Tài liệu Improving english pronunciation for the first year students of english major at hanoi open university

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HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGLISH Code : 18 ---------- GRADUATION THESIS B.A DEGREE IN ENGLISH STUDIES IMPROVING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION FOR THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH MAJOR AT HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY Supervisor : Nguyen Thi Kim Chi,M.A Student : Vu Van Huy Date of birth : 06/11/1994 Course : 1271A04 (2012-2016) Hanoi, 2016 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this thesis and the work presented in it are my own and has been generated by me as the result of my own original written and under strict guidance of my supervisor. The title: Improving English pronunciation for the 1st year students of English major at Hanoi Open University Hanoi, April 15th,2016 Student Signature Supervisor Signature i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This graduation thesis would never have been able to finish without the guidance of my lovely supervisor, help from friends and support from my parents. Firstly, I would love to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, MA Nguyen Thi Kim Chi, for her excellent guidance, caring and patience, and providing me with a good condition for doing research, from whom I have received valuable comments and suggestions. I would also like to thank M.A. Vu Tuan Anh, Who gave me some excellent ideas, and lent me some useful books to help me finish this graduation thesis. Secondly, I would like to thank to faculty of English, Hanoi Open University for giving me permission to commence this thesis in the first instance and to do the necessary research work. Thirdly, I want to show my appreciation to participants, including K22, the first year students of English major at Hanoi Open University, who provided me with valuable assistance in collecting data. Last but not least, my gratefulness goes to my parents, who have been supporting me, especially my mother, She was always cheering me up and stand by me through the good and bad times. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION .................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................... iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES AND FIRGURES ................................................................ vi PART A:INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 1 1. Rationale ........................................................................................................... 1 2. Aims of the study ............................................................................................. 2 3. Scope of the study ............................................................................................ 2 4. Research questions ........................................................................................... 2 5. Method of the study .......................................................................................... 3 6. Design of the study ........................................................................................... 3 PART B DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER 1- LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................ 4 1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Pronunciation .................................................................................................... 6 1.2.1What is the definition of pronunciation ....................................................... 6 1.2.2 Main features of English pronunciation ..................................................... 8 1.2.2.1 Consonants ......................................................................................... 12 1.2.2.2 Vowels ................................................................................................ 14 1.2.2.3 Intonation............................................................................................ 17 1.2.2.4 Word stress ......................................................................................... 19 1.3 The importance of English pronunciation ....................................................... 23 1.3.1 Teachers’ perception about the importance of pronunciation .................. 23 1.3.2 Students’ perception about the importance of pronunciation learning..... 24 1.4 Difficulty for Vietnamese learners when pronouncing English ..................... 25 1.5 Summary ......................................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 2: PROBLEMS MET BY THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH MAJOR IN PRACTICING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ..... 28 2.1 Data collection................................................................................................. 28 2.1.1 Data analysis ............................................................................................. 28 2.1.1.1 Participant’s attitude towards English pronunciation ........................ 29 2.1.1.2 Pronunciation problems of the first year students ................................. 31 2.1.1.2.1 English pronunciation ability of the 1st year English majors at HOU ........................................................................................................................ 31 2.1.1.2.2 Word stress ...................................................................................... 