Tài liệu Improving policies to develop handicraft for exports in 2020 in nam dinh

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1 2 INTRODUCTION 3 Research aims and objectives 3.1. Research purposes The dissertation aims at proposing some contents to complete and innovate development policy handicrafts exported goods in Nam Dinh province. 3.2. Objectives of the study The objectives of the dissertation are to - Develop assessment methods, purify development policy for the local handicrafts exports. - Review and evaluate the impact of policies related to the development of handicrafts goods exports in Nam Dinh, pulled out the strengths, weaknesses and policy reasons. - Propose contents to purify development policy of handicrafts export goods in Nam Dinh. 4 Subjects and study area 4.1. Research Subjects The object of the research is the policies of Nam Dinh province which impact on the development of handicrafts export goods. 4.2. Scope of the study - Field: Assessing, no policies to develop handicrafts export goods within the area of Nam Dinh province. - Time: Some impacts of development policies to handicrafts exported products in Nam Dinh province in 2006-2012. 5. Research Method 5.1. Research model - Develop theoretical - Assess the impacts Propose some framework to evaluate, of development contents to policies for complete perfect development exportting development policies for handicrafts handicrafts goods of policies for exported goods. Nam Dinh province exported - Develop criteria to handicrafts through the evaluate development evaluation criteria. goods in Nam policies for handicrafts - Draw on the Dinh export goods. strengths and province. - Draw some lessons about weaknesses of the development policies for policy and the handicrafts in some causes of these countries and localities in factors the country. 1. The necessity of the research The development of exports of handicrafts have great impact to promote the development of producing, creating more jobs and income for rural workers, and contributing greatly to re-assign labour and restructuring social economy of Nam Dinh province. There are many factors affecting to the development of exported handicrafts goods among which state policies have an important role in the growth and efficiency of exported handicrafts. In recent years, Nam Dinh province has developed policies for the export of handicrafts goods. These policies have contributed to assist handicrafts goods become one of the major export goods of the province. However, the actual situation of producing and exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province over this time reveals some restriction, and does not help the province promote the potential strengths in this field. One of the reasons for the restrictions derives from the policies developing export handicrafts goods of Nam Dinh province from propagating to realizing the policy. Therefore, there is a need to analyse and assess the impact of the policy in order to adjust and complete additional development policies to export handicrafts goods in Nam Dinh, which is suitable with new situation and growth trends in the domestic and international area. Stemming from the above requirements, we have selected the research topic: "Improving policies to develop handicraft for exports in Nam Dinh province 2020" as our economic doctoral dissertation. 2. An overview of the research situation and issues for further study So far there have been many studies locally and in foreign country relating to the thesis with different approaches and scopes including economic and social development policy and development of exported handicrafts goods. However, no studies have resolved comprehensively and systematically the theoretical and practical problems of assessment, and improvement development policies for handicrafts goods exports in Nam Dinh province as well as in other localities in the country. Therefore, the dissertation will research, develop and apply theoretical frameworks to assess the real state of development policies for handicrafts exported goods, and then on that basis, will provide some recommendations for refining development policies to handicrafts export goods in Nam Dinh province. 3 4 5.2. Research Method The dissertation applies dialectical materialism methodology combined with logic, history and survey methods, survey and statistical analysis, using experts and forecasts. 6. Contribution of the Dissertation: 6.1. Theory: - The dissertation clarifies the contents relating to policies developing exported handicrafts, procedures to improve the policies, in which factors affecting to these policies have been indicators. - The dissertation draws some lessons in policies to develop handicrafts exported to some countries and localities in the country. These lessons are basis for reference, to apply and develop policies to exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province. 6.2. In practice: - Analyze and evaluate the impact of policies to the development of exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province period 2006-2012, indicating the strengths and weaknesses of the policy, the causes of weakness. - Propose the complete contents to perfect policies developing handicrafts exported in Nam Dinh province and recommend measures to implement policies. 7. Dissertation Structure Besides the introduction and conclusion, the dissertation has three chapters are presented in 148 pages of the product, the consumer, the materials, the producer and method to produce them. 1.1.2. The importance of exportting handicrafts in the culture, economic and social development of the province. 1.1.2.1 For the social and economic development Play an important role in creating jobs, income, and reasonable use of labor in rural areas; Increase revenues and export efficiency 1.1.2.2 For conservating and developping traditional culture To preserve, maintain and develop various traditional sectors of the province. ;To preserve and develop the traditional culture values and spread culture to other countries. 