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TeAM YYePG Digitally signed by TeAM YYePG DN: cn=TeAM YYePG, c=US, o=TeAM YYePG, ou=TeAM YYePG, email=yyepg@msn.com Reason: I attest to the accuracy and integrity of this document Date: 2005.01.21 04:08:29 +08'00' e-Human Resources Management: Managing Knowledge People Teresa Torres-Coronas Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain Mario Arias-Oliva Universitat Rovira Virgili, Spain IDEA GROUP PUBLISHING Hershey • London • Melbourne • Singapore Acquisitions Editor: Senior Managing Editor: Managing Editor: Development Editor: Copy Editor: Typesetter: Cover Design: Printed at: Mehdi Khosrow-Pour Jan Travers Amanda Appicello Michele Rossi Maria Boyer Jennifer Wetzel Lisa Tosheff Yurchak Printing Inc. Published in the United States of America by Idea Group Publishing (an imprint of Idea Group Inc.) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Suite 200 Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@idea-group.com Web site: http://www.idea-group.com and in the United Kingdom by Idea Group Publishing (an imprint of Idea Group Inc.) 3 Henrietta Street Covent Garden London WC2E 8LU Tel: 44 20 7240 0856 Fax: 44 20 7379 3313 Web site: http://www.eurospan.co.uk Copyright © 2005 by Idea Group Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data e-Human resources management : managing knowledge people / Teresa Torres-Coronas, Mario Arias-Oliva, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-59140-435-5 (h/c) -- ISBN 1-59140-436-3 (s/c) -- ISBN 1-59140-437-1 (eISBN) 1. Personnel management. 2. Information technology--Management. 3. Knowledge management. I. Torres-Coronas, Teresa, 1966- II. Arias-Oliva, Mario, 1968HF5549.E14 2005 658.3'00285'4678--dc22 2004016385 British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher. Dedication As we were writing this preface, Madrid went through one of the worst days in its history. This is why we want to dedicate this book to the memory of those who are no longer with us, to the memory of those who lost their lives in the bomb attack on a train in Madrid on March 11, 2004. They were going to work, struggling to balance work and life; they were part of our human capital; they were inimitable, irreplaceable, and very special assets…they should be here. E-Human Resources Management: Managing Knowledge People Table of Contents Preface ................................................................................................. vii SECTION I: THE CUTTING-EDGE IN HRM Chapter I. Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies: The Impact on HR ................................................................................. 1 Jaap Paauwe, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Elaine Farndale, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Roger Williams, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Chapter II. Integrating Handheld Computer Technology into HR Research and Practice ................................................................................................. 31 Scott A. Davies, Hogan Assessment Systems, USA Robert F. Calderón, Caliber Associates, Inc., USA Chapter III. Social Network Mapping Software: New Frontiers in HRM ............ 68 Mousumi Bhattacharya, Fairfield University, USA Christopher Huntley, Fairfield University, USA SECTION II: REDESIGNING HR ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESSES Chapter IV. E-Recruiting: Categories and Analysis of Fortune 100 Career Web Sites ............................................................................................. 86 In Lee, Western Illinois University, USA Chapter V. Employee Self-Service HR Portal Case Study: Access, Content, & Application ..................................................................................... 101 Andrew Stein, Victoria University, Australia Paul Hawking, Victoria University, Australia Chapter VI. Human Resource Portals and the Protean Career: A Three-Factor Model ................................................................................................. 122 Constant D. Beugré, Delaware State University, USA SECTION III: E-LEARNING STRATEGIES Chapter VII. Keeping Up with the Corporate University: Resources for HRM Faculty and Practitioners ................................................................... 144 Pamela D. Sherer, Providence College, USA Timothy Shea, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA Chapter VIII. E-Learning Strategies of Italian Companies .................................... 171 Anna Comacchio, University of Ca’ Foscari, Italy Annachiara Scapolan, University of Ca’ Foscari, Italy SECTION IV: MANAGING IT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES Chapter IX. Is Organizational e-Democracy Inevitable? The Impact of Information Technologies on Communication Effectiveness .......... 206 Bernadette M. Watson, University of Queensland, Australia Gavin M. Schwarz, University of New South Wales, Australia Elizabeth Jones, Griffith University, Australia Chapter X. Managing and Practicing OD in an IT Environment: A Structured Approach to Developing IT Project Teams ...................................... 