32 2.1.1.2.3 Intonation......................................................................................... 33 iii 2.1.1.2.4 English final consonant ................................................................... 34 2.1.1.2.5 Linking sounds ................................................................................ 35 2.1.1.3 Causes leading to the first year English majors’ problems about English pronunciation. .................................................................................................... 36 2.1.1.3.1 Wrong methods of self-study .......................................................... 37 2.1.1.3.2 Big differences between English and Vietnamese language .......... 37 2.1.1.3.3 Influence of Vietnamese mother tongue ......................................... 40 2.1.1.3.4 Psychology factor of shyness ........................................................ 41 2.1.1.3.5 Teaching methods .......................................................................... 41 2.1.1.3.6 Lacking of time practicing pronunciation at home ......................... 42 2.2 Summary ......................................................................................................... 43 CHAPTER 3 SOME SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS HELP THE FIRST YEAR ENGLISH MAJORS IMPROVE THEIR ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION . 44 3.1 Practice hearing the sounds of English ........................................................ 44 3.2 Pay attention to word and sentence stress ................................................... 45 3.3 Be aware of intonation ................................................................................. 48 3.4 Practice linking sounds together and connected speech .............................. 50 3.5 Work out which sounds cause most difficult in pronouncing ..................... 54 3.6 Read out loud and recording ........................................................................ 56 3.7 Summary ...................................................................................................... 57 PART C:CONCLUSION.................................................................................... 58 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 60 APPENDIX .......................................................................................................... 62 iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ESL : English as a second language EFL : English is spoken as a second language IC : Inner circle OC : Outer circle EC : Expanding circle HOU : Hanoi Open University v LIST OF TABLES AND FIRGURES TABLES Table 1 Expression of emotions when speaking English...................................... 33 Table 2 Student’s ability of linking sounds in English ......................................... 35 FIGURES Figure 1: The importance of having good English pronunciation ........................ 29 Figure 2: The participants concern about English pronunciation and try to reach it ............................................................................................................................... 30 Figure 3 English pronunciation ability of the 1st year students of English major 31 Figure 4 Frequency of paying attention to word stress of the first year students . 32 Figure 5 Ability of pronouncing English final consonant sounds ........................ 34 Figure 6 Reasons leading to the student’s incorrect pronunciation ...................... 36 Figure 7 Habit of pronouncing English like Vietnamese sounds ......................... 40 Figure 8 Amount of time students practice their English pronunciation at home 42 vi PART A INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Pronunciation regarded as the most important and difficult micro-skill of the four skills in English language learning. Most non-native students of English face a lot of difficulties when they try to speak English and sometimes get frustrated when they could not understand or be understand by native English speakers. English is a stressed language, and this means that more attention should be paid to where you put the stress in a word or sentence, rather than the number of syllables .Most of the time, students who have trouble using the right stress and intonation speak native languages with very different rules. Students of English as a second language know so well how important pronunciation is. Nevertheless, sometimes it has been obvious that a student has been paid little attention to their English pronunciation in the process of second language learning. Celce & Goodain (1991) states that over the past years, there have been different views about the value of teaching pronunciation in language teaching and they reported that the cognitive approach and grammar translation reading based method which used by teachers attach no importance to pronunciation. Many people learning English language often do not pay much attention to their pronunciation. Even worse, some of them underestimate it. They think that pronunciation is less important than grammar and vocabulary. In fact, Pronunciation reflects your English speaking ability. Many cases of misunderstanding in communication were caused by the mispronouncing of words or the improper intonation. It has been realized the fact that most of English students who study English at Hanoi Open University have different background, they come from another provinces where their high school did not really teach them English pronunciation except for English grammar. As a senior