Tài liệu Factorsaffectingwork motivation of the lectures of universities in hanoi

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universities. CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Specific objectives: - Review all theories related to work motivation, based on that identify the reasonableness of justice theory and theory on characteristics of jobs as studying work motivation of lecturers; - Build new study model with factors affecting work motivation of lecturers from the view of organizational justice and job characteristics. - Test the proposed model with data collected from lecturers in universities in Hanoi; - Propose solutions and recommendations to managers in universities in Hanoi, and policy makers for next studies. 1.1 Rationale Education, especially higher education plays a vital role in any countries. Lecturers, hence, have big impact on quality of training in particular and quality of labor force in general. Lectrures with high qualification as passion for their work will have positive impact on quality of training. It is necessary to create work motivation for lectrures. One of many factors affecting work motivation of lecturers identified is organizational justice. In Vietnam, almost every people pay attention to justice and fight for it because it is realized that justice has a profound impact on attitude and behavior of labours, including lecturers (Greenberg, 1993). Justice will lead to positive behavior such as commitment, satisfaction and belief in managers (Alexander and Ruderman, 1987). In constrast, injustice will lead to ineffectiveness in work such as frequent absence, even ethical breach (Skarlicki, Folger, and Tesluk, 1999). Organizational justice has positive impact on work motivation of labours (Adams, 1965). Lectrures are people who are intellectual and sensitive to organizational justice. Rather than other jobs in society, it is essential to create the best conditions for lectrures to take their important roles for the society. There are not many studies about organizational justice as well as its effects on lecturers’ work motivation, especially in Vietnam. Therefore, in this thesis, the author aims to exploit more about work motivation of lecturers and then propose some solutions to enhance their work motivation. The thesis has been conducted in Hanoi, one of two economic – cultural – political centers of Vietnam. Moreover, Hanoi is the largest centre of education in Vietnam with a variety of reputable and ancient universities. In addition, almost every lecture in these universities comes from various pronvinces in the North of Vietnam, which creates the variety in custome, culture, habits and lifestyle in comparison with lectureres in other areas. Hence, the conduct of this study in Hanoi will be more consistent. With these above analysis, it can be said that the study “Factors affecting work motivation of lectrures of universities in Hanoi” is essential and useful. 1.3 New contributions of the thesis 1.3.1 New contributions in academic theory - The thesis has provied the appropriateness of the application of justice theory in evaluating the effects of organizational justice on work motivation of lecturers, which is a new contribution compared with prior study, especially in the context of Vietnam nowadays. - The thesis has built a new research model and tested this model in the context of universities in Hanoi. The results have shown that job characteristics and some justice aspects in organization such as justice of direct leaders, justice of students’ feedbacks, and justice in income distribution have positive impact on work motivation of lecturers. - The thesis was developed for variable scale "justice in treating attitudes and social assessment for teacher job" and proved that this scale is highly reliable and consistent with the research context of the thesis. - The thesis has conducted additional qualitative research after having quantitative research results in order to clarify, specificly explain and has made some findings on the relationship between the justice aspects in organization and work motivation of lectrures. The combination of many different approaches when studying on sensitive social and economic issues with difficulty in measure such as justice in the organization and work motivation increase the comprehensiveness, reliability and depth of the conclusions from the research. 1.3.2 New contributions in practice 1.2 Objectives General objective: The general objective of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of job characteristics and justice on work motivation of lectureres in Hanoi - The study has shown the view of lecturers about justice in universities in Hanoi now. In addition, the study has also demonstrated the attitudes and 1 2 behaviors of lectrures have effects on this issue; - The author has proposed some suggestions for managers in universities in recruitment, which requires to recruit lectrures who prove to have passion for their careers, love for students because these characteristics are nesscesary to create work motivation for lecturers, then reach the effectiveness; - Manageres should reconsider the appointment for managers at department level; because the qualification and ethics have big impact on the treatment and their decisions, which affects work motivation of lecturers. - The study has also proposed some suggestions for edcuational policy makers as reviewing some current regulations such as awards, and promotion for lecturers. CHAPTER 2: BASIS THEORY ABOUT WORK MOTIVATION OF LABOURERS Nowadays, justice theory has been studied and developed by many different authors including the Greenberg (1990, 1993, 1994, 1996); Konovsky and colleagues (1991, 1994, 1995, 1996); Lind and colleagues (1990, 1992, 1997, 1998). The justice concept in the organization shows the staffs’ feelings about how they are treated fairly in the organization and how this feeling affects the result of the work of organization such as the commitment and satisfaction (Greenberg, 1996; Coetzee, 2004; Memarzadeh and Mahmoudi, 2009). Previously, the justice in the organization refers to the employee's perception about suitable allocation, equal salary and bonus level in the organization. Nowadays, many studies have shown that employees are more interested in high positions, working conditions and good working environment ... The justice in organization are understood more broadly that are expressed through management decisions making the laborers feel reasonable, fair, clear and unbiased (Greenberg, 1994, 1996, 2005); Konovsky and colleagues (1995, 1996); Lee (2007). 