1.1.3 Supply Chain exported handicrafts goods Chapter 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF COMPLETING POLICIES DEVELOPING EXPORTED HANDICRAFTS AND EXPERIENCE IN POLICIES DEVELOPING EXPORTED HANDICRAFTS 1.1. Exported Handicrafts 1.1.1.The definition, features exported handicrafts Definition: Handicrafts are often viewed as the product produced mainly by manual methods. These products have high aesthetic associated with customs and the culture, and imbued with the culture of area creating the goods. Handicraft products are often traditional products of a locality or a nation. Features: Exported handicraft goods have some basic characteristics which are different from other goods in term of the nature Chart 1.1: Supply Chain exported handicrafts goods Source: [12] 1.1.4. Contents to develop exported handicrafts 1.1.4.1 Developing production scale and capacity Including: Developing handicraft villages producing handicrafts, workshops to produce and do business, human resources, material resources, capital investment, increase production value and revenue. 1.1.4.2 Developing Export Including: Increase exports; develop new and high value-added exported handicraft products, exploit, expanse, develop new export markets. 5 6 1.1.4.3 Improving the effectiveness of business manufacture - Improving labor productivity - Increase business profits of handicraft goods - Improving the efficiency of using capital 1.1.5. Factors affecting to the development of exported handicraft in local areas 1.1.5.1 The production condition and factors ncluding: Natural conditions; infrastructure; capital, labor force, materials, techniques and technologies; Traditional elements 1.1.5.2 The product consumer market - Exporting market - Substitute products 1.1.5.3 The competitors in exported handicraft industry - Competition among the handicraft industry in local areas in the country - Competition among countries exported handicrafts 1.1.5.4 The supporting industries and sectors relating to exported handicrafts The development of sub-industries to facilitate production and development of exported handicrafts. * A stable socio-economic-political environment will create favorable conditions for business. * The impacts of the management, administration and legal environment of the State to production of exported handicrafts: - The policies and strategies of the Government in encouraging the development of handicraft industry - The policy in developing export of the state. - The cooperation in direct and executive management agencies from the central to local levels in developing exported handicrafts. * Tariff barriers and non-tariff of the importing countries 1.2. Policy to develop exported handicrafts in provinces 1.2.1. Definition of policies to develop exported handicraft goods From the analysis of the definitions of socio-economic policies, it is stated that policies to develop exported handicraft goods are the state guidelines, solutions affecting to objects in the supply chain of exported handicrafts in order to develop elements for developing exported handicraft goods. Policies to develop handicraft products for export can include policies of the central and local governments. 1.2.2 The basic elements of policies to develop exported handicrafts goods 1.2.2.1 Pursuant of the policy 1.2.2.2 Objectives of development policies for exported handicraft goods General objective: - To develop production, export handicrafts, create jobs and incomes for workers. - The specific objectives to fulfill general objectives such as developing capital, labor, land, technology, market ... 1.2.2.3 The subject and object of policies to develop exported handicraft - The subject of the policy are the individuals, the state management organizations involving to the process of developing management policy. - The object of the policy are handicraft villages, business bases producing raw materials and exported handicraft products. 1.2.2.4 The principles to implement objectives of the policy The point of view directing the behavior of the key actors of the policy in the process of planning and implementing policies. 1.2.2.5 The module of policies to develop exported handicrafts The module of the policy can be classified according to: Scope of impact, the object of the policy or specific objectives of the policy. 1.2.2.6 Solutions and tools of the policy - There are measures affecting directly to the target, but there are solutions indirectly affect to the target. - Tools of the policy include: economic tools, administrative tools organization, technical and professional tools. 1.2.3. The main components of the policies to develop exported handicrafts There are many ways of classifying policies, to fit the research objectives of the dissertation, policies for development of exported handicrafts can classified into 9 policy components including: 7 8 1.2.3.1 planning to develop exported handicrafts 1.2.3.2 Product Policy 1.2.3.3 The policy for materials development 1.2.3.4 Land Policy 1.2.3.5 Investment policy and credit 1.2.3.6 The policy for human resources development 1.2.3.8 The policy for technological development 1.2.3.8 Environmental Protection Policies 1.2.3.9 Policies for trade promotion, and market development 1.2.4. The process of policy to develop exported handicrafts Identifying Policy Issues Making Policy Implementing Policy Identifying Conflicts Analyzing Policy Maintaining Policy Assessing Policy Notes: Showing the circulation in the policy cycle Showing a direct relationship Chart 1.3: The process of policy to develop exported handicrafts Source:[14. pp.32] 1.3. Improving policies to develop exported handicrafts 1.3.1 The necessity to improve the policy - Limitation about information of policy makers. - The errors in policy implementation. - Environmental changes therefore, policies are no longer appropriate. 