236 Joseph Logan, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, USA About the Authors .............................................................................. 269 Index ................................................................................................... 276 vii Preface Aim of This Book In 1998, a highly innovative film, Antz, directed by Eric Darnell and Tim Johnson, was released. In the first scene of the movie, Ant Z 4195 is talking to his psychoanalyst and saying: “…and my job, don’t get me started on, cause it really annoys me…I feel physically inadequate, I, I, my whole life I’ve never been able to lift 10 times my own body weight and when you get down to it, handling dirt is…yuck, you know is not my idea of a rewarding career. It’s this whole gung-ho super-organism thing that I, I, you know I can’t get, I try but I can’t get it. I mean you know, what is it, I’m supposed to do everything for the colony, and what about my needs, what about me? I mean I gotta believe there’s someplace out there that’s better than this! Otherwise I’d just curl up in a larva position and weep! The whole system out there just makes me feel...insignificant!” Z 4195 is striving to reconcile his own individuality with the communal work of the ant colony. Our unhappy and depressed ant is working for a traditional hierarchical organization, where people are not treated as valuable assets and IT systems are not yet implemented. Even worse, he is currently working for an organization that may have neither examined people management practices, nor made a real connection between people and organizational performance. While this behavior is still prevalent in many of today’s companies, we are presenting a book about e-HRM, about how IT is changing traditional HRM functions, about how e-HRM practices are implemented. Could this be a paradox? We hope so, because as Junipier (1996) pointed out: “Paradox is viii an excellent creativity facilitator; it delivers a seismic jolt to dominant ideas, themselves the most efficient suppressor of original thinking” (p. 19). We need creative facilitators to develop the new e-HRM landscape. The above presents one of our oldest concerns about managing people: Most organizations are far from considering people as their most important asset. They are also far from applying common sense practices such as those to be found in Pfeffer’s book, The Human Equation (Harvard Business School Press, 1996). These organizations are now entering the knowledge era, using IT solutions to solve their old HRM problems in one out of 10 cases, and in an uncreative way. Those in the world of HRM are being accused of living in an ivory tower, managing the human side of their organizations in ways that lack relevance in the new information era. The impetus for the HRM change comes from recognition of recent developments in the HRM profession and a realization that current practices do not reflect those changes, especially those concerning IT strategies. The problem often results in policies, practices, and strategies that may be outdated. Organizations are progressively incorporating ITCs into their processes, using different tools and solutions. These tools are applied in a wide variety of ways (i.e., manufacturing resource planning, office automation, computer-supported cooperative work, distributed teams, supply chain, enterprise-wide resource planning, or virtual integration). The entry into service of the first high-capacity transatlantic cable in 1956 and the launch of Sputnik in 1957 marked the beginnings of the era of global information exchange. In 1956, for the first time in history, the number of white-collar workers exceeded that of bluecollar workers (Naisbitt, 1984). The factor we would stress in this growth in TICs is not the increase in the amount, capacity, or inter-connectivity of technology in organizations. The strategic key lies in the organization’s ability to integrate these technologies into their current business processes, and also in their ability to reorganize the said processes (Orlikowski, 1999, p. 3). And this is what this book is all about. Content of This Book e-HRM: Managing Knowledge People responds to the challenge of documenting recognizable, innovative, and creative approaches to e-HRM. Its aim is to define and carry forward the debate in a complex and versatile matter. ix Future research will continue the process of clarifying and documenting the evolution of e-HRM. In the meantime, however, human resources management researchers, faculty, practitioners, and consultants may find the ideas and experiences offered in this book genuinely helpful and illuminating. This book is presented in four sections — the first intended to be more general in nature, the following three devoted to specific aspects of the HRM field in the new information era. Section I, The Cutting-Edge in HRM, presents an overview of how ITCs are modifying general HRM processes and functions. This is the aim of the first three contributions. In the first chapter, Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies: The Impact on HR, Jaap Paauwe, Elaine Farndale, and Roger Williams, based mostly on their personal experience, focus on how old economy organizations are developing new business models. These models