English major student, I realized how the first year student try their best to reach their specific goal to speak English better and to sound more naturally and more like native English speaker. In addition, the first year student should be a perfect time to train their 1 pronunciation. Experts argue that pronunciation should be introduced by teachers in all their lessons, and teachers themselves should make learners aware of its importance (Gilakjani,2011). Yates and Zielinski (2009) found that pronunciation is a very difficult aspect of English to learn, but it seems that teaching pronunciation from the very beginning helps learners to be intelligible .Therefore, I would like to do a research with a wish to improve the freshman’s English pronunciation that they can speak English natural, confident and like a native speaker. The research entitled “Improving English pronunciation for the first year students of English major at Hanoi Open University” 2. Aims of the study This study is an attempt to:  Investigate the attitudes of the first year student at Faculty of English, Hanoi Open University towards the importance of English pronunciation.  Figure out some problems faced by the freshman during their studying English pronunciation, their habits to study English pronunciation  Give some solutions and suggestions to help them step by step learning English pronunciation so that they can improve their speaking skills. 3. Scope of the study In this research, I would like to focus on the problems of the first year English majors might meet when they learn English pronunciation, finding out the reality of learning English pronunciation to them. Although I am well aware that the survey statistics are not fully representative of all English major students at other universities in Vietnam, I hope to propose some of the most popular facts that occurring in study. 4. Research questions The research has been following these questions below:  What are attitudes of the first year English major students toward to English pronunciation?  What are the problems faced by the first year students faculty of English at Hanoi Open University?  What are some practical solutions and suggestions to help them overcome their problems? 2 5. Method of the study To achieve the main aim and objectives of the study, Survey questionnaire and interview methods have been applied. The information from questionnaires can help to draw a picture about the reality of learning English pronunciation. I am allowed to be in a class of K22 (the first year students) to interview the attitudes of the students while they are studying in an English pronunciation lesson. Also, Analysis method is used to finalize the difficulties faced by the freshman at faculty of English in terms of their attitudes, language and cultural knowledge when joining in everyday conversation. Statistic technique is also applied to calculate the results collected from survey questionnaire in order to figure out some specific problems and solutions to the students. 6. Design of the study The study is divided into three main parts as follows:  Part A: Introduction, which reveals the rationales, the objectives, the research questions, the method and the design of the study. It also expresses reason why I decided to choose this subject.  Part B: Development + Chapter 1 is intended to give theoretical background related to English pronunciation, the definition of pronunciation, some main features of pronunciation and the importance of English pronunciation. + Chapter 2 provides an analysis on the situation of learning English pronunciation of the first year students of English major at faculty of English, HOU. Therefore, the author could find out some specific difficulties and problems of the students faced during learning English pronunciation. + Chapter 3 focuses on the solutions and suggestions to help the students overcome their problems.  Part C: Conclusion gives a brief summary of the whole study. 3 PART B DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reveals the theoretical background of English pronunciation which is of great importance to study, the importance of pronunciation learning, and the difficulty for Vietnamese learners pronouncing English. 1.1 Introduction English as a Second Language (ESL) the necessity for, and method of, teach English pronunciation has become a controversial topic. Many second language learners have varied opinions on the importance of including pronunciation practice within their lesson plans. The most important part of learning a second language rests on pronunciation (Pennington, 1996); thus speaking is so important in acquiring and using a language (Dan, 2006). Dan claims that language competence covers many aspects. Phonetics both in theory and practice constitute the basis of speaking above all other aspects of language and pronunciation is the foundation of speaking. Good pronunciation may make the communication easier, more relaxed and more useful. Pronunciation is the foundation of speaking. English, both written and spoken, has been accepted as the dominant means of communication for most of the world but some misunderstandings have been caused by inappropriate pronunciation (Yong, 2004). Poor pronunciation can condemn learners to less social, academic and work advancement than they deserved (Fraser, 1999, 2000). Good pronunciation can make the communication easier and more relaxed and thus more successful (Dan, 2006).Almost all learners rate pronunciation as priority and an area in which they need more