1.3.2 The steps to improve policies 1.3.2.1 Identifying factors needed evaluating policyies - The impact of the policy could change or could not chang the development of handicrafts sector for export. - The appropriate of policy objectives. - The degree of responsiveness of the budget for the policy implementation. - Measures and tools for policy implementation. 1.3.2.2 Assessing policy to develop handicrafts goods * Assessing the impact of the policy system to the development of the industry through the analysis of "rate of change" # Selecting the object and the time scale to evaluate. Survey respondents are those who benefit the policy and the evaluation period "rate of change" is from the time when the policy was issued to the time of the study. # Define the evaluation criteria "degree of change" (1) Assess the scale changes, production capacity - The variation of the handicraft villages, and workshops producing handicrafts. - The fluctuation of the average scale in production industry. - A change in the quantity and quality of labor. - Evaluation of "change rate" in capital source, capital structure. - Assessment of changes in raw materials. - Evaluation of "change rate" in production value, and revenue (2) Evaluation of the changes in exported handicrafts results - Evaluation of the fluctuation in export turn-over. - Fluctuations in basic market structure, the fluctuation in number of market, fluctuations in commodity sales in each market. (3) Assessment of change rate in production and business efficiency. - Assessing the fluctuation of labor productivity - Assessing the variation in profit. * Assessing the implementation results of policy objectives Using a logical policy framework to evaluate relationship between the outcome of the planning and organizing process, and control of the policy implementation - Compare actual results with set targets. - Analyze the problem such as: If the policy target is on the right orientation; if the target structure is appropriate? Why? * Assessment of the policy implementation 9 10 - The scale in which the policy has been implemented - The scale in which the policy has been introduced Chapter 2 * Using policy matrix to assess the impact of policy components to the development of handicrafts for export No Policy Name The weighting of each policy Impact Scale of each Policy Level of General Impact 1 2 … 1 A= 1.3.2.3 Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the policy and the reason * The policy strengths: * The policy weaknesses: * Reasons of the weakness: - The causes deriving from the policy quality, organization of policymakers. - The causes deriving from organizing and implementing the policy. 1.4 Experience in policy to develop handicrafts for export When conducting research in policies to develop handicraft villages and rural handicraft industries in which there are exported handicrafts from Japan, Thailand, Hanoi and Thai Binh, the author has drawn a number of lessons which can be applied to the study of improving policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province. - Developing exported handicrafts sectors should be connected to the rural industrialization process. - Product policies - "Every handicraft village has one handicraft product" campaign. - Policies to support workforce training. - Policies to support investment, credit, tax. - Policies to promote trade and communications. - Agree on the direction, management and implementing policies to develop handicraft industry. ASSESSMENT OF POLICIES TO DEVELOP HANDICRAFTS FOR EXPORT IN NAM DINH PROVINCE IN THE PERIOD 2006-2012 2.1. Factors affecting the development of handicrafts for exports in Nam Dinh province 2.1.1. The favorable factors 2.1.1.1 The internal factors of Nam Dinh province creating the favorable conditions for the development of handicrafts for export - The systems of roads, power, information have been invested quite synchronized to create favorable conditions for economic and social development of the province. - Nam Dinh province has a number of plants for materials such as jute, rush, mulberry, wood, bamboo and rattan for handicrafts production. - Nam Dinh province has the tradition in manufacturing and exported handicrafts with many famous traditional handicraft villages and a number of artists, skillful craftsmen, and skillful team of craftsmen. 2.1.1.2 International and domestic status has some advantages for the development of handicrafts for export - Exported products from Vietnam have been treated equally as products from other WTO members. - Government has great efforts in institutionalizing legal, reforming administration, creating favorable conditions for production and business. - The guidelines and policies of the Party and State are cared about the development of rural handicraft industries, cottage industries. 2.1.2 Drawbacks for the development of handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province 2.1.2.1 The difficulties deriving from the internal factors of Nam Dinh province - PCI index of Nam Dinh is still low, because budget funding is low; therefore, policy supporting the handicrafts development is limited. - The handicrafts trading and producing workshops are facing to difficulty in finance, production premises; technology in processing raw materials and manufacturing are low; workforce quality of handicraft sector is generally low; handicraft producing is still small and scattered. 11 12 2.1.2.2 Difficulties deriving from handicraft importing countries - The major importing countries are currently deployed antisubsidy measures, anti-dumping regulations; therefore management, quality control of imported products are very strict. - Some markets tend to import handicraft products which are mass produced by machines. 