Tài liệu Graduates returned to vietnam re-adaptation and re-integration

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Vietnam National University of Hanoi College of Social Sciences and Humanities PHAM NGOC YEN GRADUATES RETURNED TO VIETNAM: RE-ADAPTATION AND RE-INTEGRATION Graduation master thesis in Sociology Hanoi 2010 1 Vietnam National University of Hanoi College of Social Sciences and Humanities PHAM NGOC YEN GRADUATES RETURNED TO VIETNAM: RE-ADAPTATION AND RE-INTEGRATION Major: Sociology Code: 60.31.30 GRADUATION MASTER THESIS IN SOCIOLOGY Academic advisor: Asso.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Quy Thanh Hanoi 2010 2 Table of contents Acknowledgements................................................................................................. 5 Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................................................................ 6 1. 2. Rationale .................................................................................................................. 6 Research objectives and research questions ............................................................ 8 Chapter 2: Study design and methodology .......................................................... 9 1. 2. 3. 4. Study design ............................................................................................................. 9 Sampling and sample ............................................................................................. 10 Data collection ....................................................................................................... 11 Delimitation and limitations of the study............................................................... 13 4.1. Delimitation ....................................................................................................... 13 4.2. Limitations ......................................................................................................... 13 Chapter 3: Literature review .............................................................................. 15 Chapter 4: Theoretical perspective .................................................................... 19 1. 2. Definitions of core concepts .................................................................................. 19 Theoretical framework ........................................................................................... 22 Chapter 5: Findings - What we learn from experiences of foreign graduates returned to Vietnam............................................................................................. 29 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Advantages and challenges for returned graduates ................................................ 29 “Torn between two homes” – emotions and feelings of returners ......................... 31 Students abroad - Stranger at home ....................................................................... 36 Choosing the career –“Lets’ go and bring back” ................................................... 45 The question of change .......................................................................................... 50 Chapter 6: Discussion .......................................................................................... 59 1. 2. Challenges towards graduates returned to Vietnam............................................... 59 The answer for integration ..................................................................................... 66 Chapter 7: Conclusion and implications............................................................ 70 1. 2. Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 70 Implications............................................................................................................ 72 Reference............................................................................................................... 73 Annex 1: Questionnaire ....................................................................................... 76 3 List of tables and figures Chart 1: Advantages from external environemt to returned graduates ............................ 29 Chart 2: Personal advantages of returned graduates ...................................................... 30 Chart 3: Problems of returned graduates ......................................................................... 30 Chart 4: Issues related to families of returned graduates. ............................................... 37 Chart 5: Issues related to socio-culture of returned graduates. ....................................... 41 Chart 6: Issues related to work of returned graduates. .................................................... 46 Chart 7: Employers of returned graduates (who got a job) - Unit %............................... 49 Chart 8: Coping strategies expressed through activities .................................................. 51 Figure 1: U-Curve of cultural adjustment ........................................................................ 22 Figure 2: W-Curve of cultural adjustment....................................................................... 24 Figure 3: Coping strategy model ...................................................................................... 26 Table 1: Demographic characteristics of sample ............................................................. 10 Table 2: Influencing factors towards returners‟ problems during re-entry ..................... 