guidance (Willing, 1993), (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997). Although the study of foreign accents has always been a fascination for some researchers, the teaching of pronunciation and oral skills in general in foreign and second language classrooms has often been low on the list of priorities (Peterson, 2000). In search Language Center concerning Productive Skills in the Academic English Curriculum showed that the main focus of the current academic English curriculum leaves little room for pronunciation work. There are two reasons for 4 this. First of all, the importance of good writing ability in academic English, the students learn that writing is considered more important than other skills as it is weighted more in most tertiary institutions in Australia. Teachers spend more time working on students’ grammar and writing skills in order that students are best prepared for examinations. The time factor is the second important factor which causes students to leave little time for pronunciation in the classroom (Germana ECKERT, 2003). Pronunciation is a very important factor in the speech process, when the speaker achieves the goal to communicate effectively by being understood. The speech process is a process that involves several stages, beginning with speaker’s ideas and ending with the understanding of those ideas by the listener (Dauer, 1993). Dauer (1993:8) states that the speaker thinks decides what he or she is going to say and puts the ideas into words and sentences of a particular language. The speaker’s brain the transforms the words and sentences into nerve impulses that it sends to the muscles in the speech organs. The speaker’s speech organ moves. The lungs push air up through the larynx and into mouth and nose. The air is shaped by the tongue and lips and comes out of the speaker’s mouth as sound waves. The sound travels through the air. Sometimes, the sound is changed back into sound waves by an electronic speaker. The listener hears the sounds when the sound waves hit his or her ear. The ear changes the sound waves into nerve impulses and sends them to the brain. The listener understands the message. The listener’s brain identifies specific speech sounds, interprets them as words and sentences of a particular language, and figures out their meaning. The importance of good pronunciation starts from the process of the speech organs move (pronunciation) which is related to the proficiency of the speakers until the sounds travels through the air. Learners with good English pronunciation are likely to be understood even if they make errors in other areas, whereas learners with bad pronunciation will not be understood, even if their grammar is perfect. Such learners may avoid speaking in English, and experience social isolation, employment difficulties and limited opportunities for further study. We judge people by the way they speak, and so learners with poor pronunciation may be judged as incompetent, 5 uneducated or lacking in knowledge. Yet many learners find pronunciation one of the most difficult aspects of English to acquire, and need explicit help from the teacher. Therefore, some sort of pronunciation instruction in class is necessary. The goals of this paper are to define English pronunciation, review the history of English pronunciation instruction, explain the aim of English pronunciation instruction, elaborate pronunciation and communication, review the previous research about the effectiveness of pronunciation instruction on learners' achievement, and discuss the English pronunciation and the target of comfortable intelligibility. 1.2 Pronunciation 1.2.1What is the definition of pronunciation Pronunciation is the most important thing that we have to master. Otherwise, people cannot receive the message we say. According to Penny Ur (2001), Jack C. Richard (2002), Pronunciation is the sound of the language, or phonology; stress and rhythm; and intonation and includes the role of individual sounds and segmental and supra segmental sounds. Moreover, Otlowski (2004:1) stated that Pronunciation is a way that is accepted or generally understood. From those statements above, we can conclude that pronunciation is the way of someone produces segmental and supra segmental sound that is accepted or generally understood. Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, stress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice quality) and, in its broadest definition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language. A broad definition of pronunciation includes both suprasegmental and segmental features. Although these different aspects of pronunciation are treated in isolation here, it is important to remember that they all work in combination when we speak, and are therefore usually best learned as an integral part of spoken language. Traditional approaches to pronunciation have often focused on segmental aspects, largely because these relate in some way to letters in writing, and are 6 therefore the easiest to notice and work on. More recent approaches to pronunciation, however, have suggested that the suprasegmental aspects of pronunciation may have the most effect on intelligibility for some speakers. Usually learners benefit from attention to both aspects, and some learners may need help in some areas more than in others. This overview starts with suprasegmental features. One considerable practical advantage of focusing on suprasegmental is that learners from mixed L1 backgrounds in the same class will benefit, and will often