2.2. Policy enforcement to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province in the period 2006-2012 2.2.1 Land Policy In order to have land for developing industry and handicraft, the province has had a plan until 2020 to have 12 industrial zones with a total area of 2,040 ha and 31 industrial complexes with a total area of 615.3 ha. Along with planning, Nam Dinh province has published policies to support the development of industrial clusters such as policy to support infrastructure development in My Trung Industrial Zone in 2005; A number of mechanisms and policies to encourage investment in construction and infrastructure in business zones and investing industrial production and business in industrial zones in Nam Dinh province in 2008; Mechanisms to encourage investment in the development of industrial clusters and cities in Nam Dinh province in 2006; regulatory policies to encourage and support investments in the industry of the rural areas in the southern of the province in 2012 with the support in constructing roads, electricity, water, communication, compensation and ground clearance, land rent ... In the early 2000s, the province did not have any industrial zones and complexes; however, by 2012, there had been four industrial zones with a total area of 714 ha, a total investment of 2,615 billion VND. Basically, infrastructure of these zones has been built and these zones attract investment in production projects. Twenty industrial clusters have been deployed infrastructure with a total area of 338.9 ha; total investment was 198.67 billion VND. 2.2.2 Investment policy, credit Policies supporting investment and credit were issued in a mechanism to encourage investment in the development of industrial clusters in districts and cities in Nam Dinh province. A number of mechanisms and policies to encourage investment in construction, infrastructure of business and industrial zones, and investment of manufacturing industrial zones in Nam Dinh province and regulations and policies to encourage and support investment in industrial locations in rural areas of Nam Dinh province. With the investment policy, credit, up to 2012, 98 enterprises invested into industrial zones; there were 401 investment projects in industrial clusters, of which 108 projects relating to producing handicrafts; capital for developing handicrafts increased from 137.6 billion VND in 2005 to 872.9 billion VND in 2012, of which over 50% were from credit loans. 2.2.3 Policy in Training Human Resources Policy in training human resources for handicraft industry was issued in "Management Regulation and using funds from economic services for industrial promotion activities" in 2005, "Mechanism to encourage development of industrial cluster in districts and the cities in Nam Dinh province; the Project "vocational training for rural workers in Nam Dinh province in 2020” and "Regulations in management and using funds for economic services for industrial promotion activities in Nam Dinh” in 2012. With the policy supporting to professional training for employees, from 2006 to 2012, 10,045 workers working in handicrafts industry trained in short courses organized from the recommended budget and funding for training rural labor villages. 2.2.4 Technological Development Policy The policy of the province in developing technological for handicrafts sector is specified in the "Regulations in managing and using business funding for economic industrial promotion activities" in 2005 and "Regulations in managing and using business funding for economic industrial promotion activities in Nam Dinh" in 2012. By 2006-2012, the provincial budget had supported 7 projects in delivering, applying modern machinery, advanced technology in the production phases, and 9 technical demonstration models in producing handicrafts with the total cost 2,325 billion VND. 2.2.5 Environmental Protection Policy Nam Dinh provincial People's Committee issued Action Plan 54 / PPC-VP3 implement Resolution No. 41 / NQ-TW dated 15.11.2004 of the Ministry of Politics in environmental protection during the period of industrialization, modernization of the country and since 2007, the 13 14 province has spent 1% of the total annual budget for environmental protection activities. Total expenditures on environmental protection activities in 2006 - 2012 was 542.371 billion VND. In particular, investment in waste water treatment projects, waste from industrial zones and industrial complexes, the handicraft village was 44,703 billion VND, constructing landfill waste disposal was 144 430 billion VND. 2.2.6 Business Promotion and Market Development Policy Business promotion policies are presented in the "Regulations in managing and using business funding for economic industrial promotion activities in Nam Dinh" in 2005, 2012, and "Regulations in managing and using business funding for business promotion activities in Nam Dinh" in 2010 to assist to organize exhibitions in the province, and to assist businesses to participate to trade fairs locally and abroad ... In 7 years (2006-2012), the provincial budget supported more than 90 handicrafts enterprises to participate into trade fairs in the country and abroad and held 30 trade fairs in the province with a total over 700 participating businesses. Thus, compared to 9 components of policies mentioned in section 1.2.3 to develop handicrafts for export, the Nam Dinh still lacks three policy components: planning to develop handicrafts for export; Product policy; Policy to develop material resource. These policies need adding to improve development policies for exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province. 