Tài liệu Factors affecting customer behavior in mobile banking services in hanoi, vietnam

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Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam Southern Luzon State University Republic of the Philippines FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF MOBILE BANKING SERVICES IN HANOI, VIETNAM A RESEARCH PROPOSAL PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE SCHOOL SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY, PHILIPPINES THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY, S.R. VIETNAM IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Name: VU MANH CUONG English Name: CAMERON Adviser Dr. Nelly Mendoza (Southern Luzon State University) HANOI, 2013   ABSTRACT Mobile banking services have become the objective and inevitable trend during the international economic integration more and more deeper in Vietnam. The development of mobile banking services has brought significant benefits to customers as a convenient, fast and accurate of the transaction. At the same time it also opens up new development opportunities for the telecommunications providers, application and software developers, e-commerce merchants and bankers in Vietnam. The main purposes of research to investigate the key factors and assess the level of the influence of these factors that impact to the consumer's behavior in the use of the mobile banking services in Hanoi by extending the renowned framework of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The survey have conducted in 9 districts of Hanoi Capital including Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, Dong Da, Hai Ba Trung, Cau Giay, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan, Hoang Mai and Long Bien with 800 respondents, in which 717 useable responses. There are 52% of respondents are female, 71% are living in center area, and 72.5% are working in business and state areas. The research tools used Likert scale introduced by Rennis Likert. Five components of parameters were used to focus on the aspects of usefulness, ease of use, cost, risks and trust of the mobile banking services in Hanoi. The dissertation used Cronbach's Alpha to analyze the reliability of scale, exploratory factor analysis to extract the factors, and regression analysis to analyze and test the hypothesis and factors affecting the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi. ANOVA analysis was used to determine the difference between the demographic characteristics and the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi. The results of analysis indicated that in six factors studied, there are five factors actually affect the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi area including perceived usefulness, perceived easy of use, perceived risk of social and safety, perceived risk of performance and finance, and trust of customers with statistically significant at 1% level. The remaining factor "perceived cost" had no significant relationship with the use of mobile banking services. The coefficient R2 adjusted = 0.331 showed that the explanation level of the impact of independent variables on the dependent variable reached 33.1%, the ii   statistical value F = 71.832 was significant level at 1% (Sig. = .000), the multiple regression assumptions were satisfied, the model was suitable to the study. The main findings of the research included: (1) There is not enough evident to conclude the difference of the use of mobile banking services between central and suburban living areas, between male and female, between level of education, between income and between occupation for the customers in Hanoi. (2) Most consumers in Hanoi use the mobile banking services to check bank account and transfer money. In particular, the purpose of checking account is largest up to 77.5%. The other purposes such as pay for monthly bills, pay for shopping, money savings are modest. The rate of money savings purpose is only 34.6%. (3) The major customer use the mobile banking services are people living in urban areas, where people have a high awareness levels, accounted 71%. Female use mobile banking services is higher than male, the rate of female accounted 52%. Young people below the age of 35 represent a high proportion (76%) on the use of mobile banking services. (4) The most consumers use mobile banking services is high education. The customer with education level of university accounted a high percentage (73.4%). The customers working in business or state organizations are main group of these services in Hanoi area (72.5%). (5) The dissertation indicated that in six factors studied, there are five factors affecting the use of mobile banking services with statistically significant at 1% level, including (i) "trust of consumers" on the services has a greatest positive influence, (ii) "perceived ease of use" has a second greatest positive influence, (iii) "perceived usefulness" has a third greatest positive influence, (iv) "perceived risks of social and safety" has a strongest negative influence, and (v) "perceived risks of operation and finance" has a weakest negative influence. The factor "perceived cost" was only found insignificant to the use of mobile banking service for customers in Hanoi. The findings of research provide several important and useful implications for the mobile banking service providers with the deeply strategic insights to improve mobile banking services to gain more and more customer acceptance in Hanoi particularly and Vietnam generally. iii   TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I.   INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1   1.1 Background of the study ...................................................................................... 3   1.2 Statement of the objectives .................................................................................. 4   1.3 Hypothesis............................................................................................................ 4   1.4 Significance of the study...................................................................................... 5   1.5 Scope and Limitations.......................................................................................... 6   1.6 Definition of terms ............................................................................................... 7   Chapter II.   REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES..................... 9   2.1 Banking in Vietnam ............................................................................................. 9   2.2 Mobile Banking Services ................................................................................... 10   2.3 Mobile Financial Services.................................................................................. 13   2.4 Mobile Commerce Services ............................................................................... 15   2.5 Mobile banking technology ............................................................................... 16   2.6 Mobile Banking in Vietnam............................................................................... 20   2.7 Consumer Behavior ........................................................................................... 22   2.8 Expectancy-Value Theory ................................................................................. 25   2.9 The Theory of Reasoned Action ........................................................................ 26   2.10 The Theory of Planned Behavior ..................................................................... 27   2.11 Technology Acceptance Model ....................................................................... 29   2.12 The conceptual framework .............................................................................. 36   Chapter III.   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .......................................................... 42   3.1 Research design ................................................................................................. 42   3.1.1 Pilot study ................................................................................................... 43   3.1.2 Variable measurement ................................................................................ 43   iv   3.2 Determination of Sample size ............................................................................ 46   3.3 Sampling design and techniques ........................................................................ 47   3.4 Research Instrument........................................................................................... 47   3.5 Data gathering procedure ................................................................................... 48   3.5 Data processing method ..................................................................................... 49   3.6 Statistical treatment ............................................................................................ 49   3.6.1 Reliability Analysis of Scale....................................................................... 49   3.6.2 Exploratory Factors Analysis ...................................................................... 49   3.6.3 Regression analysis ..................................................................................... 50   3.6.4 Testing the hypothesis................................................................................. 50   3.7 Evaluation of the reliability of scales................................................................. 51   Chapter IV.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................... 55   4.1 Profile of the respondents .................................................................................. 55   4.1.1 Demographic characteristics ....................................................................... 55   4.1.2 The status of the use of banking services.................................................... 57   4.2 Purpose of use mobile banking services ............................................................ 58   4.3 Analysing the differences in the use of mobile banking services ...................... 62   4.3.1 The difference by living area ...................................................................... 62   4.3.2 The difference by gender ............................................................................ 63   4.3.3 The difference by age.................................................................................. 63   4.3.4 The difference by education........................................................................ 65   4.3.5 The difference by occupation...................................................................... 65   4.3.6 The difference by income ........................................................................... 66   4.4 Exploratory Factor Analysis .............................................................................. 67   4.5 Correlation analysis ........................................................................................... 73   4.6 Regression analysis ............................................................................................ 