find that their segmental difficulties improve at the same time. Pronunciation training includes micro-level skill (accuracy-based learning), macro-level skill (fluency-based learning) and awareness-raising classroom activities. At the micro-level skill, learners should be trained both in segmental (a study of sounds) and suprasegmental features (training in stress, intonation, rhythm, linking) (Morley, 1979, 1991; Gilbert 1984 and Wong, 1987). CelceMurcia, Brinton and Goodwin (1996), Gilbert (1990), and Morley (1991) describe segmentals as the basic inventory of distinctive sounds and show the way that they combine to form a spoken language. In the case of North American English, this inventory comprises 40 phonemes (15 vowels and 25 consonants), which are the basic sounds that serve to distinguish words from one another. Pronunciation instruction has often concentrated on the mastery of segmentals through discrimination and production of target sounds via drills consisting of minimal pairs. Segmentals and suprasegmentals transcend the level of individual sound production and are produced unconsciously by native speakers. But suprasegmentals extend across segmentals. Since suprasegmental elements provide crucial context and support (they determine meaning) for segmental production, they are given a more prominent place in pronunciation instruction. Suprasegmentals include stress, rhythm, adjustments in connected speech, prominence, and intonation. Stress is a combination of length, loudness, and pitch applied to syllables in a word e.g. HAPpy, FOOTball. Rhythm is the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses e.g. with weak syllables in lower case and stressed syllables in upper case: they WANT to GO later. 7 Adjustment in connected speech is modification of sounds within and between words in streams of speech. -For example : I will ask her / ai wil ask hər/ becomes /ai wil aes hər/ Prominence is the speaker’s act of highlighting words to emphasise meaning or intend. -For example: Can I have a look the BLACK one (not the white one) Intonation is the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences -For example: Are you REAdy? There are, also, strong differences in inflection, stress and intonation among the various regional varieties of English e.g. American, Australian, Indian, and local UK dialects. Internationally, English teachers refer in their teaching to the sounds, stress and intonation of The International Phonetic Association (IPA). Speech can be broken down into pronunciation and intonation, accuracy and fluency or can be categorised in terms of strategies or it can be regarded as a form of interaction and analysed using the methods of pragmatics or discourse analysis. This means that the accurate speaker may communicate effectively (Skehan, 1998). It should include all aspects of English pronunciation and the goal of pronunciation teaching is to foster communicative effectiveness (Wong, 1987). 1.2.2 Main features of English pronunciation English pronunciation involves far more than individual sounds. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and word linking all influence the sound of spoken English, not to mention the way we often slur words and phrases together in casual speech. “What are you going to do?” becomes “ Whatddaya gonna do?” English pronunciation involves a lot of complexities for learners to strive for a complete elimination of accent, but improving pronunciation will boost self esteem, facilitate communication, and possibly lead to a better job or at least more respect in the workplace. Effective communication is of greatest importance, so choose first to work on problems that significantly hinder communication and let the rest go. Remember that your students also need to learn strategies for dealing with misunderstandings, since native pronunciation is for most an unrealistic goal. 8 A student's first language often interferes with English pronunciation. For example, /p/ is aspirated in English but not in Spanish, so when a Spanish speaker pronounces 'pig' without a puff of air on the /p/, an American may hear 'big' instead. Sometimes the students will be able to identify specific problem sounds and sometimes they won't. You can ask them for suggestions, but you will also need to observe them over time and make note of problem sounds. Another challenge resulting from differences in the first language is the inability to hear certain English sounds that the native language does not contain. Often these are vowels, as in 'ship' and 'sheep,' which many learners cannot distinguish. The Japanese are known for confusing /r/ and /l/, as their language contains neither of these but instead has one sound somewhere between the two. For problems such as these, listening is crucial because students can't produce a sound they can't hear. Descriptions of the sound and mouth position can help students increase their awareness of subtle sound differences. - Some specific pronunciation features : Voicing Voiced sounds will make the throat vibrate. For example, /g/ is a voiced sound while /k/ is not, even though the mouth is in the same position for both sounds. Have your students touch their throats while pronouncing voiced and voiceless sounds. They should feel vibration with the voiced sounds only. Aspiration Aspiration refers to a puff of air when a sound is produced. Many languages have far fewer aspirated sounds than English, and students may have trouble hearing the aspiration. The English /p/, /t/, /k/, and /ch/ are some of the more commonly aspirated sounds. Although these are not always aspirated, at the beginning of a word they usually are. Mouth Position Draw simple diagrams of tongue and lip positions. Make sure all students can clearly see your mouth while you model sounds. Intonation 9 Word or sentence intonation can be mimicked with a kazoo, or alternatively by humming. Intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signaling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction. Linking We pronounce phrases and even whole sentences as one smooth sound instead of a series of separate words. 