2.3. Evaluating policies to develop handicrafts for export in the period 2006-2012 in Nam Dinh Province 2.3.1. Evaluating the impact of these policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh period 2006-2012 2.3.1.1 The impact of policies to the development of scale, production capacity of exported handicrafts a, Developing handicraft villages, production of handicrafts workshops In 2005, Nam Dinh province had 37 handicraft villages; in 2012 this number handicraft villages was 43. In 2005, the province had 6378 workshops producing handicraft products, including 45 enterprises; In 2012 this number rose to 8183 workshops, including 81 companies. After 7 years, this number increased by 1,805 workshops. b, The changes in scale of workshops producing handicrafts - The average scale of workshops by the number of employees was rather stable over the period 2006-2012, on average there were 3.4 people/ workshop. - The average scale of workshops by capital was from 21.6 million VND/workshop in 2005 to 106.7 million VND in 2012, which increase 85.1 million VND/workshop. - The average scale of workshops by the value of producing workshop increased from 32.5 million VND in 2005 to 74.7 million VND in 2012. - The average scale of workshops by revenue also increased from 81.3 million VND in 2005 to 191.7 million VND in 2012. c, Labor changes in the handicraft sector. - Total number of employees in the sector: in 2005, there were 21 498 employees, 27 435 employees in 2012, after 7 years this number increased by 5,937 employees. - The percentage of employees trained (from short-term to university) increased by 13.6% after 7 years (from 52.7% to 66.3%); the proportion of untrained workers fell from 47 , 3% in 2005 down to 33.7% in 2012 d, "The change scale" in capital, and capital structure - The total capital of the whole sector increased from 137.6 billion VND in 2005 to 872.9 billion VND in 2012; after 7 years, this number increased by 735.3 billion VND. - The proportion of the total equity capital of the enterprises was 74.6% in 2005, by 2012 there was only 53.3%. The proportion of loans in 2005 was 25.4%, and 46.7% in 2012, down to 21.3% after 7 years. e, The rate of change of source materials Nam Dinh does not have policies to support for the development of the production materials for handicrafts; therefore, since 2006-2012 from materials from plants reduce both in the area and exploited outputs. f, The change in production value and sales: - The value of handicrafts production (according to fixed price in 1994) increased by an average of 16.7% / year: In 2005 it reached 207.4 billion VND, in 2012 it reached 611.5 billion VND, which increased 404.1 billion VND compared with this number in 2005. - Revenue of the whole handicrafts industry (according to current prices) increased by an average of 17.3% / year: In 2005 it only reached 15 16 518.6 billion VND, in 2012 it reached 1568.9 billion VND, which increased 1050.3 billion VND compared with this number in 2005. 2.3.1.2 Impacts of the policy to export of handicrafts a, The changes in turnover, export structure - Exports of handicraft products in 2006-2012 period on the average increased 14.53% / year; in 2005 reached 9,654 million USD, in 2012 reached 24,952 million USD, which increased 15.928 million USD compared to this number in 2005. - The structure of exported products: The average profit/per employee was 23.3 million VND in 2012, which 12.4 million VND increased compared to this number in 2005. The average profit margin/per VND capital in 2005 was 0.228%, 0.012% in 2009, rose to 0.126% in 2012 but it was lower than that in 2005. 2.3.2 Evaluating results in implementing goals developing handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province in the period 2006-2012 Table 2.22: Evaluating results in implementing goals developing handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province in the period 2006-2012 Export of rattan is relatively stable and it accounts for more than 50% of total turn-over of exported handicrafts. Items such as jute, seagrass, banana have slight growth. Products of engineering handicrafts and fine art furniture have a gradual growth, and they gradually make up a high proportion in the total of export turnover of handicrafts. b, Evaluating the "change rate" in the export market: - Export market of handicrafts in Nam Dinh province increased from 31 markets in 2005 up to 42 markets in 2012. - The changes of the basic market structure: EU market: The ratio of export turn-over to the EU market gradually decreased from 63.76% in 2005 down to 48.32% in 2012; Northeast Asia Markets: The proportion of export turnover slightly increased from 15.53% to 17.01% in 2012; Eastern European and Russian markets the export turnover decreased from 12.85% in 2005 to 11.63% in 2012; Market in the USA: The proportion increased from 4.23% in 2005 to 12.97% in 2012; Other markets including Singapore and newly exploited markets since 2005: The propotion gradually increased from 5.6% in 2005 to 9.98% in 2012. 2.3.1.3 Evaluation of the efficiency of development in production and business - Fluctuations in labor productivity: The average labor productivity under production value / year increased from 9.6 million VND in 2005 to 22.3 million VND in 2012; and under sales/ year increased from 24.1 million VND in 2005 to 57.1 million VND in 2012. - Gross margin of the companies in this industry in 2005 was 35.6 billion VND, and in 2012 was 79.4 billion VND, which increased 43.8 billion VND compared to this number in 2005. Target Period 2006-2010 Target 2011-2012 Result Assessment Target Result The average 20 15,4 growth rate of the production value/ year (%) The average 16 12,5 growth rate of the export turnover/ year (%) Export turnover in 20.300 17.458 2010, 2012 (1.000 USD) Assessment Fail 22 20,1 Fail Fail 16 19,4 Pass 23.898 24.952 Pass Fail Source: Summary from research of many researchers 2.3.3 Evaluating the implemention of the policy for developing exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province Through the summarized survey results (Table 2:25 and Table 2:26), it is showed that the percentage of objects unknowing the policy is quite high and the rate of those benefitting the policy has been low. Besides, the dissemination and policy guidelines for the business and production workshops are still limited. 