Tài liệu Full Kiến Thức Hóa Học 12 (261 trang - tải về không bị lỗi font chữ)

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Tham gia: 31/07/2016

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www.tuhoc.edu.vn 1 – —C—OR', O VD1: CH3COOCH3, HCOOCH3, CH3OCO–COOCH3. RCOOR' O R—C—O—R' RCOOH + R'OH ↽ H ,to ⇀ RCOOR' + H2O (1) Este no. (2) Este không no. • • • VD2: nH2nO2. 1 A) CH3COOH. C) HCOOCH3. B) CH2(COOH)2. D) CH2=CH–CH2OH. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 1 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 2 A) HCOOH. C) (COOCH3)2. 3 B) (COOH)2. D) HCOOC2H5. không A) CH3COOCH2CH3. C) HCOOCH3. 4 B) CH3COCH3. D) C6H5COOCH3. không A) CH3OOCCH3. C) HOOCCH3. B) HCOOCH3. D) CH2=CHCOOCH3. O 5 O 3–C–O–CH2CH2–O–C–CH3 A) CH3COOCH2OOCCH3. C) CH3COOCH2COCH3. là B) CH3COOCH2CH2OOCCH3. D) CH3COOCH2CH2COCH3. O 6 3–O–C–C2H5 A) CH3OCOC2H5. C) C2H5COOCH3. B) CH3OOCC2H5. D) A) CH3COOCH3. C) (COOCH3)2. B) (COOH)2. D) (CH2CHO)2. 7 8 2=CHCOOCH3 A) B) C) D) 3OOC–COOCH3 là este A) B) C) D) htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 2 www.tuhoc.edu.vn A 3COO–CH2CH2–OCOCH3 A) B) C) D) B A) CnH2nO2 (n 2). C) CnH2n–2O2 (n 3). B) CnH2nO (n D) CnH2n+2O2 (n A) CnH2n–2O2 (n C) CnH2n–2O4 (n B) CnH2n–4O4 (n 2). D) CnH2nO4 (n 3) 1). C 2). 4). D A) B) C) D) E 4H8O2 A) 5. B) 2. C) 4. F TOPPER. Chú ý là D) 6. 5H10O2 A) 4. B) 6. C) 8. là D) 9. A) 2. B) 3. C) 4. D) 8. A) 5. B) 2. C) 4. D) 6. G H I 2 htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog A) HCOOC2H5 và CH3COOCH3. B) C2H3COOC2H5 và C2H5COOC2H5. C) C2H5COOCH3 và HCOOCH(CH3)2. D) HCOOCH2CH2CH3 và CH3COOC2H5. 3 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 2 Danh pháp RCOOH RCOO + H+ VD3: Ion CH3COO là fomat; ion CH2=CHCOO là acrylat. VD4: CH3COO—CH3 axetat metyl axetat. metyl HCOO—CH=CH2 fomat vinyl fomat. vinyl J là A) fomic. C) benzoat. K B) axetat. D) fomat. 6H5COO là A) benzoic. C) benzoat. TOPPER. Chú ý B) stiren. D) axetat. L CH2=C(CH3)-COOH là axit metacrylic. 2=C(CH3)COO là B) benzoat. D) metacrylat. A) acrylat. C) fomat. M (a) HCOOCH3. (c) CH2=C(CH3)COOC2H5. (e) C6H5COOCH3. 2=CH-CH2- (b) CH2=CHCOOCH3. (d) CH3COOCH=CH2. (f) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2. là anlyl 6H 56H5CH2- htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog N 3OCO–COOCH3 A) C) O (a) etyl fomat. (c) phenyl axetat. (e) benzyl acrylat. là B) D) (b) vinyl axetat. (d) anlyl axetat. 