Tài liệu Kỹ thuật mới giải nhanh bài tập hóa học tập 2-hóa học vô cơ - cù thanh toàn part 1

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546.076 K600T CtJ THANH TOAN NGUYEN NGOC OANH KYTHUATMdfl GIAINHANHBAITAP HOA HOC B I I 114 4 4 i TAP 2 HOA H O C VO C O f i 4 ' OCR] i wo'c lOnil.., ^ ^ - Tuyen chon cac ky thuat giai nhanh ve 7 chuyen de hoa v6 ca - Danh cho hoc sinh \6p 10, 11, 12 va luyen thi D H - CD NHA XUAT BAN DAl HOC i^UOC GIA HA NOT " X U THANH TOAN NGUYEN NGOC OANH KYTHUATMOfl GIAINHANHBAITAP HdA HOC TAP 2 HOA H O C V 6 C O - Tuyen chpn cac ky thuat giai nhanh ve 7 chuyen de hoa v6 ca - Danh cho hoc sinh Idp 10,11,12 va luyen thi D H - CD NHA XUAT B A NDAI H O C Q U O C GIA H AN O I C. KI THUAl L6INOIDAU Cac ban ddng nghidp va cac em hoc sinh than m6'n! Trdn CO so phan tfch kl luong cac n6i dung kien thiic v^ ki nang nam trong khung chuong trinh thi, ca'u true, ma tran d6 thi va cac dang bai tap thucmg gap trong da thi tuyen sinh dai hoc, cao dang ciia B6 GD - DT, chung toi da biSn soan tap sach: "Kithudt moi gidi nhanh bai tap Hod hoc" Cu6'n sach mof ra m6t co h6i cho giao vian va cac em hoc sinh nhin nhan lai mot each sau sac va toan dien cac da thi tuyan sinh DH - CD ki tii khi ap dung hinh thiJc thi trac nghiem, tilr do giao vian c6 dinh hirdng dung dan cho cac em hoc sinh va miic do kien thiic va cac dang bai tap; con cac em hoc sinh se vihig vang, tu tin hom de di tran con duomg den c6ng truong Dai hoc ma minh mo udfc. Tac gia cung khdng quan gili gam vao eu6'n sach cac phuong phap giai hay, giai nhanh, nham giiip cac em ren luyan ki nang giai nhanh cac dang bai tap trong di thi tuyen sinh DH - CD. Cuon sach se la nguori ban d6ng hanh than thia't vdri cac em hoc sinh trong qua trinh chinh phuc nhiing dinh cao vinh quang ciia tri thiic; cuon sach se la tai lieu qui cho cac ban d6ng nghiep trong qua trinh giang day. Da' cuon sach hoan thian hon, ra't mong nhan duoc su dong gop y kia'n chan thanh ciia cac ban d6ng nghiep va ciia cac em hoc sinh. Chuc cac em dat dirge nhiau thanh tich cao trong cac ky thi sap t6i. Xin tran trong cam cm ! '* T A C G I A Nhd Sach Kkang Viet xin tran trong giai thieu toi Quy doc gid vd xin long nghe moi y kien ddng gop de cuon sach ngdy cdng hay hon, bo ich hon. Thu xin gtH ve: Cty TNHH Mot thanh vien - Dich Vu Van Hoa Khang Viet. 71- Dinh Tien Hoang, Fhuimg Dakao, Quan 1, TP HCM. Tel: (08) 3 9 1 1 5 6 9 4 - 3 9 1 1 1 9 6 9 - 3 9 1 1 1 9 6 8 - 3 9 1 0 5 7 9 7 - Fax: (08) 3 9 1 1 0 8 8 0 Email: khangvletbookstore@yahoo.com.vn GSAl NHANH CHUYEN ©11: cAc D^m 7 CHUVeN HOA VO CO KT T H U A T ©SAI N H A N H BAI TJSip y g H A L O G E N A . L I THUYI^T DAC D I £ M CIJA CAC NGUVfiN T6 HALOGEN Flo Qo Brom (F) (CI) (Br) ca'u hmh electron 16p 4s'4p' 3s^3p' 2s^2p' ngoai Cling 1. Ban kinh nguyan tif D6 am dien Ai lire electron Nang lugmg ion hoa thif nhatl, (eV) Nang luong lien ket (kJ/mol) Nhiat d6 nong chay ("C)" Nhiat d6 s6i ("C) Tiang thai (dkt) Mau sac Mui Ham iKong (% s6' nguydn tir) lot (I) 5s^-5p' 0,64A° 0,99A° 1,14A° 1,33A° 3,98. 3,58 eV. 3,16 3,81 eV 2,96 3,56 eV 2,66 3,29 eV 17,42 12,97 11,34 10,45 159 242 192 150 -219,6 -101,0 -7.3 113,6 -188,1 khi luc nhat rat d6c -34,1 vang luc Xoc 59,2 long do nau hdi 0,02 0,02 3.10-* 185,5 ran den tim kh6ng miJi 4.10-' • khi II. TINH CHAT HOA HOC CUA DON CHAT III. DI^U cut Br, F2 Vdikim loai - Tac dung vod tat ca cac kim loai (ca A u , Pt,...) - Phan ling toa nhiet manh nha't. - Tac dung v<5ri h^u he't kim loai. - Phan ihig toa nhi^u nhiet. 2E + nX, Vdfi hidro (H2) Phan ling nS manh ngay b ZSZ^C, trong bong t6'i. H , + X,. Vdri nude (H2O) Phan ihig nS khi chia'u sang hoac dun nong. I2 - Tic dung vdi hdu he't kim loai. - Phan umg toa nhiet It hon clo. > 2EX„ Phan ling xay ra a nhiet d6 cao, kh6ng n6. 0 X2 + -> 4HF + O2 Phan ling chi xay ra a nhiet d6 cao, thuan nghich. -1 2F,+ CI, + 2 K 0 H dich ki^m 2NaOH„„,„3, ->KC1 + ->2NaF + OF.+ao 3X, + 6KOH Trong phong thi nghiem. Kh6ng dilu che' Trong c6ng nghiep. Dien phan nong > nong chay: mu6'i: F2 + CI, +2KBr 2NaCl,„^„g (.^ij,, Chi the' hien tfnh khijr Nhan xet 2NaF + O2 Kh6ng CO 3H,0 X , + MnXj + 2H2O Dien phan dung dich NaQ cd m^ng ngan: Sau khi phoi nudrc bien d^ la'y NaCl, ph^n con lai chiia nhidu NaBr: 2Naa + 2H,0 -> Cij + H2 + 2NaOH Rong bi^n kh6 - ^ t r o —^^^'^ > dung djch c6 Nal. 2NaI + CI, NaBr +CI2 -> I2 + 2NaCl 2Naa + Br2 .0 * M n X , + X2 + 2 H , 0 • 16HX(,, + 2KMn04 > 2 K X + 2MnX2 + X , + SH^O -> K C l + 3X, + 3H2O .0 2NaX + MnO, + 2H,S04(d) - i - ^ X2 + MnS04 + Na2S04 + 2H2O (X la CI, Br, I) 2. Trong cong nghiep: Khu duoc r Kh6ng trong dung dich: Phan ling. 2NaBr +1, ^2Naa + Br, Br, +5a, + 6H,0 ->2HBr03 + lOHQ > Bo > h Tinh oxi hoa gi5m dan 4 4HX + MnO, 6HX C I 2 (lOfC) h6n hop 4HXF2 +H, 3a, + 6K0H trong rnu6'i I2 Cho dung djch H X dSc tac dung vdi chat oxi hoa (MnO,, PbOj, K C I O 3 , KMn04,...): K F + 2HF: 5KC1 halogenua Br, CI, F2 1, Trong phong thi nghiem: 5KX + KXO3 + K C I O + H2O Khi F , kh6 khur Khir duoc Br duoc Cr, B r , I , I trong > X2 + 2e 2X" +1 + KCIO3 Vdri mu6'i Oxi hoa ion halogenua thanh nguyen tir: HX + HXO H2O Phan ling kho dSn tiir CI, d6'n I, Vdi dung C6NG NGHIEF Nguyen tac chung: H , + I, ^ 2HI 2HX (X: F, Q, Br) 2F2 + 2 H 2 O - Tac dung vdri kim loai cf nhiet d6 cao hoac cin xiic tac. TRONG P H 6 N G THI NGHlfeM VA S A N XUAT TRONG i, + 5a,+ 6 H , 0 ^ 2HIO3 + lOHCl J t 2 N a a + 2H2O m&ngngin > C l , t + H^t + 2NaOH rudrc day: 4HC1 + 0 , 2NaBr + <: xt,t" QX.jy^^^) 2NaI + Cl„2(vta ± — ^ dd All) 2C12 + 2H20 Br2 + 2NaCl > I, + 2Naa I V . CAC H I D R O H A L O G E N U A VA A X I T H A L O G E N H I D R I C (HX) HCl HF Nhidt d6 s6i (°C) D6 tan trong 1 lit nude (bOPC) Tinh axit cua dd HX Tac dung vdi dd AgNOj Tdc dung voi Si02 Tdc dung Vdri O2 -85,1 19,5 4-66,8 600 lit 425 lit Yiru Manh Manh hom HCl Manh hon HBr AgCU trdng SiO^ + 4 H F -> SiF4 + 2H2O AgBri vang nhat vang 4HC1,„ + 0,(,, Kh6ng phan ung. CU +2Hfi 4HX<,„) + O, (kk) - > 2X2 + 2H2O 2HBr + H2SO4 Kh6ng phan ling. -> Br2 + SO2+ 2H2O CaF,,,) + H2SO,4(d) 2HFt + CaSOai 2Naa„ + H2S04(a) l">400"C ^ 2Ha + Na2S04 H2(k)+ CI•'2(k) --->2HC1 (k) RH + CI2 - > RCl + HCl - D6u tan (trif CaFj,...) Mu6'i clorua (CD Mu6'i bromua (Br) - Da s6' tan (trir AgCl, PbCl,,...) - Da s6' tan (li ij AgBr, PbBr2,...) 