2.3.4 Assessing the impact of each policy component of the policy to develop handicraft for export According to results synthesized from the survey (Table 2.28) the dissertation identifies the number and impact level of each component of policy to the development of exported handicrafts, which is the basis for the completion and improvement of the policy implementation. Among the policies, policy to promote trade and develop markets plays a very important role. 17 18 2.3.5. The strengths and weaknesses of each policy to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province 2.3.4.1 Strengths Firstly, the policies have a positive impact on the development of factors coming from production to exported handicrafts market. Secondly, the policies have had a positive impact on the results of operating and producing handicrafts. Thirdly, the policies were constructed, issued by Nam Dinh province on the basis of specifying guidelines and policies of the central and applied in accordance with the specific situation of the province. 2.3.4.2 Weaknesses Firstly, the policies are insufficient and not synchronized. Secondly, the support level from the budget of some departments is still low, which causes difficulty in implementing. Thirdly, some policies have no resources to implement. Fourthly, some inconsistent policies have not been amended, and some overlapping policies cause difficulty in implementing. 2.3.6. The reasons of the weakness of policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh Province 2.3.6.1 Reasons deriving from organizing the policies Firstly: All levels and branches have not really cared for leading, directing the planning, developing policies in producing handicrafts for export. Secondly, there is an inconsistence in organizing, researching, policy making and monitoring policy, implementing; therefore, policies to develop handicrafts for export are not consistent, and overlapping. Thirdly, the staff issuing and advising policies have limited capacity. 2.3.6.2 The reasons deriving from organizing implementing policies Firstly, the assigning roles to implement the policies to develop workshops in rural areas is still overlapping. Secondly, at district, commune, there are not many skillful and sufficient staff to guide and implement the policies to develop workshops in rural areas. Thirdly, a number of policies to encourage the development of handicrafts have been issued but have been implemented slowly. Fourthly, there are barriers between the policies realizing and implementation. Chapter 3 ORIENTATION AND CONTENTS TO IMPROVE POLICIES TO DEVELOP HANDICRAFTS FOR EXPORT IN NAM DINH PROVINCE BY 2020 3.1. Perspective, orientation, goals to develop handicrafts for export by 2020 in Nam Dinh 3.1.1. Development viewpoints Firstly, all the industry at all levels need to be aware of the role of producing, and exporting handicrafts. Secondly, developing handicrafts production must link to the process of industrialization - modernization in rural areas to efficiently use resources such as land, labor, capital, raw materials ... Thirdly, developing handicrafts production should associate with developing tourism in order to exploit the potential values of developing tourism with traditional villages and developing export (export on the spot). Fourthly, producing handicrafts to export must bring socioeconomic efficiency. Fifthly, developing handicraft production must go along with constructing new countryside, maintaining the traditional and cultural values of the country. Sixthly, developing handicraft production must link with protecting the ecological environment, ensuring sustainable development. Seventhly, the Government supports by passing policies to develop the internal resources of the handicraft villages, and business workshops. 3.1.2. Development directions Firstly, in the manufacturing and developing production, it is necessary to combine between specialization and diversification in producing. Secondly, workshops should be active in generating product sales while producing, focusing in design, innovating product design. Thirdly, developing export market on a direction to diversify markets and forming key markets. Fourthly, jointing ventures with foreign companies to develop exports; actively participate in the global distribution network. 19 20 Fifthly, developing handicrafts for export should primarily base on the development of handicraft villages; at the same time should concentrate to develop production in industrial zones, industrial clusters villages. 3.1.3 Objectives to export handicrafts by 2020 - To focus on developing strategic exported handicrafts of the province. They are as following: Group 1: Exported handicraft commodities using much laborintensive, creating more jobs for citizens, improving living standards for people in rural areas: bamboo and rattan products, lacquer, sedge products, embroidery. Group 2: Exported handicraft commodities applying technology, machinery and equipment in a number of stages, using skilled labor to create high value products to increase exports turnover: fine art furniture, art metal ware. - Target plan to export handicrafts: Table 3.1: Plan to export handicrafts of Nam Định province in the period 2013-2020 Unit: thousand USD Thirdly, improving the policies on the principle of respecting the autonomy and not discriminating production and business workshops. Fourthly, improving the policies on the basis of combining longterm vision with short-term vision. Besides, the policies must have a long-term stability. Fifthly, improving the policies must ensure the harmonization the benefits of the country and organizations with benefits of individuals benefiting these social policies. 