74   v   4.6.1 Regression model ........................................................................................ 74   4.6.2 Tesing the assumptions of the regression model ........................................ 78   Chapter V.   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............... 81   5.1 Summary of results and findings ....................................................................... 81   5.2 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 83   5.3 Recommendations .............................................................................................. 85   REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ 90   Appendix 1. QUESTIONNAIRE............................................................................. 97   Appendix 2. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS .......................................................... 104   Appendix 3. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS - SCALE (ALPHA) ............................ 106   Appendix 4. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSYS (EFA) ........................... 112   Appendix 5. REGRESSION .................................................................................. 117   vi   LIST OF TABLES Table II.1 List of mobile banking services in Vietnam ............................................... 21   Table III.1 The measure indicators for customer behavior .......................................... 44   Table III.2 Sampling allocation ................................................................................... 47   Table III.3 Reliability analysis of scale ....................................................................... 52   Table IV.1 Profile of respondents ................................................................................ 56   Table IV.2 Time to the nearest bank branch ................................................................ 57   Table IV.3 The use of mobile banking services .......................................................... 57   Table IV.4 Purpose of use mobile banking services .................................................... 58   Table IV.5 Purpose of use mobile banking services by gender ................................... 59   Table IV.6 Purpose of use mobile banking services by region.................................... 59   Table IV.7 Purpose of use mobile banking services by age ........................................ 59   Table IV.8 Purpose of use mobile banking services by education level ..................... 60   Table IV.9 Purpose of use mobile banking services by occupation ............................ 61   Table IV.10 Purpose of use mobile banking services by income ................................ 61   Table IV.11 Analysis of difference by living area ...................................................... 62   Table IV.12 Analysis of difference by gender ............................................................ 63   Table IV.13 Analysis of difference by age.................................................................. 64   Table IV.14 Analysis of difference by education ....................................................... 65   Table IV.15 Analysis of difference by occupation ..................................................... 66   Table IV.16 Analysis of difference by income ........................................................... 66   Table IV.17 Exploratory factor analysis results. ......................................................... 68   Table IV.18 Extraction component result: TRUOVER ............................................... 70   Table IV.19 Components derived from results of EFA ............................................... 70   Table IV.20 Correlations matrix .................................................................................. 73   Table IV.21 Results of regression analysis .................................................................. 74   Table IV.22 Nonparametric correlations ..................................................................... 79   vii   LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Mobile banking architecture ......................................................................... 17   Figure 2. Mobile banking technology model ............................................................... 19   Figure 3. Factors affecting consumer behavior............................................................ 23   Figure 4. Theory of Reasoned Action .......................................................................... 27   Figure 5. Theory of Planned Behaviour ....................................................................... 28   Figure 6. Technology Acceptance Model .................................................................... 29   Figure 7. The conceptual framework ........................................................................... 41   Figure 8. Research process .......................................................................................... 42   Figure 9. Adjusted research model .............................................................................. 72   Figure 10. Chart of standardized residuals and residual predicted value .................... 79   Figure 11. Chart of residual distribution ...................................................................... 