31 4 Acknowledgements This study is very special to me because it was inspired by my own experience! I learned a lot during the time of conducting this study and writing this report. The first person I would like to express my sincere thanks and deep gratitude is my supervisor – Prof.Nguyen Quy Thanh. He was going along with me from the very start of the study. His belief, patience, care and his support always encouraged me to overcome my difficulties to finish this study. His broad and deep knowledge in various fields gave me inspiration, ideas and invisibly guided me to different interesting aspects of the topic that I focus on this thesis. By conducting this study, I had chance to meet and listen from a lot of admirable people. They are all excellent graduates from international education environment. Many of them have contributed their ideas to my study design. To students graduated from the US, I would love to thank them for sharing with me their experiences of their life which might include many optimistic viewpoints and many hurting stories. I admire their wills in life, their talent in study and their dreams. I believe that their contributions are uncountable to Vietnam’s development. This study was done and this thesis was written in a period of my transitional time, which is not only happy but also painful with so many events coming to my life. During that time, without the support from my dearest husband, my two families and close friends, I would give up and never go on with this study. Finally, I would spend this final line in the preface to say sorry for every mistake that I got in this study. I highly appreciate every comment of you! 5 Chapter 1: Introduction 1. Rationale Studying abroad has becoming familiar to almost everyone in Vietnam, especially people in big cities. Never before do we see so many students study abroad like these days! In 1970s and 1980s, only outstanding pupils and students can study abroad. At that time, they went to Russia and other Eastern Europe by scholarships. Nowadays, there is a wider range of countries, study programs and groups of people who can study abroad. The increase in the number of students studying abroad can be explained by the globalization trend in Vietnam. Chances for students to go abroad are plenty. Various Government, organizations, and schools are providing scholarships for students coming from low-income countries, including Vietnam, which gave excellent students opportunities to go on with the study despite their lack of money. The government of Vietnam has also provided scholarships to Vietnamese students to go abroad for a higher standard education through scholarship source named 322. On another side of the picture, Vietnam has developed relatively fast for the last ten years. The GDP per capita has reached over 1,000$, estimated to be 1,200$ at the end of 2010 (Website CPV, 2010). Many rich families invest in their children’s education, rather than other businesses. Given that going to university in Vietnam is so important, many families put all efforts to provide their children with best education environment and the degree that is considered to lead them to a better future. According to the annual report Open Doors 2009 of International Institute of Education (IIE), the number of Vietnamese students in American colleges and universities is estimated to reach 13,000. With the exact number of 12,893 students in the United State (US), Vietnam is one of the top 15 countries to have biggest number of students in the US. It has been a huge change, if we compare to 1,587 students studying in the US in 1998, and 6,036 in 2006. Counted to 2009, from 1998 to 2008, it is estimated to have 50,000 Vietnamese students going to the US to study. Most of them studied business administration, information 6 technology and natural sciences in California, West Virginia, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The US is one of the best choices because of the fame in qualified education and open lifestyle of the social environment that created big attraction to students (International Institute of Education, 2009). While discussion topics about their study, their life and their choices continue to be paid attention, little information about the process of integration of graduates has been discussed about. At the same time, in many forum of foreign students, when forum members discussed about the choice of staying in foreign countries or coming back to Vietnam, returned graduates and students studying in US have got ebulliently raised their ideas about life of coming back. Those stories have not got the agreed solution, but the choices are various based on individuals’ decisions and thoughts. Vietnamese context has been mentioned generally based on individuals’ own opinions and attitudes. Life of returned graduates has not been provided adequate information. Furthermore, the process of individuals’ active readaptation and reintegration was rarely mentioned. Those topics will be the focal points of this study. Topics related to re-adaptation and reintegration of returned graduates has been studied by many scholars. Previous international studies focused on describing and analyzing difficulties of returned graduates (Brabant et al., 1990, Adler, 1976, Gama and Pederson, 1977, Goodwin and Nacht, 1984, Klineberg and Hull, 1979, Brislin and Van Buren, 1986). Some studies only described various problems during re-entry process of returners, while some others analyzed environmental contexts and some demographic as independent factors influence the process of reintegration. Many studies explored the cultural shock of the re-acculturation process of returned graduates (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963, Denney and Eckert, 1987). In Vietnam, acculturation is also the topic that gained deep analysis in different studies in sociology, psychology and other social sciences. However, problems of returned graduates and the ways they deal with their situations is still new in Vietnam. Furthermore, by adding the role of agency in the ways returned 7 graduates deal with their problems, this study is to contribute to understand the complexity of re-adaptation and reintegration of this group. 