3.2.2. The orientations to improve policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh Province Firstly, improving the policies in the orientation to uniform, synchronous, and completing with an aim to promote sustainable growth. Secondly, improving the policies should be appropriate with policy planning, plans and objectives to develop socio-economic of the province. Thirdly, improving the policies must achieve the goal in promoting the potential and strengths of the province. Fourthly, the policies must be feasible and easy to be implemented. 3.3. Contents to improve policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh Province 3.3.1. Construction Planning to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh province including 3.3.1.1 Planning to conservative, develop traditional handicraft villages. 3.3.1.2 Planning to develop new handicraft villages. 3.3.1.3 Planning to develop tourism in handicraft villages. 3.3.1.4 Planning industrial clusters, industrial locations. 3.3.2. Constructing Product Policies 3.3.2.1 Developing and implementing the campaign "One Village One Product" (OVOP). 3.3.2.2 Developing and promulgating regulations to vote typical rural industrial products 3.3.2.3 Increasing support to construct, register and develop brands. 3.3.2.4. Encouraging professional development, and developing handicraft villages. 3.3.3 Develop policies to develop material resources - The policies to develop the material areas: Seagrass, mulberry, jute. - The policies to develop processing places, processing raw materials. Commodity Total export turnover of handicrafts 1 2 3 4 5 Rattan, bamboo Mechanical art Art wood jute, seagrass, banana Woolen carpets, embroidery, silk 2012 Year 2013 2015 2020 24.952 28.532 37.135 76.890 11.627 4.405 5.985 2.130 13.214 5.099 6.963 2.373 16.940 6.893 9.197 2.975 35.114 14.260 20.798 4.987 805 883 1.130 1.730 Source: [56], [58] 3.2. The viewpoints and orientations to improve policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh Province 3.2.1. The viewpoints to improve policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh Province Firstly, applying properly and flexibly policies and laws of the country to the specific conditions of the province. Secondly, improving the policies to meet the requirements of developing the economy-oriented socialist market, with the deeper integration and international. 21 22 - The policies to develop markets providing materials producing handicrafts. 3.3.4. Improving the land policies a. Policy supporting industrialization, industrial locations b. Policy to recovery, compensation and land clearance - The policy to compensate of the land acquisition, and clearance. - The policy to support in career transition for farmers whose land is recovered. 3.3.5. Improving policies relating to investment and credit. a. Investment policy: - Supporting in making detailed plan ICs. - Adjusting to upgrade support in infrastructure construction ICs. - Socialization policy to construct industrial zones. b. Credit and tax policies - Considering to prioritize handicrafts in loaning, - Supporting Interest rate for organizations and individuals to invest in professional development and village handicrafts. - The tax cuts for village handicrafts products. - The credit institutions should create favorable conditions for business handicraft workshops to access loans. 3.3.6 Improving the policy in human resource development 3.4.6.1 Policy for artisans and skilled craftsmen, designers handicrafts products a. Prioritizing and promoting the role of artisans and skilled craftsmen. b. Supporting to training and re-training for artists, skilled craftsmen, designers of handicraft products. 3.4.6.2 Supporting to vocational training for handicrafts employees 3.3.7 Improving technology policy - Raising the support level for demonstration techniques in handicrafts producing to encourage modernization traditional technologies. - Supporting to enhance production capacity, product quality. - Policies in sponsorship, financial support, loans and loan interest for research, technology transfer projects through Science & Technology development fund of the province. 3.3.8. Improving the protection policy and environmental remediation villages, industry zones, rural industrial locations - Providing financial support to build a pilot model of a system to handle environmental pollution in producing handicraft workshops. - Passing policies to support to re-locate producing workshops in the handicrafts village causing pollution to industrial concentration cluster. - Encouraging environmental protection and remediation under the form of investment support for producing workshops accepting conversion or applying cleaner production. 3.3.9. Improving support policy in trade promotion - Adjusting to increase the funding support for the companies participating in the exhibition domestically and abroad in accordance with geographical distance, cost of participation fair. - Additional support fund to organize the intensive training courses specializing in import and export business, trade promotion and foreign languages. - Honor, prioritizing and supporting businesses achieving "Exporters prestigious" in the trade promotion activities. - Supporting handicrafts producing models investing showrooms to promote and introduce products at the tourist destinations. - Policies to support e-commerce development. 3.4. Conditions to ensure implementation of policies for developing exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province 3.4.1 Central continue to improve the macroeconomic policy of encouraging the development of handicraft industry - The Central Government should continue to develop, adjust and finalize policies to develop handicraft industry - To clearly define the functions and tasks for ministries and agencies in the development for handicraft industries. 