80   viii   Chapter I. INTRODUCTION The rapid development of science and technology, particularly information technology, has affected all aspect of life-socio-economics of Vietnam. This development process has changed the perception of the use of high-tech services in many areas, many different economic sectors, especially in the field of telecommunications, finance and banking. Online transactions, payment on Internet as well as mobile network, etc. have become the development and competition trends of integrated service providers in Vietnam. Development of banking services based on mobile phone technology has become the objective and inevitable trend during the international economic integration more and more deeper in Vietnam. The development of mobile banking services has brought significant benefits to customers as a convenient, fast and accurate of the transaction. At the same time it also opens up new development opportunities for the telecommunications providers, application and software developers, e-commerce merchants, bankers, etc. in Vietnam. Mobile banking services are tools that permits user to carry out transactions with its bank via cell phone. The concept of this service had been raised since late 20th Century. Traditional payment methods such as bank transfer, credit card, debit card, bank notes, etc. have been helping the payment-via-bank being convenience and popular in several developed countries that buyers will not need being face-to-face with seller, and cash becomes useless. Everything has its pros and cons. The traditional payment methods have certain limitations. For examples, bank transfer and notes transactions must be performed within work time and places; credit/debit cards depend on sellers and the card itself. From early 21st century, Internet banking has been emerging and serving consumers with certain conveniences by mean of payment. Buyers can make payment from anywhere and at anytime. However, some online security limitations lead to the imposture of banking cards to thieve money in several countries. Consequently, consumers have been hesitated to use Internet payment. In comparison with stated payment methods, Mobile banking has been less risky by transaction process while 1   still providing users with its convenience and high security. However, this service is not yet popular in Vietnam so far although lots of Banks are ready to make use of it. According to The State Bank of Vietnam, in front the fast and strong development of information technology and telecom, Vietnam Prime Minister signed Decision No. 2453/QD-TTg approved the project to promote non-cash payment period 2012-2015, in which, electronic payments are a key task of the project. The purpose of the decision to reduce the consumption of cash and create consumer habits non-cash in large populations (Bui Quang Tien, 2012). General Director of State Bank of Vietnam in HCMC said: many people use mobile for payment as a modern payment methods and targeting high-tech is a perfect fit. The investment of banks to develop mobile payment is a trend worth encouraging. With the same vision, Leaders of VietA Bank said, developing money transaction services to a large extent through mobile phone is a new trend of the banking sector, although some banks start to provide the trial basic package but they have successfully implemented. The ubiquity of mobile phones is changing the way for consumer access financial services. The mobile banking was developing in some countries. Some new services allow consumers to get account information and conduct a money transaction with the banks (named “mobile banking”) and others allow consumers to make a payment for goods and services (“mobile payments”). Since 2009, many banks in Vietnam have invested very much in technological infrastructure, diversified banking products and services, improved service quality, and built multi-channel service systems. (Le Thanh Tam, 2012). Mobile phones and mobile Internet access are in widespread use in Vietnam. But, Mobile banking is still not popular. Sometimes it is ambiguous or expensive in the mind of many customers. In brief, Vietnam has more than 86 million population (GSO, 2012), 120.7 million mobile subscribers, 15.5 million fixed subscribers, over 31% rate of people use the Internet regularly, 30.2 million mobile users and (MIC, 2012), 44 bankers with high-tech infrastructure (SBV, 2013), and more then 400 Value added services providers (MIC, 2013). It should be a great potential market for the development the high-tech financial services products, but mobile banking just stop at checking bank account, paying for telephone fee (top-up) in a small set of customers, pay for monthly bills (such as electric invoice) in restrict area, pay for purchase in simple business (e.g. air-tickets). It is really not popular. The question is what issues or 2   factors is affecting positive and what is negative to the use of mobile banking services in Vietnam. Grasp deeply this problem can alter the behavior of consumers towards a cashless society. At the same time, it is also a basic promoting robustly the development of mobile banking services in Vietnam. 