2. Research objectives and research questions This study is conducted with the aim to understand the process of re-adaptation and reintegration of graduates coming back from foreign countries, their difficulties in that process and the methods they used to overcome them. Given that there were a lot of discussions about the choice of staying in Western countries or coming back to Vietnam, this study would add in one aspect of the whole story. These experiences will help students who are still in foreign countries to have a better view of life in Vietnam when/if they come back and prepare for it, so that they can overcome their difficulties easily and contribute more for the society. The study will focus to answer these following questions: - What are the advantages and challenges to graduates returned from the US to re-adapt when they come back to Vietnam? - What are social components to affect their advantages and challenges in adaptation to Vietnam when they come back? - How do graduates cope with their difficulties during their re-adaptation and reintegration process when they come back? 8 Chapter 2: Study design and methodology 1. Study design This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to answer the research questions. Three initial in-depth interviews with returned graduates were conducted as the first step for brainstorming. It was aimed to collect information about their life and their experiences when they came back to Vietnam. These interviews are complemented by discussions found in forums of students studying abroad and graduates. Based on their stories, a framework on their advantages, difficulties and causes of their problems were built. Afterward, scientific articles were reviewed and compared with findings of the initial interviews to get a new approach for the study. The survey was conducted with students reached through convenient and snow ball sample. The data on students going abroad is little and hard to access. I can only access to the list of students who have gone abroad by VEF scholarship and a list receiving scholarship of Population Council (which include students returned from different countries so filtering has to be done through telephone and e-mails). Thereafter, the selection of respondents is snow ball. This is helpful as graduates often join in their groups, especially when they have just come back from the US. Besides, the donors to provide scholarships also created chances for graduates to meet when possible, so that they can share their ideas about the study environment while graduates have other thousands of different purposes to join in those programs. Moreover, given that those two scholarships are only for students to gain master degree or PhD, snow ball was the only way we used to access students who study from BA level. The survey was conducted at the same time with more literature review, other indepth interviews, and observations. During this period, in-depth interviews were more focused into topics which have been chosen for the purpose of elaborating ideas given in the survey. In sum, quantitative and qualitative complemented each other during the study. Qualitative data was collected before the survey for 9 brainstorming and designing the study, and it was done after the survey to elaborate the findings. Data analysis was done through SPSS. 2. Sampling and sample The difficulty in defining the sample frame made it impossible to make the data collected in this study useful for generalizing the results. I used convenient sample by collecting list of returned graduates from several scholarship donors. Snow ball was used more frequently in reaching respondents In the initial proposal, I tried to find 200 students coming back from the US to conduct the study. However, during the process of finding these students, it was hard to have 200 students. I have sent out 175 questionnaires and received 128 back (73%). One of the most popular reasons is that they refused to response due to their busy schedule (as their statement). The refusal has its own characteristics: Male is more likely to answer the questionnaires. I also have more chance to work with returned students at the age of 1980s, than the younger or the older groups. My initial informants were taken from the list of people who received scholarships; therefore, I had more chances to work with master and PhD students who are easier to have scholarships. Many returners also confirmed that they returned because they finished PhD and they had no chances or no reasons to stay in the US. My sample can be described through gender and age as below: Table 1: Demographic characteristics of sample Characteristics N= 128 Gender Female 48 (37.5%) Male 80 (62.5%) Bachelor 27 (21.1%) Master 56 (43.75%) Degree 10 PhD 37 (28.9%) Others 8 (6.2%) Born in 1960s 14 (10.9%) Born in 1970s 45 (35.1%) Born in 1980s and 1990s 69 (54%) No scholarship (Self-covered) 53 (41.4%) Full scholarship 69 (54%) Partial scholarship 6 (4.7%) Age of going study <18 years old 8 (6.25%) abroad 18-23 years old 27 (21.1%) 23-30 years old 61 (47.65%) More than 30 years old 32 (25%) 12 – 24 months 20 (15.6%) 24 – 40 months 46 (35.9%) > 40 months 62 (48.43%) Age Scholarship Duration of study 3. Data collection Methods used in the study are as below:  Literature review with scientific papers, including books, article journals, workshop papers...  Review of forums and discussions of students who have been or being in foreign countries, especially US have been reviewed. Two main forums that were followed up are VietPhD.org and Vietabroader.org. Their ideas have helped in brainstorming the study, and elaborated the findings.  Survey by e-mails: 175 questionnaires have been sent to students returned from the US. When the survey is conducted through e-mails, telephone calls are used to remind respondents and follow up their answers. 