more timid about asking information of her fellow workers then, than are most young women of 25. An indifferent response to her question effected, affected Maria more than it should have, and she usually didn t know wether, whether, weather to pursue the matter or not. If Maria had only had a friend whose council, counsel she could seek occasionally, she would have been a lot happier. TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 The fact that Maria now lived in the nation s capitol, capital made her feel more unsettled, too. There were tourists everywhere strangers to the residents and strangers to one another. It wasn t like her hometown, a place in which, witch everyone knew, new one another s business. Maria wanted the name and location of a good stationery, stationary store that was her principle, principal need at the moment but she didn t know witch, which person in the office to ask without embarrassing herself. 17 Name_____________________________________ Activity 10 t s a r t n o C In Antony ms Antonyms are less useful to writers than synonyms, but they come in handy when there is a need for contrasting ideas and elements. Cross out the word in each sentence below that doesn t belong. Write the correct word above it. 1. Oh, I don t want much just give me a huge piece, please, Marion said sweetly. 2. She s a regular magpie. I can t get her to say a word not a word, declared Juan. 3. Henry was a careless and absent-minded boy; he would keep everything he owned. 4. Because she was early, Trudy ran the length of the corridor, knocking into several people on the way. 5. I think boys who pluck their eyebrows look foolish, declared Tyrone. 6. It fit so loosely that Gary was afraid to sit down for fear it would split. 7. The mirror was so clean you could barely see your reflection in it. 8. Andre eagerly agreed to go to the dance in spite of his intense dislike of such social affairs and of dancing in particular. 9. 18 I wish I had a good enemy like that, one who gives me treats, said little Justin. TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 Name_____________________________________ 10. After he had banged his gavel on the table several times, Mr. Nutter announced his intention to end the meeting and get down to business in spite of the noise. 11. 12. Jeff came right up to the small boy and politely told him, Shove off, you little creep! If you want to get better, you ll have to lower your sights, advised the coach. Write the pairs of incorrect and correct words in the columns below. Example: If you replaced bad with good in a sentence, write bad-good in the Adjectives column. Adjectives Adverbs Verbs Nouns ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ TLC10450 Copyright © Teaching & Learning Company, Carthage, IL 62321-0010 19
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