4 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 3 ancol, phenol, axit cacboxylic. — TOPPER. Chú ý • RCOOR' + H2O ↽ • RCOOR' + NaOH H ,to ⇀ RCOOH + R'OH. to RCOONa + R'OH. 4 O LiAlH4 R—C—O—R' và ancol. VD5: CH3COOCH3 LiAlH4 to CH3CH2OH + CH3OH. P H ,to ⇀ (a) CH3COOC2H5 + H2O ↽ to (b) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH (c) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2 + NaOH to (d) (COOCH3)2 + NaOH to (e) (CH2OCOCH3)2 + NaOH Q (a) RCH2OH + R'OH. to to O CH2–O–C–CH3 + H2 O ↽ H ,to ⇀ CH2–O–C–CH=CH2 O (b) O O CH3O–C–CH=CH–C–OCH3 + NaOH to htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 5 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 3 Nhóm –COOH 2O CO2 H2 Không Nhóm –COO– Không R 4H8O2 ancol là A) 2. B) 3. C) 6. D) 4. B) 2. C) 4. D) 1. S C4H8O2 A) 3. T 2H4O2 A) 2. 3 B) 5. C) 4. U D) 3. 4H8O2 A) 2. B) 3. C) 4. D) 5. V X (C5H10O2) + NaOH Y + HCl T T + Ag2O/NH3 Z H2SO4 (®Æc) 180 oC to (NH4)2CO3 + Ag. but–2–en + H2O. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 6 www.tuhoc.edu.vn • H ,to 2O ↽ ⇀ Axit + Ancol A là ancol, B là axit. • axit không 3OH + CO W xt to CH3COOH. 4H8O2 A) metanol. C) axit fomic. B) etyl axetat. D) etanol. X X và Y (MX < MY A) metyl propionat. C) etyl axetat. Y B) metyl axetat. D) vinyl axetat. 6H10O4 A) CH3OCO–CH2–COOC2H5. B) C2H5OCO–COOCH3. C) CH3OCO–COOCH3. D) CH3OCO–CH2CH2–COOC2H5. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 7 www.tuhoc.edu.vn TOPPER. Chú ý VD6: CH3COOCH=CH2 + NaOH CH2=CH ↽ ⇀ CH3CH=O CH3COONa + CH2=CH–OH H—O Z (a) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2 + NaOH (b) HCOOCH=CH2 + NaOH (c) HCOOCH=CHCH3 + NaOH (d) HCOOC(CH3)=CH2 + NaOH a Cho các este sau: etyl fomat (1); vinyl axetat (2); metyl acrylat (3); ra ancol là A) 1, 2, 3. C) 2, 3, 4. B) 1, 3, 4. D) 1, 2, 4. b sinh ra ancol là A) 1. B) 2. C) 3. D) 4. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 8 www.tuhoc.edu.vn • TH1: • TH2: 1). 2) c 4H6O2 A) 4. B) 3. C) 5. D) 6. d 4H6O2 A) HCOOCH=CHCH3. C) HCOOC(CH3)=CH2. B) HCOOCH2CH=CH2. D) CH3COOCH=CH2. e 3 2 3 A) HCOOCH=CH2. C) HCOOCH3. B) CH3COOCH=CH2. D) CH3COOCH=CHCH3. f Este X (C4HnO2) A) CH3COOCH2CH3. C) CH3COOCH=CH2. NaOH to Y AgNO3 NH3 ,to Z NaOH to C2H3O2Na. ã cho là B) CH2=CHCOOCH3. D) HCOOCH2CH2CH3. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 9 www.tuhoc.edu.vn R' O hay RCOOC6H4R' R—C—O— • —O trong este to RCOO–C6H4R' + NaOH RCOONa + R'C6H4OH. • R'C6H4OH + NaOH nNaOH neste R'C6H4ONa + H2O. 2 nNaOH neste • 2 • VD7: CH3COOC6H5 + NaOH CH3COONa + C6H5OH C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O CH3COOC6H5 + 2NaOH CH3COONa + C6H5ONa + H2O. g (a) HCOOC6H5 + NaOH (b) CH3COO(p–C6H4–CH3) + NaOH TOPPER. Chú ý h X NaOH (d−) to Y A) axit axetic, phenol. B) anhiđrit axetic, phenol. C) anhiđrit axetic, natri phenolat. D) axit axetic, natri phenolat. 