are changing both customers’ and suppliers’ relationships with the organization and, of course, e-commerce strategy as a whole. With these new models being implemented, the potential implications for HRM need to be explored. The effects of Web-based organizing in HRM, including workers’ selection, training and development, learning, trust-building within an organization, and knowledge sharing, among others, are discussed. One relevant conclusion of their analysis is that “internal improvements, necessary for the successful transference of business to the Internet, will enable the HR function to justify its existence in financial terms.” Scott A. Davis and Robert F. Calderón, in their chapter Integrating Handheld Computer Technology into HR Research and Practice, present potential applications of handheld computers for HR practice and research. They anticipate major improvements and widespread implementation of wireless networks with resulting implications for worker mobility, availability, and communication. These factors will impact work planning, schedules, conducting meetings, organizational data sharing, and an optimum balance between work and life. Their model, which integrates empirical research and practical knowledge, will be useful for those researchers and practitioners eager to explore handheld computer technology applied to strategic HR planning and management. Mousumi Bhattacharya and Christopher L. Huntley’s chapter, Social Network Mapping Software: New Frontiers in HRM, discuss the connections between social network mapping software and the effectiveness of HRM programs. Their study is based upon research into social networks and the effects of these networks on both business processes and HRM. The authors clearly show the uses of information on social networks in HRM processes x and what information is generated by social network mapping software (SNMS). They classify the functionality offered by SNMS in the categories of data collection, descriptive modeling, and decision support. They also discuss how each of these functions provides information relevant to different HRM functions. Section II, Redesigning HR Administrative Processes, explains how some HRM functions, such as e-recruitment and developing appropriate systems for employee relationships, are being implemented in the knowledge era. As hiring qualified employees is a critical organizational decision in the knowledge-based economy, In Lee, in his chapter E-Recruiting: Categories and Analysis of Fortune 100 Career Web Sites, analyzes the corporate career Web sites of the Fortune 100 companies. He identifies 33 attributes that characterize corporate career Web sites and groups them into four major areas: recruiting methods, job search tools, job application tools, and information on organizational attributes. Knowing how other organizations are using Web sites to recruit their human capital is a first step towards finding breakthrough ideas for one’s own organization. In the next chapter, Employee Self-Service HR Portal Case Study: Access, Content, & Application, Andrew Stein and Paul Hawking examine the development of the human resources (HR) ESS portal. Without any doubt, the added value in this chapter consists of the case studies of three Australian organizations that have implemented an ESS portal. The authors show the information and process focus of these organizations’ ESS portals, which are used to place the organizations into Brosche’s (2002) portal development model. Focusing on the development of human resources, Constant D. Beugré’s chapter, Human Resource Portals and the Protean Career: A Three-Factor Model, develops a three-point model (individual attributes, characteristics of the human resource portals, and organizational factors) to describe the factors in the effective use of Web-based human resource services. On the basis of this model, he argues that the effective use of Web-based human resource services plays an important role in the management of the protean career. As organizations have started to recognize e-learning as having the power to transform the performance, knowledge, and skills landscape (Gunasekaran, McNeil, & Shaul, 2002, p. 44), Section III, E-Learning Strategies, concentrates on the e-training and e-learning world. Pamela D. Sherer and Timothy Shea, in their chapter Keeping Up with the Corporate University: Resources for HRM Faculty and Practitioners, dis- xi cuss the major factors that influence the growth and role of the corporate university within organizations: in terms of strategy and human resources, knowledge management, and technology and e-learning. They also include in their chapter an annotated compendium of key resources in each of these areas, especially Internet resources. These resources are a good starting point to begin digging deeper into this rapidly changing subject. E-Learning Strategies of Italian Companies, a chapter by Anna Comacchio and Annachiara Scapolan, is devoted to the empirical study of country-specific e-learning models, focusing on the e-learning experience of Italian companies in the pharmaceutical and banking industries. How are companies implementing e-learning? How are they analyzing the most important features of the