41, + H,S + 4ao Mu6'i iotua (D - Da s6' tan (triif A g l , Pbl,, Mnlj). Tan, mau trSng. Kh6ng tan, mau trang. Kh6ng tan, mau vang nhat. Kh6ng tan, mau vang. Phan ling vori halogen Kh6ng xay ra. F2 + 2C1 CI2 + 2Br-,,,, CI, + 2r„„ -> Phan iJng vod H,S04 dac CaF2 + HiSOiij) Phan ling vdd -> 0 2 („6ngchdy) + 2F ^ Br2 + 20" Phan iJng voi I2 + ^3HX Trang thai tif nhiSn 2a- Br2 + 2r„d) - > I , + 2Br 250^ C ^ 2NaBr„y + NaCV,+ H2S04<„ H2SO4,,) -> <2.'>0°C ^ r 2HFt + CaS04 HClt+ NaHS04 Khong xay ra Khdng xay ra SKI + 5H2S04,a, 4I2 + HjS + Br, + SO, + HJO + Na2S04 4K2Sb4 + 4H,0 Kh6ng xay ra 2FeCl3 4 2KI 2Fea, + 1 , + 2KC1 'Kh6ng xay ra. Kh6ng xet. Kh6ng xet. O3 + 2KI + H2O I2 + 2KOH + 0, O3 PX3 + 3H2O Hgl,, Mu6'i AgX. SHI + H2SO4 HF HCl HBr HI Tinh axit tang din, tinh khuf tSng dSn Nhan xet Ti'nh tan Agli Kh6ng phan Ung. dac Di^u ch6' va san xua't -35,4 500 lit Khong Mu6'i florua HI Tan v6 han Tac dung v6i H2SO4 HBr V. M U O I H A L O G E N U A - Quang florit (CaF,), criolit (Na3AlF,),... - Mu6'i an (NaCl). - KCl, CaCi,, NaBr (nude bi^n) Nal (rong bi^n)... Ag^ + Br- Ag* + I" +H3PO3 Thuc te: 3X2 + 2P + 6H2O — ^ > 6HX + Nhan Kh6ng xay biet ra. (bang AgN03) Ag^ + cr ->Aga>l trdng AgBri vang nhat Agli vang 2H3PO, 7 V I . H O P C H A T C6 C l o r u a vol Nudrc Javen Thanh NaCl + NaClO phan Dieu Che B. C A C D A N G B A I T A P T R O N G D E T H I TUYJ^N S I N H D H - C D O X I CUA H A L O G E N + M u o i k a l i clorat CaOCU: 1 . L i thuyet van d u n g va phuomg phap giai: -1 +1 CI - Ca - 0 - CI H2O * C l 2 + 2NaOH„„,„,, * CI, + Ca(OH)„^, NaQ + NaQG + * 3C1, + 6 K O H — ^ 5KC1 + K Q O j + 3 H , 0 H2G * Didn phan dung dichNaa(15-20%) 6 dieu kifenthucmg, khdng CO mang ngan. + * D6' giai cac bai tap dang nay c6 th^ sir dung cac phuomg phap giai nhanh: . Phuong phap xac d i n h chat dua vao cong thiirc t i n h p h a n tur k h o i : Gia six c6 chat cho electron la A . Ta c6: ke H2O * C I , + Ca(OH), (v6i sOa) - j f ^ Dang 1: Xdc dinh chat (halogen, muoi halogenua, kim loqi) KCIO3 CaOCl, + H2O * Di6n phan dung dich K C l 2 5 % a n h i a d6 70°C - 75°C. * 6C1, + 6Ca(OH), m. m Vay: Trong do: m ^ : Khd'i lucmg chat A (gam) k: s6' electron do m6t nguyen tir A nhucmg 2KC103i +Caa2 chat 4 N a a O + PbS -> CaOCl, + 2HC1 PbS04 + 4NaCl - La mu6'i ciia ax it ra't y€u: N a c i o + CO, + ao -^HClO + NaHcbj ——> CaCl, + a, + H2O - Trong kh6ng khf 2CaOCl, + CO, + H , 0 ->CaC03 - Kem ben nhifit: 2KCIO3 — ^ 2KC1 + - Sat trung - T^y trSng sod, vai, - Tiy trSng soi, vai, gia'y. gia'y. - T^y u6' chu6ng trai, c6'ng ranh, h6' rac. n^ (cho)- s6' mol electron do toan bo luong chat A nhircJng. + 30,T Dua vao cac dir ki^n bai ra cho, xac dinh diroc cac dai lirong m ^ , k, + Tinh gia t r i M ^ . + Tir phan tir khoi xac dinh duoc cha^ cin t i m . \ n^fcho)- f - Chat oxi hoa manh: Phirong phap t r u n g b i n h : C6ng thiic tinh nguyfin tir kh6'i trung bmh ciia hai 5 K C I O 3 + 6P — = mhh k i m loai lidn tife'p trong ciing mot nhom A : M -> 5KC1 + 3P2O5 KCIO3 + 6HC1 -> KCl + 3 0 , + 3H,0 + CaCi, + 2HC10 tfng dung ne(cho) M ^ : Khd'i luong mol chat A (gam) Ca(C103)2 + 2KC1 - Tinh oxi hoa manh: ' Ca(C103), + 5CaCl, + 6 H , 0 - Tinh oxi hoa manh: ^ MA —-> Tinh -.k - Thudc n6, ditm. - Diiu che O , trong phong thf nghidm. ^hh + Tinh cac luong chat da cho trong bai ra. + Viet phuong trinh hoa hoc (so d6 hoa hoc) six dung k i hi6u trung binh. + Tinh dai lucfng trung binh thich hop. + Rut ra kd't luan va tinh cac dai luong theo ydu c^u. Phuong phap bao toan electron: Trong phan umg oxi hoa khir, t6ng s6' mol electron do chat khir cho phai diing bang t6ng s6' mol electron do chait oxi hoa nhan: E e (cho) = S e (nhan) Trong do: n^ho- "nhan n , h „ . N , ,ho = n „ h j „ . N , „^,„ l^n 'ifcrt la s6' mol nguyen tir chat nhircmg, nhan electron (s6' - XiJr ly chat d6c, mol nguyen tir chat khir, chat oxi hoa). tinh che' dSu mo. Nccho. N , „hj„ \in luot la s6' electron m6t nguyen tur chat khir nhuomg, m6t nguyen tijr chat oxi hoa nhan. + Viet cac qua trinh oxi hoa, qua trinh khir (kh6ng cin vie't phuong trinh phan ling oxi hoa - khir). + It. Dat in, dua vao djnh luat bao to^n electron lap duoc phuong trinh dai s6'. Giai he phuong trinh, xac dinh duoc M => chat cin t i m . . Q - Phuong phap bao loan k h o i lucmg: Trong mdt phan ung hoa hoc, tdng khO'i luong ciia cac cha't san phsim bang long khO'i liromg cua cac chat tham gia phan ling. Gia sir c6 phan ung: aA + bB cC + dD I h e o djnh luat bao toan kh6'i luong ta c6: niA + nig = nic + Hu&ng ddn gidi Trudmg hcrp 1: Hai mudi NaX va NaY d^u tao ke't tiia vdfi A g N O , . Dat cong thiic chung ciia 2 mudi la N a X : NaX + AgNOj A p dung: Trong mot phan ung, c6 n cha't {ki ca chat phan ling va san pha'm), n6'u -> A g X 4- + N a N O , biet kh6'i luong ciia (n - 1) cha't thi tinh duoc khd'i lucmg cua ch&t con lai. (23 + X ) g (108+X)g * M o t s6' n6i dung cin chu y: 6,03 g 8,61 g - Cac k i m loai c6 nhieu hoa tri (Fe, Cr,...) tac dung voi CI2, axit H C l tao ra mu6'i clorua k i m loai C O hoa t r i khac nhau: ' " " 2Fe + 3 a . - > Cac dung dich mudi halogenua nhu mu6'i clorua, bromua, iotua d^u tac dung voi A g N O j , con muoi florua khong tac dung duoc voi dung djch A g N O , : . NaF + A g N O j : Khong xay ra NaCl + A g N O j Agai trong t u nhien ma c6 M > 178 => loai truong hofp nay). hop 2: X la flo, Y la clo: NaF + A g N O j y y (mol) y = 0,06 TCr ( 1 , 2) ta c6: x = 0,06; (2) y = 0,06. 6,03 1: Hoa tan hoan toan 1,1 gam h6n hop gom m6t k i m loai kiim X va m6t k i m loai ki6m thd Y (Mx < My) trong dung djch H C l du, thu duoc 1,12 lit khi H , (dktc). K i m loai X la B. Rb. C.Li. (Trich Hudfng din 1! :::>ili A g C U + NaNOj Ta c6: 143,5y = 8,61 2. Cac t h i d u m i n h hoa: Theobaira: - (1) ' > khdng xay ra NaCl + A g N O j + NaNOj Nal + AgNO, A g l l + NaNO, V i vay cac bai tap h6n hop mu6'i halogenua tac dung vdri dung dich A g N O j tao ra ke't tiia cSn chia hai trucmg hop d^ giai. A. K. i Theo bai ra, ta c6: 42x + 58,5y = 6,03 NaBr + A g N O j ^ A g B r i + NaNO, Thidu X = 178 (khdng c6 halogen nao c6 Goi X , y \in luot la sd mol ciia NaF, NaCl. Fe + 2HC1 -> FeQ, + H , - Ta c6: (23 + X ) . 