2O. i htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog Phenyl axetat 9H10O2. A) CH3COOCH2C6H5. C) C6H5COOC2H5. Cho X tác B) HCOOC6H4C2H5. D) C2H5COOC6H5. 10 www.tuhoc.edu.vn j +H2O/HgSO4, to (4) C2H2 H2 /Pd,PbCO3 ,to (1) A H2O/H ,to (2) CuO,to (3) B C Br2 ,H2O (5) D +O2 (6) NaOH,to (8) B+F E +B/H+, to (7) +NaOH, to (9) A–F k AgNO3 /NH3 ,to (2) B C Vinyl axetat +NaOH, to (1) H ( 4) A Etyl axetat C +NaOH, to (4) D O2 /men giÊm (5) C A – D. l A Vinyl fomat H (2) C AgNO3 /NH3 ,to (3) (NH4)2CO3 +NaOH, to (1) B AgNO3 /NH3 ,to (3) D A – D. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 11 www.tuhoc.edu.vn Câu 1 C Câu H C Câu X A 2 D I A Y A 3 B J D 4 C K C Z a B 5 B L D b D 6 D M c A 7 C N d C 8 B O e B 9 D P f C A C Q g D B A R D h C C C S C i D D C T C j E C U A k F D V G C W M (a) metyl fomat. (c) etyl metacrylat. (e) metyl benzoat. B l B (b) metyl acrylat. (d) vinyl axetat. (f) anlyl axetat. O (a) HCOOC2H5. (b) CH3COOCH=CH2. (c) CH3COOC6H5. (d) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2. (e) CH2=CHCOOCH2C6H5. P (a) CH3COOC2H5 + H2O ↽ H ,to (b) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH to ⇀ CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COONa + C2H5OH (c) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2 + NaOH (d) (COOCH3)2 + 2NaOH htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog to (e) (CH2OCOCH3)2 + 2NaOH to CH3COONa + CH2=CHCH2OH (COONa)2 + 2CH3OH to (CH2OH)2 + 2CH3COONa 12 www.tuhoc.edu.vn Q O CH2–O–C–CH3 CH2–OH (a) + 2H2O ↽ H ,to ⇀ CH2–O–C–CH=CH2 CH3COOH + CH2–OH CH2=CHCOOH O O O (b) CH3O–C–CH=CH–C–OCH3 + NaOH to NaOOC CH=CH COONa + 2CH3OH V X = HCOOCH(CH3)CH2CH3 Z = CH3CH2CHOHCH3 Y = HCOONa T = HCOOH Z (a) CH3COOCH2CH=CH2 + NaOH CH3COONa + CH2=CHCH2OH (b) HCOOCH=CH2 + NaOH HCOONa + CH3CHO (c) HCOOCH=CHCH3 + NaOH HCOONa + CH3CH2CHO (d) HCOOC(CH3)=CH2 + NaOH HCOONa + (CH3)2CO g (a) HCOOC6H5 + 2NaOH HCOONa + C6H5ONa + H2O (b) CH3COO(p–C6H4–CH3) + 2NaOH CH3 3 6H4 j A: C2H4. B: C2H5OH. E: CH3COOC2H5. (1) C2H2 + H2 Pd/PbCO3 , to (2) C2H4 + H2O (3) C2H5OH + CuO (4) C2H2 + H2O C: CH3CHO. F: CH3COONa. H , to C2H5OH t o HgSO 4 , to men giÊm (7) CH3COOH + C2H5OH htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog D: CH3COOH. C2H4 (5) CH3CHO + Br2 + H2O (6) C2H5OH + O2 2O CH3CHO + Cu + H2O CH3CHO CH3COOH + HBr CH3COOH + H2O H , to CH3COOC2H5 + H2O CH3COONa + C2H5OH (8) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH (9) CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O 13 www.tuhoc.edu.vn k A: CH3COONa. C: CH3COOH. B: CH3CHO. D: C2H5OH. l A: HCOONa. C: HCOOH. B: CH3CHO. D: CH3COOH. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 14 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 1 2 RCOOR' + NaOH RCOONa + R'OH. nRCOOH nR 'OH nRCOONa VD1: X + NaOH X là este. nRCOOH nR 'OH RCOONa + R'OH. 8 50 100 nRCOONa 0,1 (mol) 40 MRCOONa MR 'OH MR 29 MR ' 15 9, 6 96 0,1 3, 2 32 0,1 R là C2H5 (etyl), R' là CH3 (metyl). 2H5COOCH3. 1 4 A) HCOOCH2CH2CH3. C) CH3COOC2H5. B) C2H5COOCH3. D) HCOOCH(CH3)2. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 1 www.tuhoc.edu.vn 2 A) C2H5COOCH3. C) CH3COOC2H5. B) C2H5COOC2H5. D) HCOOC3H7. A) CH3CH2COOCH3. C) CH3COOCH=CH2. B) CH2=CHCOOCH3. D) CH3COOC2H5. A) 8,56 gam. C) 10,4 gam. B) 3,28 gam. D) 8,2 gam. 3 TOPPER. Chú ý 4 5 2H4O2. A) 3,6. B) 3,4. C) 4,1. 6 D) 4,3. 4 A) CH2=CHCH2COOCH3. C) CH3COOCH=CHCH3. Cho 3,0 gam X tác là 6,25. Cho 20 gam X tác B) CH2=CHCOOCH2CH3. D) CH3CH2COOCH=CH2. 7 Cho 8,8 gam este E (C4H8O2 A) propyl fomat. C) metyl propionat. B) etyl axetat. D) isopropyl fomat. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 2 www.tuhoc.edu.vn • TH1: • TH2: 8 A) CH3COOCH3 và CH3COOC2H5. B) C2H5COOCH3 và C2H5COOC2H5. C) CH3COOC2H5 và CH3COOC3H7. D) HCOOCH3 và HCOOC3H7. A) CH3COOCH3 và CH3COOC2H5. B) C2H5COOCH3 và C2H5COOC2H5. C) CH3COOC2H5 và CH3COOC3H7. D) HCOOC2H5 và HCOOC3H7. A A) 21 gam. C) 17,6 gam. B htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog B) 22 gam. D) 18,5 gam. đơn A) C2H5COOC2H5 và C3H7COOCH3. B) C2H5COOCH3 và CH3COOC2H5. C) HCOOC4H9 và CH3COOC3H7. D) CH3COOC2H5 và HCOOC3H7. 3 www.tuhoc.edu.vn C CH3COOCH3 A) 400 ml. C) 150 ml. B) 300 ml. D) 200 ml. A) 60 ml. C) 600 ml. B) 300 ml. D) 120 ml. 2H5 và 2H5 và D E CH3COOCH3 2SO4 A) 4,05. B) 8,10. C) 18,00. o D) 16,20. F 2SO4 A) 12,6. B) 6,3. C) 11,2. D) 5,6. G 4H8O2 oC. 2SO4 A) 1,8. B) 1,6. C) 3,6. Sau khi các D) 2,7. htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 4 www.tuhoc.edu.vn R(COOR')a + aNaOH R(COONa)a + aR'OH. (RCOO)bR' + bNaOH bRCOONa + R'(OH)b. nNaOH . neste VD2: 100 nNaOH 24 100 40 nNaOH neste 0, 6 (mol) (RCOO)3 R (RCOO)3 R + 3NaOH nRCOONa nNaOH 0, 6 (mol) 3 R to 3RCOONa + R'(OH)3 MRCOONa 43, 6 0, 6 72, 67 MR 5, 67 1 2 MR 2MR1 MR2 3 5, 67 2MR1 MR2 17 R1 và R2 3COOH. H A) RCOOR'. C) (RCOOR')2. B) (RCOO)2R'. D) R(COOR')2. A) RCOOR'. C) (RCOOR')2. B) (RCOO)2R'. D) R(COOR')2. I htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog 5 www.tuhoc.edu.vn J A) (COOCH3)2. C) (CH2OCOC2H5)2. B) (CH2OCOCH3)2. D) CH2(CH2OCOCH3)2. K 2 A) (COOCH3)2. C) CH2(COOC2H5)2. B) (COOC2H5)2. D) (CH2COOC2H5)2. L 6H10O4 A) CH3OCO–CH2–COOC2H5. B) C2H5OCO–COOCH3. C) CH3OCO–COOC3H7. D) CH3OCO–CH2CH2–COOC2H5. M 4H6O4 C4H6O4 + 2NaOH A) C) 2Z + Y B) D) N ì l A) 17,5. B) 14,5. C) 15,5. D) 16,5. O htttp://tuhoc.edu.vn/blog A) 132 gam. C) 146 gam. B) 118 gam. D) 90 gam. 6
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