2.1 Definition and roles of work motivation According to Stee & Porter (1983), work motivation is the desire and willingness of the employees to strengthen their efforts towards achieving organizational targets; is the impulse, consistency and persistence in the work process. Roles of justice in organization The justice theory in the organization applied in many fields of organizational management in 1960s, 1970s. One of the first studies on the justice issue in organizations is Adams (1963, 1965); Adams and Freedman (1976). There are many reasons why justice theory is so important for both employees and organizations. In individual level, justice will satisfy individuals’ needs for control, confidence, happiness and ethical obligation. In organizational level, justice will provide a legal framework for management, which helps reduce fraud risks, enhance belief in management, decrease fear of abuse and encourage collaboration (Colquitt, Greenberg, & Zapata-Phelan, 2005). There are some aspects of justice theory directly related to organizations’ outcomes such as employees’ behaviors (Mooman, 1991), commitment, satisfaction with work, and belief in managerial level (Alexander & Ruderman, 1987; Folger & Konovsky, 1989; McFarlin & Sweeney, 1992), work performance, review of managers (Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, et al. 2001). In contrast, inequal treatments will lead to frauds such as stealth (Greenberg, 1990), furrniture destroy, intention to quit job and other unethical activities (Ambrose et al., 2002; Greenberg, 1997; Greenberg & Lind, 2000; Henle, 2005). Recent studies has identified that organizational justice has impact on physical and mental health of employees. Injustice in organization is able to result in intensiveness or work pressure (Judge and Colquitt, 2004). Through some decades, theory on organizational justice has developed from one – dimensional justice in distribution to two – dimensional jutice in distribution and process, then to three – dimensional justice in distribution, process and exchange, and to the final achievement which is justice in distribution, process, individual exchange (behavior) and information (four 3 4 Mitchell and his colleagues (1997) also agreed with this definition. They thought that the motivation is a process showing strengths, determination and persistence in individual’s efforts towards achieving the target. Pinder (1998) has pointed out more clearly that work motivation is a set of outside and inside factors leading to behaviors related to establishing, orienting the form and timeframe and action intensity. This definition focuses on the influence of external factors (eg. the nature of work, the reward system of the organization) and congenital factors of an individual (eg.people’s intention and people’s need) to working related action. In this study, the author used the definition of motivation of Stee & Porter (1983). This concept has been used in studies of Wright (2004), Saleem and et al. (2010). 2.2 Justice theory dimensions). Theory on organizational justice has been now more popular and popular and applied widely in practice and research. Among many theoretical models, the model of “Sense of Justice” has been studied and applied most. This model metions three following aspects: In short, procedural justice includes these following aspects (1): the procedure in which employees have a voice and have chances to make contribution; (2) the procedure in which explainations with sufficient and reliable information are provided to stakeholders; (3) the procedure which show its respectiveness over people affected. Distributive justice Interactional justice Distributive justice shows that people want to be treated (receive benefits) equally in benefit distributions resulted from work results. Employees intend to perceive what the get from a job situation (salary levels, bonus, and recognition) and what they put into it (efforts, experience, knowledge, competence) and then compare the outcome – input ratio with others. If they perceive a ratio equal to others, state of justice will exist. Otherwise, justice tension will appear. Adams (1976) has proposed that there are two opposite states: as employees think that they are treated unfairly with others (underwarded), the tension will appear immediately; but if they are overwarded, they feel guilty. Obviously, tension resulted from being underwarded and overwarded creates motivation for employees to do something to correct it. Hence, the feeling of unjustice normally leads to the demand for changing to correct mistakes or improve. Empoyees nomarlly have demand for justice in communication and behaviour with their managers. As being treated unfairly (at least in their own points of view), it may lead to retaliation (backbiting towards managers), based on studies of Skarlicki, D.P và Folger, (1997). Employees normally intend to link between behaviours of managers and information as well as decisions in work provided by them (Cropanzano et al., 2002). If employees think that there is injustice in behaviours of managers, they alsol think that those managers provide information as well as make decisions unequally. Procedural Justice Procedure refers to principals, policies, order and procedures used to determine organizational outcomes. Procedural justice focuses on transparency, objectivity, equality and consistency with ethics in conducting a work procedure (performance