8,61 = 6,03. (108 + X ) Tru&ng 2FeCl3 ' nn^ =0,05 (mol) Thi du 3: Hoa tan hoan toan 6,645 gam hdn hop mudi clorua ciia hai k i m loai ki^m thudc hai chu ky ke' tiep nhau vao nude duoc dung dich X . Cho toan bo dung djch X tac dung hoan toan vdi dung dich A g N O j (du), thu duoc 18,655 D.Na. de tuyen sink Cao dang khoi Dap an diing la D. gam ke't tiia. Hai k i m loai ki6m tren la A) A. R b v a C s B. N a v a K gidi => 0,05 M x < 22 . Trong cac k i m loai kiem chi c6 k i m loai l i t i (Li) c6 M = 7 < 22. vay k i m loai X la L i . Dap an dung la C. Thidu 2: Cho dung djch chiJa 6,03 gam hdn hop g6m hai mudi NaX, NaY (X, Y la hai nguyen to c6 trong t u nhien, d hai chu k i lien tiep thu6c nhom V I I A , sd hieu nguyen tir < Zy) vao dung dich A g N O j (du), thu duoc 8,61 gam ke't tua. PhSn tram khdi luong ciia NaX trong hdn hop ban ddu la A. 47,2%. B. 52,8%. C. 58,2%. D.41,8%. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi B) D. L i va Na de tuyen sinh Cao dang - Khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi K6t tiia la A g C l : sd mol A g C l = = 0,13 (mol) • K i hieu chung hai mudi clorua la M C I MCI + A g N O , ^ 0,13 <- A g C l i + MNO3 0,13(mol) =^Mi^,,, = ^ . 5 1 , 1 2 0,13 3=>M.15,62^^'^^^'^ ^ l N a ( M = 23) Vay hai k i m loai k i ^ m la L i va Na. Dap an diing la D. ' ' • ' ' 11 Fe + 2Fea3 Thi du 4: Di hoa tan hoan loan 6,4 gam h6n hop g6m k i m loai R (chi c6 hoa trj I I ) va oxit cua no cdn viira dii 400 m l dung dich H C l I M . K i m loai R la A. M g B. Be C. Ba D . Ca (Trich de tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Hudng dan gidi T h e o b a i r a : HHCI = 0 . 4 . 1 = 0 , 4 ( m o l ) O x i t ciia k i m loai R la R O (R c6 hoa t r i I I ) . K i hifiu chung cho k i m loai R va oxit R O la X . PTHH: X + 2HC1 0,2 BFeClj Thi du 7: X la k i m loai thu6c phan 1,7 gam h6n hop g6m k i m loai X sinh ra 0,672 l i t khi H j ( d dktc). luong d u dung djch H^SO^ loang, lit ( 0 dktc). K i m loai X la A. Mg. C. Ba. • Hu&ng ddn gidi S6 mol k h i H j trong hai thi nghiem: ^ M R . R O = M x = 6 , 4 / 0 , 2 = 32 PTHH: ^16 ECl^ + 0,03 mol Suyra: loai R la M g . V i Mz„ = 65 > 56,67 => Mx < 56,67 Dap an diing la PTHH: Thi du 5: Cho 1,9 gam h6n hop mu6'i cacbonat va hidrocacbonat cua k i m loai k i ^ m M tac dung he't v6i dung dich H C l (du), sinh ra 0,448 1ft k h i ( 0 dktc). K i m loai M la B. K . CRb. D.Li. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi B) Hu&ng ddn gidi Theobaira: H, 0,03 mol Trong cac k i m loai hoa t r i I I chi c6 k i m loai M g (R = 24) thoa man. Vay k i m A.Na. D . Ca. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) ^' ' 0,4 (mol) nhom chinh nhom I I (hay nhom I I A ) . Cho va Zn tac dung vdi luong d u dung dich H C l , Mat khac, khi cho 1,9 gam X tac dung v6i thi thi tich khi hidro sinh ra chua d€n 1,12 B. Sr. RCI2 + . . . ViMx=32nen j ^ ^ ^ ^ [R + 1 6 > 3 2 > Dap an diing la A . M g = 1,7/0,03 = 56,67 X + Ux Suyra: H , S 0 4 (loang) (1) > XSO4 n^^^< 0,05 (mol) < 0,05 (mol) M x > 1,9/0,05 = 38 Tilr(l,2)tac6: + H^ (2) 38 < Mx < 56,67. Trong cac k i m loai nhom I I A chi c6 k i m loai canxi (M = 40) thoa man. vay X la Ca. Dap an diing la D . nco2 = 0,448/22,4 = 0,02 (mol) Thi du 8: H 6 n hop X g6m M3CO3, MHCO3 va M Q ( M la k i m loai k i ^ m ) . Cho T a c o M h h = 1,9/0,02 = 95 . 32,65 gam X tac dung vijra dii vofi dung dich HCl thu duoc dung djch Y va c6 Suy ra: 2 M + 60 > 95 > M + 61 => 17,5 < M < 34. 17,6 gam C O , thoat ra. Dung djch Y tac dung vdi dung dich A g N O j d u duoc 100,45 gam ket tiia. K i m loai M la Vay M = 23 (Na). A.Rb Dap an dung la A . B. Na A . Fe. B.Al. CMg. D. Zn. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Trong cac k i m loai da cho, M c6 th^ la Fe. That vay: 2Fe + 3Cl2 y 2FeCl3 Fe + 2Ha > FeCl2 + H2 S6 m o l khi CO,: nco^ = 2 dich mu6'i X ta cung duoc mu6'i Y . K i m loai M c6 t h ^ la D. K Hu&ng ddn gidi Thi du 6: Cho k i m loai M tac dung v6i C I , duoc mu6'i X ; cho k i m loai M tac dung vdfi dung dich H C l duoc mu6'i Y . Ndu cho k i m loai M tac dung vdi dung C.Li I M = o,4 44 (mol) S6' mol ke't tua A g C l : n^gci = 100,45 /143,5 = 0 , 7 ( m o l ) Goi X , y , z Idn luot la s6' mol M^COj, MHCO3, M C I trong 32,65 gam X . Bao toan cacbon ta c6: x + y = 0,4 Bao toan clo ta c6: 2x + y + z = 0,7 A p dung djnh luat bao toan khd'i luong ta c6: 13 n i x + niHci = mMCi(Y) + "^002 + " I H 2 0 => 32,65 + 36,5(2x + y ) = ( M + 35,5).(2x + y + z) + 17,6 + 0,4.18 rr> 36,5(x + y ) + 36,5x = ( M + 35,5)(2x + y + z) = 7,85 Thay x + y = 0,4;2x + y + z = 0,7 vao, tadiroc: , 0 , 7 ( M + 3 5 , 5 ) - 3 6 , 5 = 22,45 = > 0 , 7 M - 3 6 , 5 x - - 2 , 4 2,4 + 0 , 7 M • " Thi du 10: Cho 19 gam h6n hop b6t g6m k i m loai M (hoa tri khdng d6i) va Zn (ti IS m o l tirong umg 1,25 : 1) vac binh dirng 4,48 lit khi C I , (dktc), sau cac phan ufng hoan toaii thu duoc h6n hop chat rSn X. Cho X tan h6't trong dung dich H Q (dir) tha'y c6 5,6 lit khi H , thoat ra (dktc). K i m loai M la A. Na B. Ca C. M g D. A l Huatng ddn gidi ',, => X = S6'mol k h i CI, va H , Mn lirot la: n ^ j = 0 , 2 ( m o l ) ; n^^^ = 0 , 2 5 ( m o l ) Dat X la s6' m o l Z n => s6' mol k i m loai M la 1,25x 36,5 Taco: V i 0 < x < 0,4 => M < 17,4 => M = 7 ( < 17,4). Vay k i m loai k i ^ m la L i . Dap an diing la C. TO ( 1 , 2 ) ta c6: N a X + A g N 0 3 -> A g X i + N a N O j 0,1 -> 0,1 l,25n,x + 2x 0,9 65+l,25M 19 l,25n + 2 0,9 1 2 3 M le 24 le Ket luan Loai Mg Loai Gia t r i phii hop la n = 2 => M = 24 (Mg) Dap an diing la C. •> 3. Cac bai tap t u l u y e n : Cku i : K i m loai nao sau day tac dung voi dung djch HCl loang va tac dung vdi khf ^ M . ^ = - - - 1 5 0 0,1 CI3 cho cung loai mu6'i clorua k i m loai? 108 + X = 1 5 0 = > X = 42 CI ( M = 35,5) Br ( M = 80) Hai halogen la Q (35,5) va Br (80). vay hai mu6'i trong X la NaCl va NaBr. Dap an dung la D. A.Fe B.Zn N a F 4 - A g N O j -> kh6ng xay ra NaCl + A g N O j AgCl i + NaNOj -> 0,1 mol => "^Agca =0.1.143,5=14,35(gam) ^1.5(gam) loai tnrcmg hop nay. C. Cu D. A g Hu&ng ddn gidi K i m loai do la Z n : Zn + 2HC1 Zn + Cl2 Trucmg hop 2: Hai mu6'i la NaF va NaCl. 0,1 19 N Trirorng hop 1: Hai halogen d^u tao diroc kfi't tiia v6i A g N O j . PTPU': 65x + M.l,25x =>l,125M = 23,75n-20,5 S6 mol A g N O j : n^gNOj = 0 - ' ("loO • NaX. si (2) => 25,75n + 38 = 58,5 + 1,I25M Hu&ng dan gidi Dat c6ng thufc chung ciia mu6'i la V',' Theo nguydn t i c bao toan electron ta c6: l,25n.x + 2x = 0,4 + 0,5 = 0,9 Thi dti 9: H6n horp X chira dong ihbi hai mu6'i natri cua hai halogen lien tife'p trong bang tuSn hoan. La'y mot luorig X cho tac dung vira dii \6'\0 m l dung dich A g N O , I M thi thu duoc 15 gam ket tiia. C6ng thiJc phan tijf ciia hai muoi trong X la (cho F = 19; Q = 35,5; Br = 80; I = 127; Na = 23) A. NaF va NaCl B. NaBr va N a l C. NaCl va N a l D. NaCl va NaBr ' 6 5 x + M . l , 2 5 x = 19 ( l ) >ZnCl2 + H2 >ZnCl2 Dap an diing la B. '^ Cha v.