3 calls for maximum will be conducted to follow up when questionnaires were not sent back. Reasons of denial to join in the study have been asked and can be seen as one finding of the findings (Please see more in Findings) 11  Observations: 5 home visits to respondents’ homes were conducted with a structured observation form filled in after the visits. Observations at the working environment and their working style were conducted but have free observation guide.  In-depth interview: 10 in-depth interviews were conducted. In most of the cases, interviews were conducted in chosen café where respondents feel comfortable to share their experiences and feelings. A few interviews were done at their homes, and they were more effective when both the husband and wife are students graduated from foreign countries (or the USA)  Forum discussion: I have posted a topic to one forum for students studying in US and returners from US to ask for their opinions about the integration and re-adaptation of returners. The topic is named “After graduation, coming back and then what?” in VietPhD.org. Thirty four members have followed the topic and 18 responses have been provided. I have contacted some of them for further discussions (shown in in-depth interviews) Analysis Quantitative data was analysed by SPSS software. In the survey, the Likert scale is used for respondents to evaluate the level of difficulties and the advantages that they have gained. In question 1, respondents are asked to assess their difficulties. The measurement from 0 to 4 is used for a list of problems (given that 0 is for the lowest level and 4 is the highest level) to understand more about the levels of seriousness of problems. 0 means “no problem”, 1 means “slight serious”, 2 means “average or no idea”, 3 means “serious” and 4 means “very serious”. Mean of the score will be calculated for further analysis on the seriousness of each problem and for each group of problems. 12 In question 2, respondents are asked to assess their advantages. The measurement from 0 to 4 is used for a list of advantages to assess the level of advantages in terms of quantity and quality. 0 means “not an advantage”, 1 means “slight advantage”, 2 means “average or no idea”, 3 means “big advantage” and 4 means “great advantage”. Also, mean of the score will be calculated to see what the biggest advantages of returned graduates through their assessment are. 4. Delimitation and limitations of the study 4.1. Delimitation This study only examined experiences of the USA’s graduates back to Vietnam in terms of re-adaptation and reintegration, and had no chance to compare the issues with graduates coming back from other countries. My respondents were limited to people who came back to Vietnam for the last 5 years and now staying in the home country. Experiences of graduates who came back to Vietnam and left again to foreign countries have not been included in the study. Therefore, the findings of the study will need to be accessed with consideration of the study delimitation. 4.2. Limitations The study consists into itself a lot of limitations due to the ability and resources of the researcher. Above all, the quantitative data used in this study is only to provide description of the issues, but the real meaning of statistical aspect. As I have mentioned above, I could hardly find the information source with data on students returned from the US. The process of surveying the questionnaires, we have seen a lot of rejection from participants. When my supporting data collector called, many of them have refused to join in the survey due to their busy schedule. Some of them may change their mind when I call, because of my personal relationship with some groups of graduates. Still, at the same time, they advised me to give up the study “because I have another better diploma already” This study only focused on the returned graduates, so many problems of returned graduates which were raised in the findings might also occur with several population groups but was not pointed out in this thesis. Therefore, the impact of 13 , studying abroad to advantages and problems of returners needs further analysis when there is comparison between a controlled group and group of returners are done. In this study, due to the limited resource and time, I did not provide that comparison for a better assessment to the impact of studying abroad to returners. Also, there are many other social factors which facilitate the problems of returners but were not measured in this study. I fully recognize these limitations of the study and hope that the study will be expanded in the future to cover them. The study might also have limitation due to my personal experiences in terms of studying abroad. I used to study abroad and have several ideas on the process of coming back to Vietnam. My integration experiences have partly influenced the ideas of some participants while I conducted the interviews, and also put a little guidance for my analysis. At the same time, as I have shown, the quantitative data is not qualified enough to be representative. I realized all of these limitations during the time I conducted the study. I have put efforts to enrich my data by my in-depth interviews and observations. I also tried to ignore my own feelings when I conducted interviews so that I can concentrate on respondents’ stories and provide objective evaluations. Although I hardly say that I was totally successful in getting rid of all the limitations in this study, I believe that this study can help other scholars to have a better view on cultural integration in an Asian society in Vietnam during the period of so much change, and also examine the idea of agency in a culture that highly appreciate the community characteristics. 