reiview, election or renumeration procedure). People take much interest in procedure because they belive that equal procedure will bring equal benefits, allow them to contribute their ideas, help them satisfy some needs such as self – recognition and feel being treated fairly. As a result, procedural justice relates to perception of justice, affecting employees’ attitudes and behaviours. Researchers show that how employees are paid salary and other benefits is more important than those employers pay them. Hence, procedural justice is one of issues received most concern. There are two factors in procedural justice which are process control and explainations. Process control refers to the chance the employees have to express their ideas towards expected outcomes with decision makers. Explainations are clear and fair reasons that managers present for employees’ outcomes. Therefore, to make sure that employees consider the procedure true and fair, they need to have control over final outcomes and know thoroughly the reasons for them. The important thing here is that the managers must be consistent and uniformed (with everyone and everytim), unbiased and give decisions based on reliable information and open to any requests (Leventhal, 1980). 5 The model of “Perception of Justice” has been applied widely in organizational studies such as renumeration payment, recognization or appointment (Folger và Konovsky, 1989; Colquitt, Greenberg and Zapata-Phelan, 2005). 2.3 Job Characteristics Theory of Hackman and Oldham Hackman and Oldham (1980) developed the model of job characteristics. This model describes five core dimensions of any jobs. Two authors indicated that if managers are able to manage the jobs as the model, it can create motivation for employees to work. This model provides a guide for managers in designing the job assignment. The authors describe the state in which employees try their best to work because this job brings satisfaction to them. They indicate that job characteristics have big impact on individual responses to work. There are five job dimensions Hackman and Oldham studies as followings: (1) Skill variety: the degree to which a job creates conditions for employees to use and develop their a number of different skills. If employees can devote for a job which help them enhance their skills and knowledge, they will feel satisfied more with the jobs and work for them harder. (2) Task identity: the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and piece of work. It is expected that the job should be desgined to help the employees see specific tasks as well as visible outcomes, which motivates the employees to work harder. 6 (3) Task significance: the degree to which the job has a profound impact on the lives of other people and the community. (4) Autonomy: the degree to which the jobs provide freedom, independence and discretion for employees to carry out the work. Employees are more responsible for the jobs if they are provided with autonomy. (5) Feedback: the degree to which the jobs provides employees with direct and clear evaluation about his or her performance. Together with above characteristics, Hackman and Oldham (1980) indicated that feedbacks or performance review play important roles in making employees satisfied and commited more to the jobs. Theory of Hackman and Oldham has been recognized and supported widely. The theory is assessed to be more specific than that of Herberzg about internal factors creating motivation in work. It has been applied widely in many studies on work motivation and almost every result has shown that job characteristics have big impact on work motivation of employees. motivation of teachers. H7b: Justice in teacher evaluation process of students has positive impact on work motivation of teachers. H8: Justice in the attitudes and social assessment has positive impact on work motivation of teachers. Job characteristics Control variable: - Gender - Age - Working seniority - Position - Type of university Justice in income Justice in recognition Justice in opportunities for promotion CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH ASSUMPTION After reviewing of research on the factors affecting work motivation of lecturers, the researches in fair perspective and work motivation of the authors in the world and in Vietnam, and through the author’s qualitative results, the author has developed original research model (Figure 3.1) and the following assumptions: H1: Job characteristics have a positive impact on work motivation of teachers. H2a: Justice in income result has positive impact on work motivation of teachers. H2b: Justice in income distribution process makes positive impact on work motivation of teachers. H3: Justice in recognition has positive impact on work motivation of teachers H4: Justice in opportunities for promotion have positive impact on work motivation of teachers H5: Justice in colleagues’relationships have positive impact on work motivation of teachers. H6: Justice in direct leadership has positive impact on work motivation of teachers H7a: Justice in the attitude of students has positive impact on work 7 Justice in colleagues’relation -ships Work motivation of lectrures Justice in direct leadership Justice in the attitude and evaluation of students Justice in the attitudes and social assessment for teacher job Figure 3.1: Research model of the thesis 8 CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODS 4.1. Research design Reseach process has been conducted as described in the table 4.1 below: Table 4.1: Research process No Method Samples Experts: 02 1 Objective Date Explore factors affecting work motivation of lecturers; examine the appropriateness of justice theory and proposed research models. The received answers help to understand Initial qualitative and assure proposed theoretical models Managers : 02 research (in-depth before starting the study. interviews) Lecturer: 8 4/2014 Find out, inspect, identify lecturers’ perception of justice in their working faculty and its impact on their work motivation. Assess the reliability of the scale; adjust some appropriate words. 