- Phan ling ciia cac k i m loai v6i khi CI, va axit H C l : FeClj <-^ 5 ^ _ F e CuCl, «_ ± £ l l _ AgCl ^ -C!2_ - i ^ ^ F e C l . Cu - t H C ^ + H, Khdng xay ra ' Ag—^Khangxayra. 15 C&u 2: Cho m6t lirong don chat halogen tac dung h6't vdd magie thu dirge 19 gam magie halogenua. Cung lugng don chat halogen do tac dung h6t vdi nhom tao ra 17,8 gam nh6m halogenua. Kh6'i lirgng don chat halogen da phan ung la A. 8,0 gam. B. 14,2 gam. C. 19,0 gam. D. 7,1 gam. Hu&ng ddn gidi Dat CTHH cua don chat halogen la X, • PTHH: X2 >MgX2 +Mg a mol ' . 'f% > a mol 3X2 + 2A1 > 2AIX3 a mol > 2a/3 mol =,ll?itl^ = J L 2.(27+ 3 X ) 17,8 =,x=35.5 (a) ^ Vay halogen do la clo (CU). =0,2 Dap an dung la B. C&u 3: Cho 1,03 gam mu6'i natri halogenua (A) tac dung vdi dung dich AgNO, du thi thu dirge mot kd't tua, ke't tiia nay sau khi phan iJng hoan loan cho 1,08 gam bac. C6ng thiic ciia mu6'i A la A. NaF. B.NaCl. C. NaBr. D. Nal. Hu&ng ddn gidi I no n^ = — - 0 , 0 l ( m o l ) Dat mu6'i natri halogenua la NaX. PTHH: NaX + AgNOj > AgXi < ^^Suyra: K Y + AgNO, ^ AgY + K N O 3 vay: M h h - - ^ ^ = 2 5 7 , 4 ( g / m o l ) = ^ M x , y - 2 1 8 , 4 ( g / m o l ) 0,0264 <- ' ; vay khdng CO X, Y phu hgp. Trucmg hop X 1^ F, Y la CI: AgF tan n6n chi c6 AgCl kd't tiia 0,01 NaCl-> n^aci = - ^ ^ = 0,0522 mol 58,5 + NaNOj (mol) NaCl + AgNO, vay mudi A 1& natri bromua (NaBr). Dap an diing la C. A g a i + NaNO, ** ' ' (1) * 3 22875 Theo (1) -> n^^ci = "Aga 0,01 (mol) 1 03 M^^x = ^ = 103 =>23 + M x - 1 0 3 =^ ' " Dap an diing la A. Cau 5: M6t h6n hcyp X g6m 3 muoi halogenua ciia kim loai natri nang 6,23g hoa tan hoan toan trong nuoc dugc dung dich A. Sue khi clo du vao dung dich A roi c6 can hoan toan dung dich sau phan ung dugc 3,0525g mu6'i khan B. La'y m6t nua lucmg mu6'i nay hoa tan vao nude r6i cho phan ihig voi dung djch AgNO, du thi thu dugc 3,22875g ket tiia. Tim c6ng thiic ciia cac mu^i va tinh % theo khd'i lugng m6i mu6'i trong X. Hu&ng ddn gidi Gia sii lugng mu6'i khan B thu dugc sau khi cho clo du vao dung djch A chi c6 Ag + -X2 AgX 0,01 (2) •- ' S %m(KF) = — x l O O % =34,17%. ^ ^ 6,79 mei2 =71.a = 14,2(gam). 0,01 AgX + K N O 3 vay: mKci = 0,06 . 74,5 = 4,47 (gam) => m K P = 2,32 (gam) (24 + 2.35,5) Sd'molAg: K X + AgNOj ^ Tir (2) ^ s6' mol KCl = s6' mol AgQ = 8,61 : 143,5 = 0,06 (mol) a=Vay :, VV (1) S6 mol h6n hop KX, K Y = ^'^^ ~ ^'^^ = 0,0264(mol) 108-39 ^ ^ Theobaira: a.(24 + 2X) = 19 ^ . ( 2 7 . 3 X ) = ,7,8 3 ^ ^ C&u 4: Cho dung djch chura 6,79 gam h6n hop g6m 2 mu6i K X , K Y (X, Y m 2 nguydn t<5 c6 trong tu nhifin, 6 hai chu ki lifin tie'p thu6c nhom VIIA, s6' hidu Zx < ZY) vao dung dich AgNO, dir thu dugc 8,61 gam kd't tiia. Th^nh ph^n % kh6'i lugng ciia KX trong h6n hop ban d^u la A. 34,17%. B. 25,56%. C. 45,68%. D. 89,90%. Hu&ng ddn gidi Tnrcmg hop AgX, AgY d^u k ^ tiia: f -80(Br) = -2 = 0,045 mol < 0,0522 mol t Do do, mu6'i khan B thu dugc ngoai NaCl con c6 NaF. Vay trong h6n hgp X chira NaF, khd'i lugng NaF: niNaF = m B - mNaci = 3,0525 - 0,045. 58,5 = 0,42 (g) , 0 42 %NaF = ——.100% = 6,74%"'^'*''-»-""''«*"'-»-'"-^*":'^^^ 6.23 THiy mji TiwH oiNii Tmm 17 Goi c6ng thiJc chung ciia hai mutfi halogen c6n lai 1^: NaY 2NaY + a 2 - > 2 N a C l + Y2 T h e o ( 2 ) - > n ^ ^ Y = n N a a =0.045 (mol) •"NaY S6' mol I2 = ^ : ^ = 0 , 0 2 4 ( m o l ) (2) "'x - niNaF = 6,23 - 0,42 = 5,81 > .^ - Theo phirong trinh s6' mol R Q O , = (g) R+35,5+16x = Do 66: * Y= = 129,11 = 23 + M y ^ M y = 106,11 0,045 , -> ph^i c6 m6t halogen c6 M > 106,11 - » d6 Vay c6ng thiic cua mud'i thiJ 2 Ilk Nal. Dod6c6haitrucmghop: Tru&ng hop 1: NaF, NaCl vk Nal. Goi a, b Mn lugt la s6 mol ciia NaQ Nal ^ ^ [58,5a + 150b = 5,81 laco: < a + b = 0,045 * ' ' . yj^ iot. • " v ^tf '« f-*' l,086x Thoa man vdi x = 2; R = 23, kim loai k i i m la Na; mu^i \h NaQO^. 2. Phuong trinh phan umg nhifit phan mu6'i: .0 NaClOj — ^ NaQ + O, Theo phuong trinh s6' mol NaQ = s6 mol NaQOj = 0,012 # => Kh6i luong NaQ = 0,012. 58,5 = 0,702 g. [ 3 = 0,01027 Cau 7: Cho 50 gam dung dich M X ( M la kim loai ki6m, X 1^'halogen) 35,6% tac [b = 0,03472 djch nude loc. Bie't n6ng d6 M X trong dung djch sau thi nghidm giam 1,2 ISn so dung vcri 10 gam dung dich AgNOj thu duoc ke't tua. Loc kfi't tiia, duoc dung vdi n6ng d6 ban ddu. Vay: C6ng thurc mu6'i M X la %Naa = ^ ^ 1 ^ . 1 0 0 % = 9,64% 6,23 %NaF = 6,77%; %NaI = 83,59% Tru&ng hop 2: NaF, NaBr va Nal. Tac6: j l 0 3 a ' ^ 1 5 0 b ' = 5,81_^ ra' = 0,02 Ttif,^ R=29,25x~35,5 0,024 n i N ^ = 58,5. 0,01027 = 0,6008 (g); niN,, = 150. 0,03472 = 5,208 (g) [a' + b' = 0,045 0,024 [ b ' = 0,025 %NaI = 141-100% = 60,19%; %NaF = 6,74%. 6,23 C&u 6: Ho^ tan 1,086 gam mu6'i chiJa oxi ciia clo vdi m6t kim loai ki^m v^o nude, axit hod dung djch bang axit H2SO4 loang rdi them tiT dung dich K I vao cho de'n khi kh6ng c6n I , thoat ra thi thu duoc 6,096 gam I2. CQng luong mu6'i trdn dem nhiet phan hoan to^n sau phan ihig con lai a gam mu6'i. 1. Xdc dinh c6ng thiic mu6'i? ' (') 2. Tfnha? D.NaBr. C. L i Q . ' • Hudng ddn gidi r,, , ^• 35,6x50 o , X Theo bai ra: mMx = = 17,8 (gam) 100 ,0 - = M X + AgNO, -> M N O 3 + AgX i = 103. 0,02 = 2,06 (g); niN„ = 150. 0,025 = 3,75 (g) 2 Ofi vay %NaBr = — . 