14 Chapter 3: Literature review Re-entry One of the most famous approaches that emerged in this globalization context is called acculturation, in which culture is the core concept of the discussions. Nearly at the same time, another side of acculturation named re-acculturation was also raised as a significant topic to be studied in social sciences. If acculturation is one of the core concepts of anthropology, re-entry is another term which has the similar meaning that can be used in sociology. In fact, re-entry has been paid many attention from scholars from different perspectives and in different groups since 1980s, when a number of soldiers and missioners coming back to their country after fulfilling their tasks. Studies on re-entry has been developed since then, especially when globalization erupted in 1990s, with more focus on other mobile groups, such as corporate repatriates (Kihl, 1987), spouse/partner re-entry, students, missionaries, Peace Corp Volunteers, returning migrants... In Vietnam, scholars also described the re-entry process of migrants (Pham Xuan Dai, 1998), especially focusing on the problems of mobile workers (Le Phuong, 1998). Studies on re-entry of students after studying abroad stand the second position of the topic re-entry for all groups. Counted to 2010, Szkudlarek has seen more than 150 works including articles, book chapters, conference papers and other publications on the topic of re-entry but none of agreement was made in this study due to the complexity of the problem in different contexts, especially with students coming back home (Szkudlarek, 2010). It can be seen that students coming back from Europe has been paid less attention than from the US, and American students were studied much more than non US foreign student at a social interaction level (Brabant et al., 1990) Still, since 1990 to 2010, two famous scholars have confirmed that research on re-entry generally and about foreign students about their life after they come home has been given little attention, neglected or underestimated (Brabant et al., 1990, Szkudlarek, 2010). In Vietnam, this is still a new topic that has not been studied much. 15 Problems of returned graduates In one study done by Brabant and colleagues (Brabant et al., 1990), problems of returners were evaluated as not much serious. Nonetheless, most studies proved that the readjustment back home is likely to be even more difficult than going abroad in the first place (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963, Brislin and Pederson, 1976, Adler, 1976). Gama and Pederson (1977) even proved that there was less conflict and problems related to family life than professional problems. (Noted that this conclusion is applied in a study with only 30 students, therefore it has little statistical meaning). Problems related to work such as adaptation of new skills to the local scene have been described in several studies (Gama and Pederson, 1977, Goodwin and Nacht, 1984, Klineberg and Hull, 1979). Problems with family and friends have also been noted by some researchers (Brislin and Van Buren, 1986). Scholars divided problems that returners have by different categories, but dividing into family and professional problems is the most popular category. Coming back home, returners may find themselves with different values, expectations and behaviours which make them different from people around, that lead them to the need of changing for reintegration. (Gullahorn and Gullahorn, 1963) A great majority of them mentioned double standards of morality (Gama and Pederson, 1977) to make them confused, which was called “Torn between two cultures” (Denney and Eckert, 1987). These are the same problems with some other groups in the society, though the expressions can be different. In spite of general acceptance of term (re)culture shock for students coming back from foreign countries, the definition of the phenomenon is not consistent in the literature. While Adler (1981) called culture shock as a process of adaptation, Oberg (1960) defined it as a failure to adapt or adjust to a new life. Most studies on re-entry crisis focus mainly on the identification of the problems sojourners experience after they return home (Gama and Pederson, 1977) but paid little concern on how intense or serious returners feel those problems. Another 16 weakness of studies when they showed problems of returners is that they do not compare this group with other groups, that means their conclusions are lack of supportive data to state that it is the problem of returner or it is just a general one coming from any other source. Factors influence the re-adaptation of returned graduates Both objective and subjective factors can affect the process of re-entry. Some people can have more problems or their problems might be more complicated while the others might get the opposite situations. In individual level, background variables have been examined, such as age, academic level, gender, social class, nationality, and previous cross-cultural experience of returners have been examined. From the perspective of host culture, variables influence graduates could be location and duration of sojourn, degree of interaction with host culture (Szkudlarek, 2010). The size and characteristics of the communities are also seen as a factor contributing to graduates returned to their countries. Coping strategies Little but important, coping strategies of students to their re-acculturation challenges has raised more concerns. In 1974, a re-entry/transition workshop focusing on re-adaptation has been organized in order to develop “guidelines and recommendations for ways to assist foreign students in the United States to return and fulfil needed roles in their countries of origin” (Marsh, 1975). This workshop gained little achievement for its goal but care for the needs of solutions has