'Will Amy go away,' is rendered 'Willaymeegowaway.' To help learners link words, try starting at the end of a sentence and have them repeat a phrase, adding more of the sentence as they can master it. For example, 'gowaway,' then 'aymeegowaway,' and finally 'Willaymeegowaway' without any pauses between words. Vowel length You can demonstrate varying vowel lengths within a word by stretching rubber bands on the longer vowels and letting them contract on shorter ones. Then let the students try it. For example, the word 'fifteen' would have the rubber band stretched for the 'ee' vowel, but the word 'fifty' would not have the band stretched because both of its vowels are spoken quickly. Syllables Illustrate syllable stress by clapping softly and loudly corresponding to the syllables of a word. For example, the word 'beautiful' would be loud-soft-soft. Practice with short lists of words with the same syllabic stress pattern ('beautiful,' 'telephone,' 'Florida') and then see if learners can list other words with that pattern. Specific Sounds Minimal pairs, or words such as 'bit/bat' that differ by only one sound, are useful for helping students distinguish similar sounds. They can be used to illustrate 10 voicing ('curl/girl') or commonly confused sounds ('play/pray'). Remember that it's the sound and not the spelling you are focusing on. Tongue twisters are useful for practicing specific target sounds, plus they're fun. Make sure the vocabulary isn't too difficult. According to Gerald Kelly on How to teach pronunciation (2007), he mentioned the main features of English pronunciation as follow: Phonemes are the different sounds within a language. Although there are slight different in how individuals articulate sounds. When considering meaning, we see how using one sound rather than another can change the meaning of word. It is this principle which gives us the total number of phonemes in a particular language. For example, the word hat has the phonemes /hæt/. If we change the middle phoneme, it will become / hɒt/, which is different word. Sounds may be voiced or unvoiced. Voiced sounds occur when the vocal cords in the larynx are vibrated. It is easy to tell whether a sound is voiced or not by placing one or two fingers on your Adam’s apple. If you are producing a voiced sound, you will not. The different between /f/ and /v/, can be heard by putting your top teeth on your bottom lip, breathing out in a continuous stream to 11 produce /f/, then adding your voice to make /v/. Hold your Adam’s apple while doing this, and you will feel the vibration. Phonemes consist of two categories: Vowel sounds and consonant sounds. However, these do not necessarily correspond to the vowels and consonants we are familiar with in the alphabet. Vowel sounds are all voiced, and may be single, or a combination, involving a movement from one vowel sound to another; such combination are known as diphthongs. An additional term used is tripthongs which describes the combination of three vowel sounds (/ˈaʊər/in our). Single vowel sounds may be short (/lɪft/ as in lift) or long (/hiːt/ as in heat). 1.2.2.1 Consonants According to Wikipedia, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels. Since the number of possible sounds in all of the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant. In fact, the English alphabet has fewer consonant letters than English has consonant sounds, so digraphs like "ch", "sh", "th", and "zh" are used to extend the alphabet, and some letters and digraphs represent more than one consonant. For example, the sound spelled "th" in "this" is a different consonant than the "th" sound in "thin". (In the IPA they are transcribed [ð] and [θ], respectively.) The word consonant is also used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. The 21 consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z, and usually W and Y. The letter Y stands for the consonant /j/ in yoke, the vowel /ɪ/ in myth, the vowel /i/ in funny, and the diphthong /aɪ/ in my. W always represents a consonant except in combination with a vowel letter, as in growth, raw, and how, and in a few loanwords from Welsh, like crwth or cwm. 12 Consonants can be described in terms if the manner and place of articulation. The articulation of /p/ or /b/ is effectively the same, the only difference being that the latter is voiced and the former is unvoiced. With regard to the place of articulation, the following table summaries the main movements of the various articulation: To the manner of articulation, the vocal tract may be completely closed so that the air is temporarily unable to pass through. Alternatively there may be a closing movement of the lips, tongue or throat, so that it is possible to hear the sound made by air passing through. Or, as in the case of nasal sounds, the air is diverted through the nasal passages. The various terms used are explained in the following table: 13
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