1 0 0 % = 33.07% 6,23 B.KI. A. NaF. X => m^gx = (108 => mMXc6„i,i = X X + X).x; 17,8 X HIMX phin -(M + (mol) = (M + X).x X).x => C% M X trong dung dich sau phan ihig la: ^ 3 5 ^ ^ j2o.(M + X ) =35,6.(108 + X ) 1.2 _17,8-(M+X).x 6 0 - ( 1 0 8 + X).x M L i (7) Na(23) X a (35,5) 12,58 MlaLi,Xiaa K(39) 4634,44 mu6i M X la L i a . Dap dn dung la C. Hu&ng ddn gidi 1. C6ng thiic mu6'i c6 dang RQO, (x = 1 -> 4). Phuong trinh phan umg: Rao, + 2xKI + xH,S04 ^ RQ + xlj + xK,S04 + xH^O 18 19 Dang 2: Xdc dinh luffng chat (tham gia, sdn phdm, cdn Iqi sau phan vd thdnh phan cdc chat trong hdn harp Goi s6 mol Fe304 la x => s6 mol Cu la 3x T a c 6 : 2 3 2 x + 64.3x = 4 2 , 4 = > x = 0 , l 1. L i thuy^'t v$n dung va phuong phap glai: * - Hu&ng ddn giai itng) Cac phucfng phap giai nhanh duoc sir dung: Fe304 + 8HC1 Phuong phap bao toan electron: Trong phan ung oxi hoa khu, t6ng s6' mol 0,1 electron do chat khu ciio phai diing bang tdng s6' mol electron do chat oxi hoa nhan: Cu S e ( c h o ) = E e ( n h a n ) => iicho-Necho = n„hi:,. N,„h,„ + - CUCI2 + 2FeCl2 0,2 = > n c u ( d . , - 0 . 1 - 3 - 0 , 1 - 0 , 2 (mol) Vay m = mcu (du) = 0 . 2 . 64 = 12,8(gam) + Giai he phircmg trinh, xac djnh cac dai luong theo yfiu ciu ciia bai toan. Phuong ph^p bao toan khoi luong: Trong m6t phan ung hoa hoc, tdng kh6'i luong Phuong phap su dung cac cong thurc giai nhanh: + C6ng thiic tmh kh6'i luong mu6'i clorua thu ducfc khi hoa tan hit h6n hop kim loai bang dung dich H C l : m„„,„, = m^i^^,^ + ^ I H H J + M6ts6'chuy: - Fe304 khi giai bai tap c6 the qui doi thanh: FeO.Fe^Oj. dung vdi dung djch HCl nhung bj hoa tan boi dung dich FeClj): CuCU + 2 F e a 2 5Al2(S04)3 + 3K,S04 + 6MnS04 + 24H2O K i m loai Fe (hoac Cr) tac dung voi CU va axit HCl tao ra san ph£m mu6'i clorua 2Cr + 30, Cr + 2HC1 - > 2CrCl3 Thidu 3 : 1) tac dung vori dung dich H C l du, sau khi cac phan ung xay ra hoan toan c6n lai m gam chat ran. Gia trj ciia m la B.9,6. ' Thi du 2: Hoa tan hoan toan 2,7 gam h6n hop X g6m Fe, Cr, A l bang dung djch H C l du, thu duoc 1,568 lit khi H j (dktc). Mat khac, cho 2,7 gam X phan ling hoan toan vdi k h i du, thu duoc 9,09 gam mud'i. Khd'i luong A l trong 2,7 A . 1,08 gam. B. 0,27 gam. C. 0,81 gam. D . 0,54 gam. Goi x , y , z 1 & luot la so mol F e , C r , A l trong X. =>56x + 52y + 27z = 2,7 (l) 3!::: Fe + 2HC1 - > F e C l j + H j t Cr + 2HC1 ^ C r Q j + H2 t X y A l + 3Ha -> C. 19,2. D . 12,8. (Trick de tuyen sink Cao dang khoi A) X -> y ^ AICI3 + l.SHj t =>x + y + l , 5 z - 0 , 0 7 .; 1: Cho 42,4 gam h5n hcrp g6m Cu va Fe304 (c6 t i le so mol tuong ung la A . 6,4. +) Tuy Cu kh6ng tan trong H C l , nhung bj hoa tan bod FeCl,. —~— t z CTCXJ + H , 2. C a c thi du minh hoa: — ' *) X + dd H Q du: M u d i clorua bj oxi hoa boi KMn04/H2S04: khac nhau: Chu v: +) Fe304 = Fe203.FeO '' Theo bai ra: H j j ^ = 0 , 0 7 (mol) Do do h6n horp Cu, Fe304 c6 tha' bi tan hat trong dung djch H C l (Cu khdng tac IOAICI3 + 6KMn04 + 24H2SO4 ' '' " (Trich de tuyen sink Cao dang nam 2012 - Khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi FejO^ + 8HC1 - > 2FeCl3 + FeCl, + 4 H , 0 Cu + 2Fea3 • Dap an dung la D . + 27,5nHci * ' gam X la bao nhiau? C6ng thiirc tinh kh6'i luong mu6'i clorua thu duoc khi hoa tan h6't h6n hcyp oxit k i m loai bang dung djch H C l : m,|„„, = mh4„ ''"'"'"^ 'rf^ • •••• Dat ^n, dua vao djnh luat bao toan electron lap duac phuong trinh dai s6'. ne'u bie't kh6'i luong cua (n - 1) chat thl tinh duoc khd'i luong ciia chat con lai. - 2FcCl, A.-,J/-' ling oxi hoa - khir). A p dung: Trong m6t phan ung, c6 n chat (k^ ca chat phan ung va san ph^m), - + 0,2 + ciia cac chat san ph^m bang t6ng kh6'i luong ciia cac chat tham gia phan ung. - -> 0,1 Viet cac qua trinh oxi hoa, qua trinh khijf (khong cin vie't phucmg trinh phan 2FeCl3 + FeCl2 + 4 H 2 O l,5z _ . (2) *) X + C l , ( d u ) : ' Fe + - C l 2 - > F e a 3 2 2 3 Cr + - C l 2 ^ C r Q j 2 ^ x->l,5x y->1.5y \ • ' A1 + -C12 2 ^ z—•l.Sz fhi du 4: D6't 16,2 gam hOn hop X g6m Al va Fe trong khi CI2 thu duoc h6n hop chat ran Y . Cho Y vao nude du, thu duoc dung dich Z va 2,4 gam kim loai. Dung dich Z tac dung duoc vdfi t6i da 0,21 mol KMn04 trong dung dich H2SO4 (kh6ng tao ra SO2). Phdn tram khd'i luong ciia Fe trong h6n hop X la A. 72,91%. ' B. 64,00%. C. 66,67%. ' D. 37,33%. (Trich di thi tuyin sink DH khoi B) • AlCl, =>x + y + z = 0,06 (3) Hu&ng ddn gidi Tir (1, 2, 3) =>x = 0,02; y = 0,02; z = 0,02 • Vay iTiAi/x -0,02.27 = 2,54(g) , , j) Goi X , y l^n luot la s>6 mol Al, Fe phan ling. ? in Tac6: Dap an diing la D. Thi du 3: H6n hap X c6 khd'i luong 82,3 gam g6m K Q O j , €3(003)2, CaQj va 27x + 56y = 16,2-2,4 = 13,8 (l) Theo djnh luat bao toan electron ta c6: ' 3(x + y ) = 0,21.5=>x + y = 0,35 K Q . Nhiet phan ho^n to^n X thu duoc 13,44 lit O2 (dktc), chat ran Y g6m (2) CaQz va KCl. Toan b6 Y tac dung vira du vdi 0,3 lit dung djch K2CO3 IM thu Tir(l,2) =>x=0,2;y = 0,15. duoc dung dich Z. Luang KCl trong Z nhi^u ga'p 5 15n luong K C l trong X. Khdi lirang Fe trong X nam trong khoang: PhSn tram khd'i luong KCl trong X la 0,15.56 8,4 Y + Oj thu duoc 56,69 gam kd't tia. Phin tram th^ tfch ciia clo trong h6n hop X la Theo dinh luat bao toan khd'i luong ta c6: A. 51,72%. " " Y = m c a a 2 ( Y ) + m K C i ( Y ) =82,3-0,6.32 = 63,l(g) PTHH: CaCI, + K.COj ^ CaC03 + 2 K a 0,3 0,3 0,6 (mol) B. 76,70%. C. 53,85%. D. 56,36%. (Trich di thi tuyen sink DH khdj B) Hu&ng ddn gidi i . ^ Se> mol cac cha't: n^^ = 0,08 (mol); np^ = 0,08 (mol); nna = 0,24 (mol) • " c a C a i Y ) =0.3.111 =33,3(g) Goi x, y, z Idn luot la s6' mol ciia Cl2,02 va Ag"^ (tao ra Ag). =>'"Ka(Y) =63,1-33,3 = 29,8(g) I*' Cac qua trinh nhucmg nhan electron: Mg-2e->Mg^* Theo bai ra: ni,^Q^Y)+0,6 .74,5 = Sm^^^^^j f Fe - 3e -> Fe^* => 29.8 + 0.3.2.74,5 = 5.m^ci(x) vay -"KCKX) %m^„(^plii2l!^. 18,10% 82,3 Dap an diing la A. = 14,9(g) ^ a 2 + 2e -> 0 2 + 4e 2cr 20-^ Ag*+ le ^ Ag f ' Theo nguyfin tac bao toan electron, ta c6: 0,08.2 + 0,08.3 = 2x + 4y + Iz =>2x + 4y+ z = 0,4 99 '^^ ' ' ' (l) 23 - > H2O 2H* + O2 + 4e 0,24->0,12 0,06 =>y = 0,06 Hu&ng ddn gidi 20^" -> 3 36 Theobaira: nci2 = r T 7 = 0,15(mol) 0,12 22,4 (2) K2Cr207 + 14HC1 Ag* + l e - > Ag J. z Ag+ + z Cr ^ AgCli 0,05 ( 2 x + 0,24) - > (2x +0,24) 0;i5(mol) Ddp &n diing la A. Thi du 8: Cho m gam h6n hop X g6m FeO,Fe203,Fe304 vao m6t luong vira du (3) Tiir(l,2, 3) =>x=0,07;y = 0,06;z = 0,02 Vay •^ <- =>a = 0,05; b = 0,7 => 108.Z + 143,5.