been raised. Unluckily, until now, none specific solutions have been publicized. Gama and Pederson (1977) has tried to fill in the gap by measuring coping skills used to deal with the problems experienced according to the returners’ own perception of coping adequately. Coping strategies can be changing attitude or behaviours, for example be patience, tolerance, disregard of norms or it can be trying to implement changes or building a support system… 17 Literatures have concluded that research investigate the phenomenon of re-entry should be deepened further from various perspective, so that we can apply that knowledge to discover effective coping strategies to be used by sojourners in the re-entry transition (Martin, 1984). This has to be emphasized by one more thing, “International students are not a homogeneous category with similar characteristics and potential problems. Potential problems vary by both region of countries where they come from and countries where they study” (Brabant et al., 1990). In sum, there are a lot of international articles mentioning about the process of acculturation to a new culture, and the re-entry and re-acculturation of returners. Nonetheless, re-entry is still a potential topic for researchers in many fields including sociology. It can be seen that most previous studies focused on the problems of re-entry but not the process of learning and re-adapt to the society of returners. Although theories have been developed, the coping strategies expressed through activities in daily life has not been paid adequate attention. At the same time, the topic is very new in Vietnam, especially for returned graduates. By this study, I would like to contribute to fill in the gap of knowledge about this group in Vietnam, and also to add the aspect of returners’ active coping strategies to the topic about re-entry. 18 Chapter 4: Theoretical perspective 1. 1.1. Definitions of core concepts Returners Students coming back to their countries after studying abroad can be called by many terms, and none research have confirmed which term is the best one, or the full meaning of the word they used. Noted that the lack of a consensus term for this group is also a missing part in studies of this field, the groups that I chose to study was called by “sojourner”, “returner”, “expatriate” “returnee”… In this study, I often call the group of graduates who came back from foreigner countries as “returners” but it does not imply any differences with the word sojourner or returnee. My target group is the people who have studied in the US at least one year. Therefore, it is not counted for people who have just come to the US for the short training course, meetings… My group of respondents includes only people who have come back to Vietnam and now staying in Vietnam. People who have come back to Vietnam and returned to the US were not reached in this study. This has to be noted as they might be a group who has more problems with re-entry. 1.2. Re-entry As pointed out above, re-entry is a sociological term which is often considered to have the same meaning with “re-acculturation”. A popular definition for re-entry is to describe the disoriented feeling towards the home culture and self as a student/traveller returns from another culture excited to share about their experience and encounters repeated indifference to their experiences (Friesen, 2004). In my study, the term re-entry does not illustrate the “culture shock”, and furthermore, does not only focus on difference in culture as a difficulty for returners. I use Nancy Adler’s definition on re-entry for this study. According to 19 Nancy Adler, re-entry is “the transition into one’s home culture after having lived and worked abroad” (Adler, 1976). During that process, they may, or may not have critical attitudes towards the home culture and general emotional withdrawal from interpersonal relationships, which would last from many months to a lifetime (Martin and Harrell, 1996). Reverse culture shock often happens during the re-entry process. Culture shock is a well-known concept to imply the broad range of emotions which occurs when one is absent from the familiar structure of one’s own culture (Brislin and Yoshida, 1994). Fewer people will be familiar with the experience of reverse culture shock, re-entry shock or re-entry-transition stress. These terms refer to the often unanticipated range of emotions and transitional difficulties experienced by sojourners upon returning to their home country. While intercultural returners fully expect and anticipate some difficulties in their cultural adaptation; it is uncommon for them to expect difficulty in reentering their home culture (Cushner and Brislin, 1996, Arthur, 2003) 1.3. Re-adaptation/ Reintegration Adaptation gets the full meaning of the process in which one person adapts with the new conditions. Re-adaptation therefore is used for people who have left an environment for a period of time and now come back to it. This term was wellknown for many studies for immigrants, especially refugees when they come back to their own countries. In studies for refugees, re-adaptation is used to indicate the long process of learning about the society and changing to fit the society. Therefore, it implies the process by which people undergo change in form and/or function in response to change in themselves and their environment. The process might start from facing with differences, recognizing and understanding the differences and then changing themselves to fit with the demand of the society. As graduates returned from studying abroad often have shorter time in other countries, and still get connections with their home country, this term has not been used that much. Recently, this term is more often used in natural sciences than in 20
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