2 Preliminary quantitative study (via questionnaires) 3 Feedback on the questionnaire in order to Formal quantitative understand the factors affecting the work research (through 500 lecturers 6-9/2014 motivation of lecturers. questionnaires) 4 Additional qualitative research (in-depth interviews) 50 lecturers Lecturers:6 Find out the answers to better explain quantitative research findings. 5/2014 10/2014 (Source: Author) Initial qualitative research and additional qualitative research have been conducted by in-depth interviews with different groups. The interview were taken place independently at home or at workplace of the interviewees in about 60 minutes for each. Technical method applied is observation and discussion. Quantitative research (preliminary and formal) have been conducted by sending hard versions and online versions of questionnaires to lecturers of the university in Hanoi. After collecting enough questionnaires as requested, the author has 9 carried out the process of data cleansing, coding the required information in the questionnaire, recording data and analyzing data using software SPSS version 20 . The questions of qualitative and quantitative research have been built based on theories and a number of previous studies. Official quantitative research results have been conducted as the following: Firstly: Statistics of the data collected by comparing the frequency among different groups regarding variables. Secondly: Assess the reliability of the scale To ensure the reliability of the scale, the author has chosen scales assuring that Cronbach Alpha coefficients ≥ 0.65 and total variable correlations> 0.3. Thirdly: Inspect scales’ values by exploratory factor analysis method = EFA. In this study, these variables have load factor coefficients below 0.5 will be eliminated to ensure the completeness of scale. Factor extraction method is the method of extracting the principal components and factor rotation method is Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Breakpoint is applied when the "Initial eigenvalues"> 1. Fourth: After having the results of factor analysis, two factors have been separated to explain for 4 other factors which are renamed. Therefore, the author has conducted the reliability of the scale’s test again using Cronbach'Alpha coefficient. Fifth: Correlation analysis and multiple regression The scale ensures reliability and high adhesion (through factor analysis) have been taken to consider the correlation and regression analysis to test the research model and attached hypotheses. After having conclusion of the linear relationship between variables, the author performed modeling this relationship by multiple linear regression. Linear regression models were run and test with significance level = 0.1. Research have been conducted multiple regression by stepwise selection. Results of regression analysis showed that many assumptions have not fully supported, there are some conclusions inconsistent with the initial hypothesis and some earlier studies. Therefore, the author has conducted additional qualitative research to find out the answer and explanation to better understand the results of formal quantitative research. 4.1.1 The process of questionaire development The questionnaire was built as the followings: (1) Determine the theoretical concepts of variables and measures of the variables in theoretical models based on studies carried out previously. (2) Build theVietnamese version of the questionnaire by translating scales 10 from English to Vietnamese. (3) Translate the Vietnamese version into English one for comparison (author had compared her translations with qualified people), then edit the Vietnamese version. (4) The Vietnamese questionnaires were given to 8 lecturers at public and non-public universities for reviews, comments to ensure there is no misunderstanding about the language and content of the questions. The results from this have been used to modify the question to be more clear. (5) Adjust the original questionnaire and sent to 50 lecturers in the way of direct version and online version to test the reliability of the scale. (6) Form a formal questionnaire to survey a large scale with 500 lecturers. 4.1.2 Scales used in the thesis Scales are used in the research are summarized in the following table: Table 4.2: List of variables and scale’s source No Variables (aspects) Scale’s source 1 Work motivation of lecturers 2 Features of work 3 The justice of results: income, recognition, promotion opportunities and justice in the allocation of work, benefit distribution of direct managers. The justice of lecturers regarding behavior attitudes of colleagues, of direct managers and students The justice in income distribution process, work’s result recognition, staffs appointment and process in which direct managers make management decision relating to lecturers The justice in social attitudes and assessment for vocational teachers 4 5 6 Adapted from Stee & Porter’s scale (1983) Adapted fromHackman và Oldham’s scale (1980) Adapted from Colquitt và colleagues ‘scale (2001) Adapted from Niehoff và Mooman’s scale (1993) Adapted from Levethal and colleagues’ scale (1980) Author (based on the theory proposed by Tyler (1994) and Tyler and Lind (1992). (Source: Author) 4.2.2. Sample selection Initial quantitative study was carried out by conducting the in-depth interiview with two lecturers from National Economics Unviversity, two managers of two departments of University of Labour and Social Affairs and Phuong Dong University, eight lecturers of six other universities (four public universities specializing in economics, technology, social affairs and agriculture, two private universities specializing in economics, business administration and technology). Additional quantitative study was also conducted by interviewing six lecturers from four universities (including two private ones). These universities have a variety of departments