(2x + 0,24) - 56,69 =>108z + 287x = 22,25 0,7 2KC1 + 2CrCl3 + 3CI2 + 7H2O % V c , , h , = % n c , , / h h = - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ = 53,85% a2/hh ci2/hh 0,07 + 0,06 Dap an diing la C. Thidu 6: Cin t6'i thi^u bao nhidu gam NaOH (m,) va (mj) de' phan ling hoan tokn vdi 0,01 mol CrQj. Gia tri cua m, va mj iSn luot la dung djch H Q 2M, thu diroc dung dich Y c6 ti 16 s6' mol Fe^"" va Fe^^ la 1: 2. Chia Y thanh hai ph^n bang nhau. C6 can phSn m6t thu duoc m, gam mu6'i khan. Sue khi clo (du) vao phfo hai, c6 can dung dich sau phan ling thu duoc m2 gam mu6'i khan. Bid't mj - m, = 0,71. Th^ tich dung djch HCI da dung la A. 320 ml B. 80 ml C. 240 ml D. 160 ml (Trich de tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi A. 3,2 va 1,065 B. 3,2 v^ 0,5325 Vi Fe304 = FeO.Fe203 => coi h6n hop X chi gom FeO (x mol) va FejOj C. 6,4 va 0,5325 D. 6,4 vk 1,065 (y mol) (Trich de thi du bi dai hoc) Hu&ng ddn gidi Ta c6: n^^c\2 = "FeO = x (mol); npecij = 2nFe203 = 2y (mol) V i ti le s6 mol Fe2+ va Fe^* la 1 : 2 PTHH: =>nFeCi2 :"FeCi3 = 1:2 16NaOH + 2Cra3 + 3CI2 ^ 12NaCl + 2Na2Ci04 + 8H2O 0,08 Vay: CI2 <- 0,01 ^0,015(mol) => X : 2y = 1:2 + 2FeCl2 2FeCl2 x/4<-x/2 x/2 m, =mNaOH =0,08.40 = 3,2(g) TheobMra: m j - m , =0,71 "12 ='"ci2 =0,015.71 = l,065(g) 71.x di^u nay tuong duong voi: —'— -0,71 4 Dap an diing I I A. ChU v.- mat ly thuye't c6 thi c6: Vay nHci =2x + 6y = 2.0,04+ 6.0,04 = 0,32(mol) 14NaOH + 2CrCl3 + 3CI2 ^ 12NaCl + Na2Cr207 + 7H2O 0,07 <- 0,01 =^"^ddHa = 0,32/2 = 0,16(1) = 160(ml) Dap an diing la Thi du 9: Cho 3,16 gam KMn04 tac dung voi dung dich HCI dac (du), sau khi 0,015(mol) => m, = 0,07.40 = 2,8(g); m2 = 0,015.71 = l,065(g) Thi du 7: Cdn a mol K^CrjO, va b mol HCI d^ diiu che' duoc 3,36 lit kifin chudn. Gia tri a v l b iSn lirot la A. 0,05 va 0,7 B. 0,05 va 0,35 C. 0,1 va 0,7 =>x = y . phan ling xay ra hoan toan thi s6' mol HCI bi oxi hoa la di^u A. 0,10. B.0,16. C.0,02. D. 0,05. (Trich de tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi D. 0,1 va 0,35 (Trich de thi du bi dai hoc) Theo b l i ra: n KMn04 = 3J6 158 = 0,02 (mol) 25 Cdchl: Bao toan electron +7 Mn 0,02 + 5e 3. Cac bai tskp tu luyen: +2 -1 CI2 2a Mn ^ 0 , 0 1 (mol) 0,1 C&u 1: Cho 2,13 gam h6n hop X g6m ba kim loai Mg, Cu \k A l 6 dang b6t tac dung hoan toan \cn oxi thu dugc h6n hop Y g6m cac oxit c6 kh6'i luong 3,33 gam. The' ti'ch dung dich HCl 2M vifa dii d^ phan umg he't voi Y la A. 90 ml. B. 57 ml. C. 75 ml. D. 50 ml. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Ta C O so d6 phan ulig: ^' * •' * ' ' ' ' + 2e 0,1 (mol) S6 mol H Q bj oxi hoa la 0,10 mol Dap an diing la A. Cdchl: Sir dung phuong trinh ion rut gpn: 2Mn04 + I6H+ + lOCF ^ IMn^^ 0,02 -> + 5CI2 + 8H2O Kimloai+oxi 0,1 (mol) = > HHCI (bi oxi hod) = 1^.,- (bj oxi ho4) = 0,10 _,2 (mol) ( 0 + 2e Dap an diing la A. Chu y; Trong phan ung nay, HCl dong hai vai tro: . Dodo: m^imioai => m„,i + M6i tnrcmg (tao mu6'i clorua) Do do kh6ng ti'nh diroc luong H Q bi oxi hoa theo phucfng trinh phan ling dang phan i\X. Thi du 10: Didn phan dung dich CuQj voi difin cue tro, sau m6t thoi gian thu duoc 0,32 gam Cu b catot va m6t lucfng khi X b anot. HSfp thu hoan toan lugtng khf X tr^n vao 200 ml dung dich NaOH (d nhiet d6 thucmg). Sau phan ung, ndng d6 NaOH con lai la 0,05M (gia thie't th^ tich dung dich kh6ng thay ddi). N6ng d6 ban ddu ciia dung dich NaOH la A.0,15M. B.0,2M. C.0,1M. D. 0,05M. (Trich De thi tuyen sink Dai hoc khoi A) ^ CuCU > Cu + 0,005 a. 2NaOH 0,005 0,01 (mol) = 0,05(mol); nN,oH(d„) = 0,05.0,2 = 0,01 (mol). a, 0,005 (mol) ^,,a m,,,;, mk,^,o,i = 3,33 - 2,13 => Ho = — = 0,075 (mol) = n 2 = l,2g v ' ' Qua trinh hoa tan oxit vao dung djch axit: -2 O + 2H" > H.O , = 2 . n 2 = 2 . 0,075 = 0,15 (mol) = > HHCI = n ^+ vay: HO = ^ = 0,15 (mol) ,_ = 0,075 lit = 75 (ml). Dap an diing la C . S6 mol Fe304: np,304 = ^ PTPIT: = 0,01 . V i s6' mol FeO bang s6' mol FcjOj ndn qui d6i h6n hap thanh Fe304 (FeO.FcjOj): + 0,01 = 0,02 Vay n6ng do ban ddu ciia dung dich NaOH: CN,OH (ban d4u) Dap an diing la C . moxi = i;. NaQ + NaQO + H.O => T6ng s6' mol NaOH ban ddu: 2^nN,OH (bandiu) = HNaOH (p/x) + "NaOH (du) iFi 5- C^u 2: Di hoa tan hoan toan 2,32 gam h6n hcpfp g6m FeO, Fe304 v^ FcjO, (trong do s6' mol FeO bang s6' mol Fe^O^), cSn diing vita dii V lit dung djch H Q I M . Gia trj cua V la A. 0,08. B.0,16. C.0,18. D. 0,23. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh DH khoi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi Hu&ng ddn gidi 64 S6' mol NaOH du sau phan ihig: + •. 12 + Bj oxi hoa (chat khijr): 2C1 -> Clj + 2e 0,32 i,"'- ^ > O) = m„,,i, - -1 S6 mol kim loai Cu: n^^ - ''^'Pi ..fi:,Z7s > oxit (mol) 0,02 = 0,2 Fe304 + 8HC1 0,01 = 0,1M - 0,01(mol) > FeCl^ + 2FeCl3 + 4H2O -> 0,08 (mol) Suy ra th^ ti'ch dung djch HCl cSn dung: V,<,„c, = ^ E>ap an diing la A. ^ = 0,08 (lit) ' Cau 3: De oxi hod hoan to^n 0,01 mol C r a , th^nh K 2 C r 0 4 bang CI, khi c6 mSt KOH, lirong t6'i thi^u va KOH tucmg ling Ik A. 0,015 mol va 0,04 mol. B. 0,015 mol va 0,08 mol. C. 0,03 mol va 0,04 mol. C. 0,03 mol va 0,08 mol. (Trich De thi tuyen sink DH khoi A) Hudng ddn gidi PTPU": ICrGj + 3 0 , + 16KOH ^ 2K2Cr04 + 12KC1 + 8H,0 0,01 mol Cau 5: Cho 9,12 gam h6n hop g6m FeO, FcjOj va Fe304 tac dung vdi dung djch HCl (du). Sau khi cac phan urig xay ra hoan to^n, duoc dung djch Y, c6 can Y thu diroc 7,62 gam FeClz va m gam FeQ,. Gia trj ciia m la A. 9,75. B. 8,75. C. 7,80. D. 6,50. (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khd'i B) Hu&ng ddn gidi 7 62 ' ' ' f SdmolFeQ,: n p ^ a 2 = - [ ^ = *^'06('"°') ^ .Vi Fe304 = FeO.FcjOj, nfen c6 th^ coi h6n hop g6m FeO (x mol) va FcjOj (y mol). TheoPTPU": n^^ = - .ncK:i3 = -.0,01 = 0,015 (mol) HKOH = 8- "ocb = 8- 0,01 = 0,08 (mol) Theo bai ra, ta c6: v PTPU*: Vay cin t6'i thieu 0,015 mol CI2 va 0,08 mol KOH. Dap an dung la B. Cau 4: Nung h6n hop b6t g6m 15,2 gam CTJOJ va m gam A l & nhifit d6 cao. Sau khi phan ihig hoan toan, thu duoc 23,3 gam h6n hop ran X. Cho toan b6 h6n hop X phan ling vdi axit HCl (du) thoat ra V lit khi H2 (6 dktc). Gia tri ciia V la A. 3,36. B. 4,48. C. 7,84. D. 10,08. 