e-learning strategies: users, contents, infrastructure, and service and support? The two cases presented will help the reader to answer these questions. Section IV, Managing IT and Organizational Changes, discusses the processes for achieving success when implementing IT solutions within organizations. In the chapter, Is Organizational e-Democracy Inevitable? The Impact of Information Technologies on Communication Effectiveness, Bernadette M. Watson, Gavin M. Schwarz, and Elizabeth Jones consider the relationships between social identity and e-democracy. They also discuss the inevitability of organizational e-democracy in organizations pursuing information technology changes. They investigate perceptions of changes in effective communication during the implementation of organizational change in a hospital. Their findings are discussed in terms of the implications that arise for HR practitioners. Finally, Joseph Logan, in his chapter Managing and Practicing OD in an IT Environment: A Structured Approach to Developing IT Project Teams, outlines a framework for improving success in IT projects by leveraging the organization development (OD) practitioner’s expertise in fostering cooperation and learning in teams. In the author’s opinion, failures in IT projects are caused by a lack of integration of OD and IT. In summary, this book’s content sets out to highlight the trends in theory and practice which are likely to influence human resource management practices in the IT era, to examine innovative e-HR strategies from a variety of empirical and theory-based perspectives, to provide insightful analysis, and to promote the discovery and dissemination of innovative theories and best practices. But there are important strategic HRM issues missing, such as, for example: e-work and teleworking, the development of new industrial relations xii models, managing the e-workforce in multinational organizations, e-ethics, or managing values and IT. Of course, some critical reflections on competencies and abilities should have been considered (i.e., IT competencies for an HR manager, e-leadership and e-team skills, e-facilitation and e-coaching, e-trust, or e-creativity — developing skills of creative application of IT on organizations). So, there is still a lot work to do! The Book’s Audience e-HRM: Managing Knowledge People presents insights gained by leading professionals from the practice, research, and consulting side of the e-HRM field. This book should be useful to a variety of constituencies who are interested in the interrelationships between human resources management and IT, including managers who treat their personnel as a key factor for organizational success, leaders wishing to develop the human side of their organizations, IT experts, human resources managers, researchers, consultants, and practitioners. Each audience may have different levels of interest in the theoretical concepts, practical experiences, and empirical data presented in this book. As we are exploring an evolving discipline, we assume that any of these readers will begin, but not complete, an exploration of the e-HRM new world. Enjoy the reading and enjoy the learning! References Brosche, C. (2002). Designing the corporate portal. Masters Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Gunasekaran, A., McNeil, R.D., & Shaul, D. (2002). E-learning: Research and applications. Industrial and Commercial Training, 34(2), 44-53. Junipier, D. (1996). Human resource and creativity. Work Study, 45(7), 1522. Naisbitt (1984). Megatrends. New York: Warner Bros. Orlikowski, W. (1999). The truth is not out there: An enacted view of the digital economy. Understanding the digital economy—Data, tools, and research. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. xiii Acknowledgments With gratitude, love, and respect we thank… Our publisher, Idea Group Inc., who supported this project and, of course, Jennifer Sundstrom, for her great job during the complex work of editing this book. Both our contributors and reviewers. The contents of this book were made possible because of contributors and the generous cooperation and valuable suggestions given by the reviewers. We are indebted to them for sharing their knowledge with us. All those working to expand and enhance scientific knowledge in the field of human resources management and IT, and who have contributed — and continue to do so — to the development of guidelines to achieve more efficient, effective management. And last but not least: To my beloved husband Jordi and my charming sons Arnau and Jordi, who have made my life a fascinating journey. (Teresa’s special thanks) To my wife, Mar, who has always supported me. (Mario’s special thanks) Teresa Torres-Coronas & Mario Arias-Oliva March 11, 2004 Section I The Cutting-Edge in HRM Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies 1 Chapter I Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies: The Impact on HR Jaap Paauwe, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Elaine Farndale, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Roger Williams, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands Abstract This chapter introduces the notion of how old-economy brick-and-mortar firms are adapting their HRM policies and practices and the roles of their HR departments in light of newly introduced Web-based business-tobusiness transaction practices. It argues that the Internet has introduced three new business models in old-economy companies: the Internet as a marketplace, the Internet as a supply chain integrator, and the Internet as Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. 