specializing in economics, technology and social affairs. Some lecturers attended the initial interview. In terms of qualitative study, due to difficulty in accessing and getting sufficient list of study objects, the author has combined two methods including convenient sample selection and snowball sampling (snowball sampling is a method in which the next objects will be found based on the clues of existing objects) to assure the object size of a minimum of 345 lecturers. Initial quantitative study was conducted by interviewing 50 lecturers directly and online at three universities. The results of this study were used to evaluate the confidence level of scales, then adjusting the questionare before applying widely. In the official quantitative study, the author has segmented the population into groups based on different faculties. The study had been carried out with attendance of lecturers with different backgrounds, from economics, technology, social affairs to culture and art. In each university, the author asks for support from 20 – 30 lecturers, and then asks them to get more feedbacks from their acquaintances. Besides, the author also collectes survey online via email in over 20 universities. Direct and online surveys all assure the quantity of lecturers with a variety of universities, gender, age, years of experience and positions. Due to low response from online survey, the author had to send email and make phone call, besides expand the number of university to make sure the required responses. The time of survey completion is over three months (from June to September 2014). The number of useful surveys collected is 395/500 surveys (79%), in which the number of direct surveys collected is 172 (43.5%), the number of online surveys is 223 (56.5%); female attendants are 264 people (62.3%); male staffs are 147 (37.7%); 95 lecturers from private universities. 4.2 Research samples 4.2.1. The overall research objects The overall research objects of the thesis are lecturers of universities in Hanoi including who are working in public and non-public universities in Hanoi. 11 12 CHAPTER 5: STUDY RESULTS ABOUT FACTORS AFFECTING WORK MOTIVATION OF LECTURERS AT UNIVERSITIES IN HANOI 5.1 Results of initial quantitative study The results of initial quantitative study have shown that the study model is very useful. The application of justice theory in evaluating factors affecting work motivation of lecturers in terms of organizational justice is so practical. Furthermore, through quantitative study, the author corrected and changed structure of questionares, some words and meanings of scales. This is demonstrated in the thesis (Appendix 1.3). 5.2 Results of preliminary quantitative study The results of the preliminary quantitative study with 50 lecturers have shown that almost every scale is reliable (Cronbach Alpha > 0.65). Through responses of participants, the author also corrected and changed some contents of the questionare, specifically: To reach the most reliable results as evaluating work motivation of lecturers, in the scale, the variable “work motivation” is placed after the general information; and three more items are added to test the accuracy of responses which are ĐL7, ĐL8, ĐL9.These items are built based on the theory proposed by Mitchell et al. (1997). 5.3 The results of official quantitative study (1) 1st analysis results of confidence level of scales: the coefficient Cronbach’s Anpha indicated that almost every scales showed high confidence level. Three items of “work motivation” ĐL7, ĐL8, ĐL9 which were rejected due to insufficient confidence level. (2) Results of Exploratary Factor (EFA): The author conducted to analyzed factors two times, specifically as follows: Table 5.1: Results of Exploratary Factor Analysis - EFA Average PVariables Factor EFA KMO Index Variance Result value extracted Loading Extracted 1st Work 0.889 0.000 64.868 1 0.889 Meet time motivation requirements for analysis Independent 0.953 0.000 71.439 10 All >0.8 Omit three variables items 2nd Independent 0.953 0.000 73.063 10 All >0.8 Meet time variables requirements for analysis The second analysis results have shown that the factor “”justice in income” has been separated into two factors naming “justice in income distribution” and “justice in income result”; the factor “justice in attitude and feedback of students” has been divided into two others “Justice in evaluation process” and “justice in attitude and behavior of students”. Two items of scale for variable “job characteristics” and a items of scale for variable “justice in income” are not reliable enough, hence rejected from study model, while other scales are resonable with high confidence level. (3) The findings on analytical reliability of the scales for the 2nd time After grouping and naming the factors resulting from factor analysis. The author assessed the reliability of the extracted scales to make sure the new scales were obtained with satisfactory reliability. Cronbach' Anpha’s results showed that the scales are ensured reliably (> 0.8). (4) The findings of correlation analysis of variables in the model The author implemented the correlation and multicollinearity test. The results showed that the variables correlated quite closely together, but did not discover the phenomenal multicollinearity between variables (the tolerable value of the variable- Tolerance and the magnification variance-VIF were reached acceptably (Appendix 9 of the thesis). Table 5.3 below shows the relative relationship of the variables in the model. (5) Test the studied hypothesis Based on the above conclusion, all independent variables correlate quite closely with each other, which leads to the difficulty in evaluating the impact degree of influence of each variable on the dependent variable “work motivation” if putting all these variables into the same regression model (Hoang Trong and Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc, 2008, page 249). As a result, the author considered the impact of each separate variable on the dependent variable “work motivation” by running the regression model with each variable and control variable. Finally, the author ran the regression model with all independent variables, control variables and the dependent variable “work motivation” to make comparison. The Table 5.3 below demonstrates the results of regression analysis on factors affecting work motivation of lecturers. (Source : Collected data of author) 13 14 Table 5.3: Mean, standard deviation and coefficient correlation of variables in the model Mean Standard deviation 1 2 3 1. Woking motivation 3.9511 .62382 2. Job characteristics 3.9936 .58645 .626** 3. Justice in income distribution 3.3850 .70056 .375** .382** ** ** 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 5.4: Results of regression analysis on factors affecting work motivation of lecturers 11 Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 β β β β β β -.120** -.077+ -.106* -.093+ -.111* -.115* Age -.025 .031 .020 .003 -.029 -.025 Qualification level .027 .025 .039 .038 .049 .058 Work position .007 .013 .014 -.006 -.018 -.003 .027 .054 .083 + .096+ .071+ .070+ .089+ .053 1 1 Control variables 1 ** Gender 4. Justice in income result 2.9790 .65875 .254 5. Justice in recognization 3.3751 .66883 .285** .273** .590** .540** 6. Justice in promotion opportunity 3.3692 .72478 .339** .267** .512** .431** .693** 7. Justice in colleague relationship 3.7033 .55843 .428** .439** .431** .313** .558** 8. Justice of direct leaders 3.5906 .69754 .427** .333** .424** .346** .572** .730** .670** 9. Justice of students’ attitude 3.9376 .56703 .418** .443** .269** .207** .312** .294** .507** .397** 10. Justice of students’ feedback 3.3297 .76220 .254** .258** .348** .399** .426** .397** .370** .413** .446** 11. Justice of the society’s attitude and evaluation 3.7090 .56964 .462** .483** .418** .399** .466** .470** .611** .535** .596** .254 .620 1 1 1 .608** 1 1 1 Years of experience .067 + .069 Type of universities .004 .038 Independent variables 1 Job characteristics .460** (Source : Collected data of author) N=395, significance level- sig (two tailed)=0.01 + 1 .638*** .389*** Justice in income process .272*** Justice in income result .305*** Justice in recognization 15 .378*** Justice in promotion .451*** Justice in colleague relationship R2 hiệu chỉnh F .407 39.101 .146 *** 10.506 .070 *** 5.211 .089 *** 6.413 .134 *** 9.613 .197 *** 14.619*** N=395, +p< 0.1, *p=< 0.05, **p=< 0.01, ***p=< 0.001 (Source: Collected data from author) 16 Table 5.4: Results of regression analysis on factors affecting work motivation of lecturers (continued) Variables Model 7 Model 8 Model 9 Model 10 Model 11 β β β β β -.111* -.114* -.124** -.117** -.120*** Age .006 .041 .001 -.023 Qualification level .021 .049 .038 .076+ Work position .028 -.013 .046 -.001 Years of experience .098 * .032 .042 .067+ Type of universities .075+ -.005 .067+ .049 Control variables Gender .110** Independent variables .495*** Job characteristics Justice in income process .082 + Justice in income result Justice in recognization Justice in promotion Justice in colleague relationship Justice of direct leaders .213*** .459*** .097* .429*** Justice of students’ attitude .279*** Justice of students’ feedback .477*** Justice of the society’s attitude and evaluation Adjusted R2 .201 19.949 F .179 *** 13.124 .073 *** 5.365 .225 *** 17.153 .481 *** 60.362*** Changed R2 .011 Changed F 8.521** towards lecturers have been ranked highest, while justice in income has been ranked lowest. Models from 1 to 10 consider each factor separately and its impact on work motivation of lecturers. The order of these factors has been presented below: (1): Job characteristics (β= 0.638***) (2): Justice in attitude and feedback of the society towards lecturers (β= 0.477***) (3): Justice of direct managers (β= 0.459***) (4): Justice in relationship with colleagues (β= 0.451***) (5): Justice in attitude and behavior of students (β= 0.429***) (6): Justice in income process (β= 0.389***) (7): Justice in promotion opportunity (β= 0.378***) (8): Justice in recognition (β= 0.305***) (9): Justice in evaluation process of students (β= 0.279***) (10): Justice in income results (β= 0.272***) The 11th model assessed the impact of all the independent variables and controllable variable as well as work motivation of teachers. The results showed that the factor "job description", "Justice in the distribution of income", "Justice in direct leadership", "Justice in treatment of students" have great impacts on "Work motivation”. “The findings indicated that "Job description" as the most important factor as it changed R Square value most. F value changed with corresponding levels showed that significant independent variables and controllable variables in the model 11 have statistical impacts on the dependent factor "work motivation". The results also showed that there is a difference about work motivations related to gender, seniority, types of schools and qualification. In the overall model (model No. 11), work motivation is differed by gender and seniority. Analytical results showed no significant differences in the work motivation teachers based on personal characteristics such as age, education level and job position. From the analysis above, we see the hypothesis H1, H2b, H6 and H7a are fully supported, the remaining hypothesis is supported partially. (6) Review the relevance of the model N=395, +p< 0.1, *p=< 0.05, **p=< 0.01, ***p=< 0.001 (Source: Collected data from author) Based on the above results, it can be said that work motivation of lecturers in Hanoi is quite high (based on One-Sample T-test applied with total study population). Job characteristics and justice in students’ attitude and evaluation R2 adjusted results (Table 5.3) shows the developed linear regression models were consistent with the data set. Moreover, the tolerable value of the variable (Tolenrance) and the magnification variance (Variance Inflation Factor-VIF) in the models showed no phenomenal multicollinearity in the data set. In addition, 17 18 the T-test results also