72x + 160y = 9,12 FeO + 2HC1 (1) > FeCU + HjO X X Fe^Oj + 6 H a > 2FeCl3 + 3H2O ^ y 2y n Feci2 = X = 0-06 (mol) (2) TO (1, 2) ta c6: X = 0,06; y = 0,03 (mol) (Trich Delhi tuyen sink DH - khd'i B) vay m = m p^ci, = 2.y. 162,5 = 2.0,03.162,5 = 9,75 (gam) Hudng ddn gidi S6' mol Cr^O,: Dap an diing la A. 15,2 nc^o3 = T T T = 0, '(mol) 152 So 6.6 phan ling: A l + CfjOj -> H6n hop sau phan ihig •"0203 + '"AI = nihhsp => niA, = mhh,p - m C ^ Q J = 23,3 - 15,2 = 8,1 (g) => UA, PTPLT: Saupir: = — (Trich De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc - khoi B) Hu&ng ddn gidi = 0,3 (mol) Cr,03 0,1 0,1 (mol) ; f ; 2 A 1 + 6Ha 0,1 Cr + 2 H a Theobaira: n^^ = ^ =0,15(mol); n^Q= ^ 22,4 ^ > 2Cr + AI2O3 + 2A1 0,2 * X + HCl: Cu + HCl 0,15 (mol) 0,2 (mol) =0,35. 22,4 = 7,84 (lit) Dap an dung la C. l,5x > khdng phan ung X + HNO3 * Zn H2 = 0,15 + 0,2 = 0,35 (mol) => > 2AICI3 + 3H2t = 1,5. x = 0,15 =>x = 0,1 (mol). > C r a , + HjT 0,2 2A1 + 6HC1 X > 2k\C\^ + 3H2T - ^ = 0,3(mol). 22,4 0,1 Sau phan ling nhiet nh6m c6: 0,1 mol A l (du); 0,2 mol Cr; 0,1 mol AI2O3. ft, Cau 6: Cho m gam h6n hop X gdm A l , Cu vao dung dich HCl (du), sau khi V.€x thiic phan ling sinh ra 3,36 lit khi (o dktc). Neu cho m gam h6n hop X trSn vao mot luong du axit nitric (dac, nguoi), sau khi ka't thuc phan umg sinh ra 6,72 lit khi NO, (san phdm khir duy nha't, do 6 dktc). Gia tri ciia m 1^ A. 11,5. B. 10,5. C. 12,3. D. 15,6. Al + HNOj^ij, . „g„oi) Cu + 4HN03,<,i,) y > bj thu d6ng hoa > Cu(N03)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O , . n NO2 = 2y = 0,3 => y = 0,15 (mol) Vay m = niA, + mc„ = 0,1.27 + 0,15.64 = 12,3 (g) Dap an dung la C. Chu v: * A l , Fe, Cr bi thu d6ng hoa trong HNO3 dSc, ngu6i. Cau 7: Dung dich X chiia h6n hop g6m NazCOj 1,5M K H C O 3 I M . ^fh6 tir tv? timg giot cho de'n hfi't 200 ml dung djch H Q I M v^o 100 ml dung djch X, sinh ra V 1ft khi (6 dktc). Gia trj cua V la • ,vi' A. 4,48. B. 1,12. C.2,24. D. 3.36. ^ ^'l ' * ^ (Trich Be thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc khd'i A) Hu&ngddngim Theo b^i ra: n^a = 0,2.1 = 0,2 (mol); n NajCOa = 0,1.1,5 = 0,15 (mol). ' n K H c o 3 = 0.11 ' =0,1 (mol) ' Khi nho tir tCr dung djch H Q (H") vao X thi: % Na^COj + 0,15 HCl > + H* 0.05 < > 0.05 — > CO:t 0.15 (mol) + H2O c a u 8: Khi cho 100 ml dung djch KOH I M vao 100 ml dung djch HCl thu duot dung djch c6 chiia 6.525 gam chat tan. Ndng d6 mol (hoac mol/1) ciia H Q trong dung djch da dung 1^ Theo bai ra: UKOH nH2S04 = 0.5. 0.28 = 0,14 (mol); Ta thafy = Sord6: Kim loai+ Axit D. 38,93 gam. "82804 + nH^ = 8.736/ 22.4 = 0,39 (mol). ^na^ => Axit phan ling v&a he't voi kim loai. > mud'i + Hj ''^ ' ,. Cau 10: Cho m gam b6t A l vao c6c chura V lit dung djch NaOH 2M, sau phan ling hoan tohn cho tiep dung djch HCl vao c6c 66 de'n khi cha't ran tan he't thafy cdn diing 800 ml dung djch H Q I M va c6 3.36 lit khi thoat ra (cj dktc). Gia tri cua m va V lin luot la C. I M . 2Al + 2 N a O H + 6H2O ^ 2NaAI (OH)^ + 3H2 t D. 0.25M. X Suy ra, KOH phan irng chira he't (HQ he't. chat tan c6 K Q v^ KOH). Goi X , y Idn luot 1^ s6' mol KOH phan ling voi HCl va c6n du. Theo b i i ra. ta c6: x + y = 0.1 (1) i 74.5. X + 56. y = 6,525 (2) Tir (1. 2) ta giai ra duoc x = 0.05. -> x -> NaAl(OH)^ + 4HC1 X - > x y ->3y -). (mol) NaQ + AICI3 + 4H2O 4x 2A1 + 6HC1-).2A1C13+3H2 > K Q + HjO Gia thid't KOH phan img he't => n^a = I I K O H = 0.1 (mol) => mKc, = 0,1. 74,5 = 7,45 (g) > 6.525 (g). HHCI B. 6.075 va 0,2500 D. 3,375 v^ 0,2500 Hu&ng ddn gidi - 0.8.1 = 0.8 (mol) Khi thoat ra la H^: n^^^= 3.36 / 22.4 - 0.15 (mol) (Trich Dim tuyen sinh Cao dang khoi A) Huong ddngidi = 0,1.1 = 0.1 (mol). Phuong trinh phan ung: KOH + H Q C. 103,85 gam. (Trich Di thi tuyen sinh Cao ddng khd'i A) Hudng ddn gidi Theo b^i ra: n^a = 0.5. 1 = 0.5 (mol); TTieo bM ra: Dap an dung la B. B.0.5M. B. 25.95 gam. A. 6.075 va 0.0625 C. 7,425 va 0.0625 0,05 (mol) v a y V = Vco2 = 0,05.22,4 =1.12 (lit). A.0.75M. A. 77,86 gam. =>m = 7,74 + 0,5.36.5 + 0.14.98 - 0,39.2 = 38.93 (gam). Dap An diing 1^ D. Sau phan ling nay, luong HCl con lai la: n^am = 0,2 -0,15 = 0.05 (mol) Do d6. xay ra qua trinh: HCO3 c a u 9: Hoa tan he't 7,74 gam h6n hop b6t Mg, A l b ^ g 500 ml dung djch h6n hop H Q I M va H2SO4 0,28M thu dugc dung djch X va 8,736 lit khi H2 (Jb dktc). C6 can dung djch X thu duoc luong mu6'i khan la - > NaCl + NaHCO, > 0,15 vay CM(„a, = x/0,1 = 0.05/0,1 = 0.5M. Dap &n dung la B. t l,5y ..v. , r4x + 3y = 0.8 Theobairataco:-^ ^ ix> x = 0.125; y = 0.1 [1.5y=0.15 Tu Vay: m = (x + y).27 = (0,125 + 0,l).27 = 6.075(g) V = x/2 = 0,125/2 = 0,0625(1) J>5pdndunglaA. J Cty TNHHMTV mvu C&u 11: H6n h M g C l 2 + H 2 Cu + HCl Fe.Oy + yCO - =>Vco =0,075.22,4 = 1,68 (1ft) Theobaira: n^ci =0,4(mol) nNa2C03 =0,2(mol); nN,HC03 =0,3(mol) -6,4% HCl + Na2C03 -)• NaHCOj + NaCf Ban d^u: 0,4 2Cr + 3Cl2->2CrCl3 Phan iJng: 0,2 <- 0,2 2A1 + 3Cl2 Conlai: 0,2 50 * M + Khia,(du): 2AICI3 C U + C I 2 ->CuCl2 10,4.100% = 20,8% 50 Dap an diing la B. Cau 12: Hoa tan het 4 gam oxit Fe.Oy c^n diing 52,14 ml dung dich HCl 10% (d = 1,05 gam/ml). Dd' khii hoa hoan toan 4 gam oxit sat nay dn it nha't th^ tfch khi CO (dktc) la (cho H = 1, CI = 35,5, O = 16, C = 12, Fe = 56) A. 1,68 lit B. 1,24 lit C. 0,056 lit D. 1,545 lit Huamg ddn gidi 0,2 0,4 Phan ling: 0,2 -> 0,2 2y -> 0,2 xFeCl2y/, + • A. 1,008 lit B. 0,336 lit C. 1,344 lit Hu&ng ddn gidi Theo bki ra: n. 'K2Cr207 " 4,41 D. 0,672 lit = 0,015 (mol) PTPU: K2Cr207 + 14HCI -> 2KC1 + 2Cra3 + 3CI2 + 7H2O 0,015 -> 0,045 (mol) =>Vc,2 =0,045.22,4 = 1,008 (lit) ^ ... 52,14.1,05.10 Theobaira: n^^i^—r::r^:7-7—=0,15(mol) 100.36,5 0,15 0,4 cau 14: Cho 4,41 gam KjCr.O, vao dung djch HCl dSc, dir. Th^ tich khi thoat ra {b dktc) sau khi ka't thuc phan ling la >%m'Cr/M 1 0,15/2y 0,2 Dap an diing la A. m c , = 0,2.52 = 10,4{g) 2yHCl ^ Vco2 = 0,2 . 