1.1 Background of the study The study of consumer behavior is an important part of the research needs of customers. To succeed in any business at all the fields, especially in fast-growing and dynamic markets as today's, entrepreneurs, marketers need to know clearly about customers such as the needs, convenience, the difficulty, suitable time, etc. from the consumers' side. They need to understand absolutely the factors affecting to consumers' decisions and how customer make a buying decisions. Numerous theoretical models have been launched and continuous improvement to serve the behavioral research, human behavior in general and then applied to the study and interpretation of consumer behavior. Most notably, Theory of Reasoned Action Models introduced Ajzen & Fishbein (1975), often referred to TRA model, and then extended into TPB model (Ajzen, 1991). Davis (1989) has applied this theory to build the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and then Venkatesh & Davis (2000) has built Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2). Thousands of studies have applied TAM model to explain the behavior of using integrated technology services on many different areas in many countries around the world. In the technology service sector in general and mobile banking services in particular, the choice and use of customer is also comply the basic principles of psychology and behavior, but specific expression of consume behavior in these situations, conditions and environment are totally different. This has made the line of research on consumer behavior continues incessantly. In recent years, e-banking services in general and mobile banking in particular, has attracted particular and get the attention of researchers, managers. has a lot of research some countries around the world, such as China, Phillipine, Brazin, Mexico, Malaysia, South Africa, Indonesia, Singapore, India, Lavia, Ausralia, United Kingdom etc. But, in-depth studies of this field in Vietnam were very rare. So far there is no research about the use of mobile banking services in the area of Hanoi specifically and Vietnam overall. 3   Stemming from such pressing issues, this study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the use of mobile banking services of customers in Hanoi. The study will contribute to identify and propose the policy for the development of this services in the near future. 1.2 Statement of the objectives The overall objective of the research is to analyze the consumer behavior in the use of mobile banking services in area of Hanoi, Vietnam. The study specifically seeks to: - Determine the relationships of the demographic characteristics (age, gender, occupation, income and educational attainment) of the respondents and the use of mobile banking services; - Determine the differences in the purpose of the use of mobile banking services by customers in Hanoi by gender, age, education, occupation and income; - Determine the factors affecting the use of mobile banking services by consumers in Hanoi; - Analyze the level level of influence of the different factors to the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi; and - Propose solutions to improve mobile banking services to increase the number of users in Hanoi, Vietnam. 1.3 Hypothesis Mobile banking services is still relatively new to many Vietnamese. Awareness of the benefits that services bring them is not yet complete. The overall objective of the thesis is to analyze the consumers' behavior in the use of mobile banking services. Based on the theory of behavior, the theory of technology acceptance model, related theories, and the results of previous studies, this research focuses on some important aspects of the services for the consumers in Hanoi region. With the research objectives, the hypothesis are stated as following: 4   H1: The use of mobile banking services are affected by the geographical location and demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education, area, occupation and income. H2. Perceived usefulness of mobile banking services has a positive impact on the use of the services H3: Perceived of ease of use of mobile banking services has a positive impact to the use of the services H4: Perceived costs to use mobile banking services have a negative impact to use the service H5: The trust of customers on mobile banking services has a positive impact to the use of the services H6: Perceived risks of customers for mobile banking services have a negative impact to the use of the services 1.4 Significance of the study Regarding scientific First, the thesis systemized the basis of the theory of consumer behavior generally and Theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in particular. Second, the thesis has built the research model of consumer's behavior in the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi. Regarding practice First, the study enriches the practical research in the field using mobile banking services in Vietnam generally and Hanoi in particular. Second, the study outlines a comprehensive picture of the use of mobile banking services in Hanoi. And then identify the major factors affecting the use of the services of customer in the studied area. Third, the study suggests the main recommendations of the policy for the mobile banking service providers in Hanoi, practical contribution to improving mobile banking services in Vietnam. 5   Fourth, the study is a research can make a good reference material for managers, service providers, researchers and practitioners in the management agencies, universities of Vietnam and International. 