showed that the variables are linearly related to the dependent "work motivation". F statistic (with p-value <0.001), indicates the models are significant. Hence, we can say the newly built linear regression model is relevant. Figure 5.1 below shows this relationship. Job characteristics Control variables - Gender (- 0.120**) - Years of experience (0.110**) 0.495*** CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSIONS ABOUT RESEARCH RESULT AND RECOMMENDATIONS PROPOSED IN THE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION Justice of direct leaders 0.213*** Work motivation of lecturers Justice in income distribution Justice of students’ attitude *p =<0.05, 0.082 This comparison has shown the consistency in conclusions that the author conducted and tested, which helps to assure these factors affecting work motivation of lectrures as follows: (1) Job characteristics; (2) Justice in attitude and feedback of the society towards lecturers; (3) Justice of direct leaderhip; (4) Justice in relationship with colleagues; (5) Justice in attitude and behavior of students; (6) Justice in income process; (7) Justice in promotion; (8) Justice in recognition; (9) Justice in feedback process of students with lecturers; (10) Justice in income results. In which, there are four factors which is useful in the overall model: Job characteristics, Justice of direct leadership, Justice in attitude and behavior of students , Justice in income process . + 0.097* ***p =<0.001 (Source: Collected data from author) Figure 5.1: Model of factors affecting work motivation of lecturers 5.4 Additional quantitative study on factors affecting work motivation of lecturers at universities in Hanoi The results of additional quantitative study on factors affecting work motivation of lecturers at universities in Hanoi have explained and shown more clearly about quantitative results, providing overview picture about justice issue at universities in Hanoi. The results have shown that lecturers who have high qualifications possess higher internal work motivation, demands for justice in recognition and promotion, besides that, their motivation is not affected profoundly by organizational justice. Furthermore, additional quantitative study also indicates that each lecture will have their own perception about justice in organization, leading to difference in work motivation of each person. The author also compares the results of the additional quantitative study with the study of Vietnam Education Fund (2006, 2014) and studies of foreign authors. 19 6.1 Discussions about research result The study result showed that the application of justice theory is consistent with the objectives and research context of the thesis. The factors such as job characteristics, the justice of direct leadership, and the justice in treating attitude of students and justice in income distribution process impact meaningfully and positively to working motivation of lecturers in assessing model on the overall impact of many factors. This result is consistent with the qualitative research result which is implemented by the author afterwards as well as the survey result of the Vietnam Education Fund (2006, 2014). This is one of the new findings in comparison with previous studies. Thus the research model on the factors affecting work motivation of lecturers from the fair perspective and job characteristics is a new research model in the context of specific study of the education sector in Vietnam. However, unlike the results of other researches such as the research of Carr and colleagues (1996), Stringer and Didham (2011), the justice in the distribution of income has stronger impaction work motivation of employees than justice in earnings results (in case of the universities in Hanoi). The building, testing and regression analysis showed that factor named justice in attitudes and social assessment for teachers strongly impact on work motivation of lecturers (when analyzing separately the impact of this factor). This is a new finding in comparison with many other studies in which research subject is teacher and the context of research has teacher respect culture as Vietnamese country. The results of interview section (in qualitative research) clearly explain more clearly about organizational justice aspect. The results show multidimensional and comprehensive appreciation about many justice issues in the organization. However, as concluded in the study of Robbins and Judge (2011), the teachers who belong to research subjects also have different views 20 about the justice aspect in the organization. Therefore, the impact of these justice aspects to their work motivation is very different. The research results also clarify some issues: The impact level of factors under fair perspective on work motivation of lecturers also shows the attitudes and the behavior of teachers to their jobs and universities. This could see the lack of adherence between many teachers and their universities. The study results also showed that the low efficiency of the current policies and regulations in many universities in Hanoi area such as recognition and officers appointing policy. This conclusion is similar to the survey result of the Vietnam Education Fund and the leading American professor (2014). The difference in work motivation between male teachers and female teachers may explain the imbalance in working performance issues in the universities in Hanoi at present. 