2 Paauwe, Farndale, & Williams a catalyst for business model redefinition. These innovative ways of organizing are providing HR with opportunities to rise to new challenges and increase their added value to the firm. Introduction The so-called new economy has taken a beating over the past few years. The dot.coms have come — and many have gone again. Even the last great hope of the new revolutionary age, Enron, filed for bankruptcy. However, the phenomenon known as the Internet is not going to go away; it just keeps expanding. Slowly but surely more and more individuals and companies are coming to rely on it for doing business. Maybe the changes will be more gradual than originally predicted. But the changes are happening. The purpose of this chapter is to look at some of the possible consequences of these current developments for HR. The Internet can, of course, be used for different purposes. Through the use of e-mail and similar derivatives, it is a messaging medium par excellence. However, it is more than mere communication: it is also a medium for entertainment and information. Moreover, the Internet can be used as a medium for transactions, for buying and selling. Although all applications have implications for the utilization of an organization’s human resources, this chapter concentrates on the area likely to impinge closest on most organizations: the medium of transactions. The largest growth in transactions using the Internet has been in the area of transactions between businesses; the so-called business-to-business (B2B) sector. Since the end of the 1990s when global e-commerce was worth a little more than $150 billion (The Economist, February 26, 2000), the growth rate has slowed, but is still continuing strongly. Forrester (www.forrester.com), a respected research organization in the field, expects this sector to reach $7 trillion or 27% of total U.S. trade by 2006. It is hard to know how seriously to take such a dramatic prediction, but major growth in this area — despite the downturn both in the world economy in general and in Internet-related stocks in particular — seems inevitable. One particular area of growth in B2B transactions is taking place in oldeconomy firms. These companies are involved in transactions within the new economy in different ways. Firstly, they can invest in and even take over new Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies 3 economy companies. Secondly, they can start up their own subsidiaries to operate within the new economy. Thirdly, they can attempt to incorporate the new economy into their old-economy organization. It is this third area that is probably most interesting from the point of view of the utilization of human resources. This is because old-economy companies, which start up their own new economy companies, normally run them as separate entities. Clearly financial reasons play an important part in this decision, but so do organizational considerations. New economy companies may require a different organizational structure and culture than the parent company, and hence running new economy companies as separate entities minimizes any possible cross-contamination from the new to the old or vice versa. However, when old-economy companies attempt to integrate business-to-business e-commerce into their existing organization, solving the problems that arise can provide new challenges and opportunities in HRM. It is on this third way of organizing that this chapter concentrates. Because this B2B growth area is concentrated in old-economy companies that are the majority employers, it is likely to have a significant impact on HRM. Most HR professionals are still concentrated in these medium-sized and large, old-economy companies, and this is where the HR function is subject to radical and dramatic change because of the implications of Web-based organizing. The new economy start-ups, those still around, hardly use the HR function in spite of the proclaimed importance of their people to their success. This chapter therefore focuses on the consequences of Web-based B2B transactions in medium-sized and large, old-economy companies, and discusses the implications for HRM and HR professionals. However, before we begin our exploration, we will give an overview of the striking characteristics that distinguish Web-based transactions from more traditional transactions. We will then continue with a discussion of the different ways in which old-economy companies are attempting to integrate elements of Web-based organizing into their current business and the resultant implications for HRM. We must remark though that there is a lack of reliable information about this whole area. Most publications at the time of writing have been based more on personal experience than research and tend to focus on the same few companies that are often not only reorganizing to accommodate the new Internet economy, but are also intimately involved in selling equipment or services related to it. This chapter is therefore based on personal experience of working in the field, interviews with others more experienced than us, and a review of the available literature sources. Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. 4 Paauwe, Farndale, & Williams The Effect of the Internet on Business Transactions The Internet is having a major impact on business transactions because of the different opportunities it offers. A number of significant differences distinguish transactions using electronic markets from what has gone before. These include the opportunities for global sourcing and selling, mass-customization, and networking (Timmers, 1999). By lowering the costs of transactions and information, technology has reduced market frictions and provided a significant impetus to the process of broadening world markets (Greenspan, 2000). This means that considerations about where to locate become secondary, whereas price competition increases. Internet technologies also allow specification design and pricing online, which again increases price competition. This facilitates meeting customer needs, often through a network of multiple business partners able to deliver value more quickly and cheaply direct to the customer. Experts have argued that transactions using e-commerce come far closer to the economists’ ideal of perfect competition than transactions using traditional media, as barriers to entry are lowered, transaction costs are reduced, and buyers have improved access to information (see Shapiro & Varian, 1999; Wyckoff, 1997). There are three main responses to the developments in business-to-business transactions via the Internet being observed (Wright & Dyer, 2000): • • • E-commerce: buying and selling via the Internet; Supply chain integration: collaboration throughout the total value chain; and Fully integrated e-business: internal and external integration sharing real-time information (resulting in ‘bricks-and-clicks’ or ‘clicks-andmortar’ hybrid organizations). Wright and Dyer also identify a fourth derivative, enterprise resource planning (ERP), however this focuses on developing an intranet for internal integration within a firm, and less on relationships between businesses. Here we shall focus on the three B2B outcomes identified. Firstly, the Internet is seen as an extension of normal market channels for buying and selling. In this approach, companies primarily use the Internet in order to Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Web-Based Organizing in Traditional Brick-and-Mortar Companies 5 improve the quality and speed of customer service, and as a medium to buy and sell more products or services cheaper. Thus for every business, the Internet — at the very least — offers opportunities for reducing operating cost levels and enhancing service levels (Venkatraman, 2000). The second way in which old-economy companies attempt to integrate the new economy is by using the Internet to expand and improve their current collaborative relationships among their key suppliers; the Internet can encourage close integration between the partners through total value chain integration (Timmers, 1999), establishing virtual marketplaces within the supply chain primarily to reduce transaction costs. Finally, the third approach, which is much more fundamental, requires that oldeconomy organizations totally rethink their business models before deciding on their e-commerce and supply chain strategies. This approach requires management to re-examine why customers buy from them, look at all stages in the processes involved, and consider how the Internet could impact each stage of the processes. Then, if necessary, new business models can be developed to fully integrate the new economy principles. This implies organizational revolution. Alongside this rise in e-business, there is a lack of reliable data on the people issues arising from a move from a traditional brick-and-mortar business model to an e-business model. The changes however imply a need to learn to use these new technologies and to embrace a climate of constant change. Some specific outcomes might be a need to adopt more aggressive recruitment campaigns to attract the necessary technical staff when competing against the dynamic dot.coms. There may also be a resultant culture clash when the new ‘techies’ join the company on high salaries, compared with existing non-technical staff, which might lead to resentment and perceived unfair treatment. In a review of the potential implications, Wright and Dyer (2000) have suggested six broad HRM principles in response to the issues e-business is raising: 1. 2. The company should promote individual autonomy and personal accountability at all levels of the organization through the process of work design, to make the company more flexible to change. Shared organizational vision and values should be reinforced through HRM policies and practices, particularly recruitment and training, to maintain a sense of community in times of change. Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited.
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