1.5 Scope and Limitations The research will be conducted within Hanoi Capital with population of more than 6.4 million, the one of two biggest cities in Vietnam. The respondents were living in Hanoi and using mobile banking services (included SMS banking and Internet banking). The survey was conducted mainly in central areas because of customers have enough skills and knowledge to assess the services. The districts was interviewed including: Hoan Kiem, Ba Dinh, Hai Ba Trung, Dong Da, Cau Giay, Tay Ho, Thanh Xuan, Hoang Mai, and Long Bien. Although take advantage inherited from the previous study and authors have been many attempts to collect and investigate data of the use of mobile banking services in the area of Hanoi. However, the size of the survey sample is small compared with the number of customers using mobile banking services in this sector because of the limitation of time and financial resources. The measurement of factors affecting the use of mobile banking services is mainly based on the model approach technology acceptance and theory of consumer behavior. In addition, the time for survey is limited, the surveyed area is just the central districts, some customers may not understand clearly the various functions of mobile banking services. Hence the explanatory of variables in the model of the study is not so high. Moreover, the research recommendations were suggested by the approach through the quantitative analysis. In fact, there are many other methods and more convincing approaches that may have a better suggestions. In general, quantitative approach is necessary and useful, but it still is not enough to generalize the whole picture of mobile banking services in whole Vietnam. Therefore, a more long-term study will bring the better results and suggest more details of recommendations. 6   1.6 Definition of terms The terms defined in this section is intended only to explain clearly the meaning that is used in this document. • Mobile banking refer to the systems that allows customers of a financial organization to conduct the banking requests such as money transfer, account checking, money savings, etc. by mobile device through mobile network instead perform at transaction office or branch of bank. • Mobile banking service refer to the type of services provide by cooperation between bank, operators, providers and merchants that allows customers have the bank account and mobile number to process the bank services such as managing finance, paying for goods or services either at the point of sale or remotely, transferring money, creating an investment, saving money, etc. at any time and any where with mobile handsets or personal digital devices. In some context, mobile banking service is also called "Mobile banking". • SMS banking refer to the service or type of access the core banking system using shot message service of mobile network to get information or operate the selected banking services. SMS banking is considered the beginning of mobile banking services. • Devices refer to mobile handsets of personal digital devices that use for conduct mobile services through the mobile phone networks. It brings the capacities transfer data between customer side and mobile banking service system by 3G/2G/Egde/Wi-Fi technologies. • Applications refer to the software that is designed and built for mobile technology platform. It is installed into mobile device to operate the specific functions such as information access, financial management, banking features through mobile phone. Application is an important component in the supply chain of the mobile banking services. • Security refers to the solution or policy to protect data and transaction between end-user device and core banking system. • Operators refer to mobile phone providers who own the mobile networks and provide mobile phone services to consumers in Vietnam such as Viettel, Vinaphone, MobiFone, Vietnamobile, Gtel, etc. 7   • Developers refer to the IT companies developing the software for the mobile banking service systems including the system components are implemented inside service providers and banks, application or tools for mobile devices of consumers side. • Merchants refer to the traders, suppliers, retailers, etc. selling the goods or services and accept the type of online payment such as Internet payment, SMS payment, Mobile payment, etc. • Service Providers refer to the companies bring the mobile banking services to consumers. Service provider may be a bank or operator to serve their customers. But, a independent company will have capacity to connect all the banks and operators. Thence, they have capacity to provide mobile banking services to any consumer with the same policy. Thus, service provider have to built the service system, integrate with core banking system of all the bank to process the bank requests, and connect with all the operators to give capacities use banking services for any mobile subscriber via mobile networks. 8   Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES In this chapter, authors reviews the related literature and studies on banking in Vietnam with updated data from Vietnam government (State Bank of Vietnam); Mobile banking in Asia and some other countries, that also present the potential market of mobile baking services; Mobile financial services has many point are the same with mobile banking that is specify in some previous research and definition of bankers, that are review in the next paragraphs. The theory of Consumer Behavior, Theory of Reasoned Action – TRA, Theory of Planned Behavior – TPB, ExpectancyValue Theories, the technology acceptance model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), related theories and definition of Kotler & Armstrong on the factors affecting the consumer behavior are reviewed. The theoretical and conceptual framework of the research is presented in the last section. 