6.2 Some suggestions for educational managers 6.2.1 Recommendations for the universities in Hanoi - The managers in the universities in Hanoi should do some tasks as follows: (1) designing suitable job, always giving the lecturers the opportunity to express creativity and contribute more in professional skills through receiving proposals and practical projects; (2) creating conditions for lecturers to develop professional skills and career skills through knowledge sharing activities which were initiated and organized in environmental department. - The universities should ensure the selection and appointment of department officer who must have sufficient ability and ethics in management because this could affect the justice of treating attitudes and their management decision to lecturers. - To have the intrinsic work motivation, teachers must be enthusiastic people and be interested in their job. Therefore, the first important thing is that the managers of the universities need to recruit candidates with professional qualities in the recruitment and screening step. This will significantly contribute to improve the quality of education. level), early salary increase regulation and the regulation on increasing salary level, the appointment of staff regulation to ensure fair working environment for teachers, thus to promote their work motivation. 6.3 Some limitations of the research and directions for further research 6.3.1 Some limitations of the research - The difficulties in collecting survey forms were a sample size limitation. The author did not reach the lecturers of some sectors, i.e., architecture, construction and other specific sectors such as police, security and medicine. This makes the thesis lack of opinions which are representative for the teachers of these sectors. - The motivation of teachers in this research was only evaluated from only a source. The research results will be more objective and comprehensive if there are more comments from students and managers of the universities in Hanoi. - This research reflects only the work motivation of teachers in a point of time. There is no assessment of this matter at different times to see clearly the nature of the impact of job characteristics and fair aspects in organization to work motivation of teachers. 6.3.2 Some orientations for further research - Expanding the scope of research focusing on the staff of some specific careers such as Security, Police, Medicine & Pharmacy in order to investigate and perceive the impact of justice aspects in organization and their professional ethics behaviour. - Designing the survey form to evaluate the effect of job characteristics and the justice aspects in organization to work motivation of teachers from various sources. Definitely, this will reflect more precisely and objectively about the teachers’ enthusiasm. - Continuously researching about the impact on the justice aspects in organization to work motivation of teachers such as the loyalty with organization and the responsibility with their career and students… 6.2.2 Recommendations to the institutions and educational managers - To attract and maintain the highly qualified teachers, the educational management authorities should implement a fair remuneration policy in order that the teachers are really dedicated to their job, especially the teachers in the fisrt stage of jobs. - Ministry of Education and Training and the governing body should consider implementing policies such as emulation and commendation regulation (particularly the provisions on Emulation Fighter recognition in the grassroots 21 22 CONCLUSION Lectrures play important roles in the training quality. Hence, with the aim of studying factors affecting work motivation of lectrures in universities in Hanoi, the thesis has introduced new model and tested it in the universities in Hanoi. The results show that characteristics of job and some aspects related to organizational justice such as justice of direct higher levels, justice in students’ behavior, etc have positive impact on work motivation of lectrures. The thesis is conducted in four steps including qualitative study, preliminary quantitative study, official quantitative study and additional qualitative study. The study results demonstrated in Chapter 5 has shown that justice theory applied to evaluate justice aspects in organizations is reasonable. The premilinary and official quantitative studies have indicated that the selected scales have high reliability and correlation as giving explaination for variables in the model. The study has shown that four hypothesis H1, H2b, H6, H7a are totally supported while six remaining ones are partly agreed. Therefore, work motivation of lectrures are profoundly affected by characteristics of job and other justice aspects such as justice of direct leaders, justice in attitude and evaluation of the society to the work, justice in attitude behavior of students, justice in income distribution, justice in recognization, justice in promotion opportunities, justice in students’ feedbacks, and justice in income. Work motivation shows the differences between female and male lectrures, among lectrures with different working experiences and between lectrures at puplic universities and private ones. The additional quantitative study has shown a deep picture about justice in universities in Hanoi. This result has helped explained more clearly about quantitative study, given the reasons for difference in effects of various factors on work motivation of lectrures. This result also helps managers in universities see all justice in the universities in Hanoi nowday and understand lectrures’attitude towards justice, as well as their behaviors and attitude towards their jobs. Based on the study result mentioned above, the author proposes some suggestions to help managers in universities and policy makers understand more about justice in universities in Hanoi, as well as effectiveness of some policies for lectrures such as rewards, recognization or appointment. The thesis also suggests some new studies based on adjusting some weaknesses of this thesis, as follows: next studies can extend study scope with study objects including officers from security, or medicine fields to understand, more thoughly about justice’s effects on organization and unethical behaviors. The thesis also is a foundation for next researchers to carry out more studies about organizational justice’s effects on work motivation of lectrures such as the commitment with organization, and responsibility for their works and students. 23
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