22,4 = 4,48 (lit) => 0,05.135+ ncr(l58,5-123) = 13,85 =:>ncr =0,2 + 0,2 0 Banddu: -> 0,05(mol) m c u c i j + "^Crcij - mcrCi2 = '^^,85 -186 Fe^Oy 0,2 , HCl + NaHC03 -> NaQ + CO2 t +H2O Mg + Cl2 - > M g C l 2 0,05 ^ E)ap an dung la A. cau 13: Nho ttr tir cho de'n het 400 ml dung dich H Q I M vko 200 ml dung djch chura d6ng thcri Na^COj I M va NaHCOj I M , kfi't thuc phan ling thu duoc V lit CO2 (dktc). Gia tri ctia V la (cho C = 12,0 = 16, H = 1, Na = 23, Q = 35,5) A. 4,48 B. 8,96 C. 6,72 D. 2,24 PTPU': 'Cu/M PTPlT: ^ Hudng ddn gidi =^mc„-3,2(g)^nc„=0,05(mol) Ta tha'y: -> xFe + yCOj 1 y 0,15/2y0,075 > Kh6ng xay ra. 3,2.100% KhangVift f^ap an dung la A. yH20 15: Hoa hat 2,32 gam h6n hop FeO, Fe304, Fe^O, (trong d6 FeO, Fc.O, c6 s6' "lol bang nhau) trong 80 ml dung djch HCl I M thu duoc dung djch X. Cho X tac dung voi dung dich AgNOj du thi thu duoc bao nhieu gam chat kh6ng tan? ^•16,80 B. 11,48 C. 1,08 D. 12,56 Huang ddn gidi V i npeo = npejOa ^ "Fe304 - PTPLT: prPlT: Co' h6n hop la Fe304 (FeO.FePj). •^'"^^ =0,01(mol); HHCI z ^ 0,08 -> 0,02 ->0,01 >3AgCl > + 3AgN03 + ->H^+cr 1 <-l(mol) —^>2AgCl i +Ag i +Fe(N03)3 =1,1 (mol); 2z mol FeQj; z mol FeClj. ''• ' >Cu + N i C l 2 y/2<-y/2 Theo bai ra, ta c6: 6x + 12y + 87 = 1,1 => 3x + y +,4z = 0,55 (1) z/2+ y/2 = 0,05 => z + y = 0,1 (2) CAn tinh: m=mcK:i3 +mcua2 +'"FeCi3 +'"FeCi2 " =>m = 158,5+ 135.^+162,5.7+127.2 2 =>m = 158,5x +67,5y + 226z. v =>m=67,5(y + z)+158,5(x + z) (3) TO (1, 2) vao (3) duoc: m = 67,5.0,1+ 158,5.0,15=30,525(gam) n^^_ = l(mol) 2H++2e 1 ^HjT ->0,5(mol) vay V = 0,5 .22,4= 11,2 (1ft) Dap an dung la C . Cau 17: D^ hoa tan hat h6n hop X g6m Cr^Oj, CuO, Fe304 cin vira du 550 ml dung djch HCl 2M, sau phan ling thu duoc dung dich Y. M6t nijfa dung dich Y tha'y hoa tan he't t6'i da 2,9 gam b6t Ni. C6 can nifa dung dich Y con lai thi thu duofc bao nhiau gam mu6'i khan? A. 30,525 gam B. 30,8 gam C. 61,6 gam D. 61,05 gam Hu&ng ddn gidi HHCI Ni +CUCI2 > 0,02 -> 0,01 (mol) ' Theo bki ra: z z/2 <-z m„o,„, => nioiorua = 53 - 17,5 = 35,5 (g) ^ 2z Ni + 2FeCl3-).2FeCl2+NiCl2 0,06 (mol) -)-M"++nCr 17,5 , , Y + Ni: I+Fe(N03)3 Dap an dung la D. C^u 16: Cho 17,5 gam h6n hop A l , Zn, Fe tac dung hoan toan vdi dung dich HCl du thu diroc dung djch X va V lit H , (dktc). C6 can dung djch X thu duoc 53 gam mu6'i khan. VSy gia tri cua V la A. 8,96 B.5,60 C. 11,2 D. 6,72 Hit&ng ddn gidi Sodd: MCL 8z Dung djch Y g6m: 2x mol CrClj; y mol CuQj ^ m = mAgci +mAg =(0,06 + 0,02).143,5 + 0,01.108-12,56(gam) HCl J, y 0,01 0,01 . Vay, kh6'i luong chat khdng tan: = 2y Fe304 +8HCl->2FeCl3 +FeCl2 + 4 H 2 O FeCl2 > =>53 ^ Fe304+8HCl-^2FeCl3 + F e C l 2 + 4 H 2 0 0,02 y 2x CuO + 2HCl->-CuCl2 + H 2 O y FeCl3+3AgN03 , 6x X =0,08(mol) ^ =>nFea3 =0.02(mol); npecij =O.OKmol) , CrjOj +6HC1 ^ 2CrCl3 + 3 H 2 O =0,05 (mol) Goi X , y, z \in luot la s6' mol ciia CrjOj, CuO, Fe304 c6 trong h6n hop X. Dap an diing 1^ A. Cau 18: Kh6i luong t6'i thi^u NaOH Q , d^ oxi hoa hoan t o ^ vdd 0,» ' ;nol NaCrOz thanh Na2Cr041^ luot la A. 1.6gva l,065g. B. 3,2 g va 2,13 g. C. 1,2 gva 1,065 g. D. 1,6 g v^ 2,13 g. Hu&ng ddn gidi PTHH: 2NaCr02 + ^Clj + 8 N a O H - > 2Na2Cr04 + 6NaCl + 4 H 2 O 0,01 -> 0,015-> 0,04 (mol) mNaOH = 0,04.40 = l,6g; m p j = 0,015.71 = l,065g ^ ^ E)ap an diing la A. Cau 19: Ho^ tan hoan to^n m gam h6n hop g6m Na, Ba, K v^o nu6c thu duoc x gam khi H,. Ne'u cho m gam h6n hop trfen tic dung vdd dung djch H Q du, r6i c6 can dung djch sau phan ling thi khd'i luong mud'i khan thu duoc 1^ A. (m + 17x)gam B. (m + 35,5x)gam C. (m + 142x)gam D. (m + 17,75x)gam ,, 35 Ttnwaat mm gtat nhann BTH0irn^srTap7 -Timtanli Toan f)iiu ch6 cac hop chat c6 oxi ciia clo: Hu&ng ddn gidi K i hifiu Chung ba kim loai 1^ M (hoa trj chung 1^ n). CI2 + 2NaOH(,„j„g) > NaQ 0 2 + Ca(OH)2(b«„ M + n H j O ^ M (OH)^ + f " 2 '^ > CaOClj + H2O 302 + 6KOH — ^ M + nHa^Ma„+|H2 t • Lufong H2 sinh ra trong 2 phan ihig n^y bling nhau. 6 0 2 + 6Ca(OH)2 — 2. 2 X + N a Q O + H2O 5KC1 + K O O j + 3H2O ^ € 3 ( 0 0 3 ) 2 + 5 C a a 2 + 6H2O C a c thi d u m i n h hoa: 'rhidu I Chat diing d ^ 1 ^ kh6 khi 0 2 im \h Vay kh6i lucmg mudl thu duoc: m^i^ ,„,i + m.^™. = m + 35,5x (g) A . NajSOj khan. Dap an dung la B. B. dung dich H2SO4 dam dac. C CaO. D- dung djch N a O H dac. ^ Dang 3: Dieu che, tinh - Hu&ng ddn gidi che vd phdn Met cdc halogen vd hap chdi cua 1. Cha't CO th^ dung di lam kh6 khi 0 2 im phai la: halogen L i t h u y e t vakn dung va phuorng phap giai: MnX^ + 16HX,,) + 2KMn04 m^ng ngan xtt" 4 H C I + O2 < 2NaBr + - Xj + MnS04 + Na.SO^ + 2 H 2 O — > 0 2 ! + H2t + 2 N a O H ^ H2,ic,+ RH + I2 + ^ 2Naa B. A g N 0 3 , H I , N a 2 C 0 3 , Z n C l 2 C. A g N 0 3 , N a 2 C 0 3 , H I , Z n C l 2 D. ZnCl2,HI,Na2C03,AgN03 (Trick de tuyen sinh Cao dang khdi A) Hu&ng ddn gidi - 2HI + Na2C03 - 2NaI + C O j t + H 2 O ^ n g nghiem 2 va 4 la H I , Z n C l j . H I + Z n C l 2 k h 6 n g xay ra => 6ng nghiem 2 la H I . => 6ng nghiem 1 la A g N 0 3 (dung dich con lai). Vay 1, 2, 3 , 4 \in lupt la A g N 0 3 , H I , N a 2 C 0 3 , Z n C l 2 3 H X +H3PO3 3X2 + 2 P + 6 H 2 O 6ng nghidm 2 va 3 la H I , Na2C03: ^ n g nghifim 3 , 4 \in lupt la Na2C03, Z n Q j . RCl + H C l PX3 + 3 H 2 O ^ T h u c te. ' " " ' " " " ^ > 2 H a + Na2S04 Cl2„, — ! - ^ 2 H a , k , ^ A. ZnCl2,Na2C03,HI,AgN03 Br2 + 2 N a a CaF2„) + H2S04(d) - i i ^ 2 H F t + CaS04 i H2S04,<,) Dung dich trong 6'ng nghifim 2 va 4 kh6ng phan ling duoc vol nhau. Dung dich trong cac 6'ng nghifim 1, 2, 3 , 4 1 ^ lupt 1^: Di^u chd' cac hidro halogenua H X : 2Naa„ + Dung dich trong 6'ng nghifim 2 va 3 t^c dung duoc vdd nhau sinh ra ch&t k h i ; > 2 a 2 + 2H20 a2(ve«du) — 2NaI + Cl2(w«du) Chat khdng tac dung vdd O j chiia m6t trong cac dung dich A g N O j , Z n 0 2 , H I , Na2C03. Bife't rang: - (X la a , Br, I) 2 N a a + 2H2O + v Thi du 2: C6 4 6'ng nghidm duoc danh s6 theo tu: t u 1, 2, 3 , 4 . M 6 i 6ng nghifim > KCl + 3X2 + 3H2O 2NaX + MnOj + 2H2SO4,,, — ^ Chaft hao nude Dap an dung la B . + 2H2O > 2 K X + 2 M n X 2 + X2 + 8 H 2 O 6HX(„ + K Q O j + Thoa man d i ^ u ki6n tr6n la dung dich H2SO4 dam dac. D i l u ch^ cac halogen trong phong thi nghidm va trong c6ng nghidp: 4HX(,) + MnO. — ^ (Trick di tuyen sinh Cao dang - Khoi A) 6 H X + 2H3PO3 E>^p an diing la B. 37
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