3.4.2 The state management bodies of Nam Dinh province have coordination, assignment of responsibilities in implementing and solutions to develop handicrafts for export - Enhancing the quality, uniformity and efficiency in the development and implementation of socio-economic planning, sectors. - Ensuring resources for the implementation of policies to develop handicrafts for export: - Strengthening coordination capacity in implementing policy between the related industries, between industry and local management. - Continue to promote the reform of administrative procedures. 3.4.3 The effort from the producing handicraft workshops - Find out, take advantages of support from the policies - Positively, proactively organize producing and business activities. - Actively participate into the handicrafts industry associations. 23 24 CONCLUSION Fourthly, the dissertation proposes some contents to improve policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh in two basic groups: (i) Develop new development plan to produce handicrafts for export, product policy, developing material resources; (ii) adjusting and supplying to overcome the limitations of policy in the field of land and investment-credit, human resource development, science and technology, environmental protection, trade promotion, in which the province should particularly focuses on developing policies to support the export market. For effective implementation the policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh, author of the dissertation provides some recommendations as follow: (1) For the Government and the ministries, central agencies: The Government does research to establish the National Steering Committee of handicraft industry to improve coordination among agencies at both central and provincial levels. This Committee has the function of coordinating activities and consulting policy relating to the development of handicraft industry for the government and the ministries and agencies. (2) The People's Committee of Nam Dinh province: Developing and promulgating "primary mechanism to encourage the development of handicrafts for exports within Nam Dinh province" on the basis of integrating, adjusting and supplementing the present policies and new policies relating to the development of handicrafts for export. The authors hope that the findings of the dissertation will be considered by Nam Dinh provincial government and the nearby areas, apply to the issuance, steering implementing policies to develop handicrafts for export in. However, due to limitations of time, finance and personal abilities, the author cannot go deeply into the study to assess the effects of the policy impacts on the policies to develop exported handicrafts in Nam Dinh province by analytical tools and benefit costs (Cost & benefit analysis - CBA), which requires a process of investigation, survey, data collection reflects on a widespread scale. This can become a further direction for further research in later work of the author himself or other organizations, other researchers about the human resource conditions, the financial basis for the constructing, completing policies to develop handicrafts for export in order to bring more effectiveness when implementing these policies. Improving policies on developing local handicrafts for exports is still a relatively new issue in Vietnam because there has not been any indepth study in both theoretical and practical. The dissertation research on "Improving policies to develop handicraft for exports in Nam Dinh province 2020" to contribute to the development of a theoretical basis and practical to improve policies to develop handicraft for exports in the province. Within the scope of the study, a dissertation has achieved the following results: Firstly, the dissertation clarifies the content and the factors influencing the development of exported handicrafts, the contents of the policies relating to development of exported handicrafts in the province; Proposing steps to improve policies, in which the dissertation has constructed indicators to assess the impacts of policies to the development of local handicrafts for export. These are problems have not been mentioned in any previous studies. Secondly, the dissertation summed up some experience in issuing and implementing policies to develop handicrafts for export in some Asian countries and provinces in the country, from which the dissertation has drawn some lessons which can be applied to construct and improve the policies to develop handicrafts for export. Thirdly, from the impact assessment of policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh period 2006-2012, the dissertation showed that: policies to develop handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh has had an impact in increasing the production scale, market development, which leads to the growth in the production results, export of handicrafts in terms of production value, revenue and exports. However, there are still some major limitations: (1) there is no plan to develop handicrafts products, product policy, material development policy; (2) There is no support to a number of fields such as incentives, training artisans, skilled workers, designers; budgetary support from the state budget for the infrastructure construction industry clusters, workforce training, science and technology, trade promotion, environmental pollution treatment is low. The limitations of the policy has led to the limitations in developing handicrafts for export in Nam Dinh so far: the spontaneous production, small scale, lack of production sites, environment pollution, passive in resource, limitation and unappropriation in developing and designing new products.
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