2.1 Banking in Vietnam According to State Bank of Vietnam (SBV), by the end of 2012 in Vietnam, there are total 44 banks (excluding 1 Vietnam Development Bank, 1 Vietnam Bank for Social Policies, Joint-­‐venture Bank, Branches of Foreign Bank, Rep. Office of Foreign Banks), including 5 Stated owned Banks (Agribank, BIDV, Vietinbank, Vietcombank, and Mekong Housing Bank); 34 Commercial Banks (such as: ACB, Eximbank, Techcombank, MBBank, Maritime, etc.); and 5 wholly Foreign-owned banks (HSBC, Standard Chartered, ANZ, Hong Leong, Shinhan). Total assets of 44 banks is ~188,74 Billions USD (in which, Hong Leong & Standard Chartered ~3 Billion USD). In 12 years, total assets of the whole banking system jumped 18 times from US$10 billion in 2000 to US$180 billion as end of 2011. in the total percentage: 47% owned by State-owned Commercial Banks; 49% Joint-stock Commercial banks; 4% wholly Foreign-owned banks. Top 10 Biggest Commercial banks: ACB (12%), Eximbank (8%), Techcombank (8%), Sacombank (6%), MBBank (6%), Maritime (5%), VIB (4%), VPBank (4%). MBbank is first ranking by ROA with 2.54%. Maritime is first ranking by ROE with 35.1%. VCB has the most extensive ATM network in Vietnam (Le Thanh Tam, 2012). 9   Bank cards have become a popular tool in Vietnam, that is widely used by many users with fast growing rate. The end of April was 44.6 million cards have increased 12 times compared to year of 2006, total POS (Point of Sale) is up to 83.000 to accept payments by bank cards that increased 5.9 times compared to 2006. Number of ATMs is 13.700, increased 6 times compared to 2006 (Bui Quang Tien, May 2012). Compared to 2003, bank cards have increased 181 times, ATM increased 45 times compared to 2003 and POS increased 11 times (Nguyen Tu Anh, 2012) Up to 31/12/2011, Hanoi Capital has 14.500 POS and 2.150 ATM, and 3.780 state organizations paid monthly salary via bank accounts directly for their staffs (Nguyen Minh Tuan, 2012); Hochiminh City has 17.616 POS and 3.679 ATM, there are 111.861 customers (including business and individuals) use e-banking (internet banking, phone banking and mobile banking) with total transactions 1.732.654 and value up to 49.436 billion VND (Nguyen Van Dung, 2012). According to Smartlink Card, Vietnam Banking switching system has linked ATM, POS and Mobile together ad payment gateway. The capacities of banking system are like other countries. That is available to provide the diversification of payment services, but her suggest that it is better to synchronize standards between the payment gateway and e-commerce portal (Nguyen Tu Anh, 2012). 2.2 Mobile Banking Services The rapid growing of mobile service in Vietnam and Asia has created opportunities for new and innovative mobile services. Some of the most promising is Mobile finance service including mobile banking, mobile payment and mobile commerce services. Simply, mobile banking allow end-users to get information from its bank via SMS such as balances, transaction history, promotion information, confirmation for direct payment (Niina M, Matti R, Virpi K.T, 2004). They also said that mobile payments must become faster, easier, and more convenient to use when 3G mobile network and application and devices mature. Before that Niina, Varshney and et. (2002) showed mobile payments are expected to become one of the most important applications in m-commerce. In 2003 Jarvenpaa & et finding the other aspect of mobile banking services are valued by users because of the inherent time and place independence, and the overall effort-saving qualities. 10   in other words, mobile banking service is the way to deliver the banking and financial services via mobile equipment including cell phones, smart phones, and personal digital assistants (Ann Ho, 2010). Compare with traditional money transfer methods via Banks, the cost is saved average 19% when using the mobile banking service for the same purpose (McKay, Claudia and Mark Pickens, 2010). Consumers no need to transport to bank office in the working time and wait to process paper. User can make the money transfer action any when and any time. Mobile banking is a subset of electronic banking which underlies not only the determinants of the banking business but also the special conditions of mobile commerce (Pousttchi K., 2004) In the broader sense, mobile banking as that type of execution of financial services in the course of which the customer uses mobile communication techniques in conjunction with mobile devices. In Asia, mobile banking evolve the new service for both banks and operators. Some mobile companies develop banking service as a part of mobile service. They cooperate with banks to get information and submit banking actions as agency of banks. In other side, bank develop gateway to send information and command or confirmation to consumer via mobile phone. The banks see telecom network as a transportation of information only. Both ways bring more advantage to their customer as strong point in competition to other banks. As an early adopter of mobile banking, Asia can set global standards in business models and in supervision and regulation. One notable development that is almost exclusive to Asia is the increasing number of telecommunications companies buying stakes in banks and financial services companies. Most Asian banks located mobile banking service as a value added service for banking service that help customer protect account and make more facilities for traditional banking activities. That is why Japan and South Korea have the highest mobile banking penetration rates; in each country, nearly 100% of active banking customers have access to mobile banking services. The number of mobile banking users worldwide is forecasted to grow from 55 million in 2009 to 894 million in 2015, at a compound annual growth rate of 59% (Ann H., 2010). 11   In 2010, China Mobile has over 500 million of subscribers, acquired a 20% stake in Shanghai Pudong Development Bank in an explicit strategy to enter the mobile banking market (Bloomberg News, 2010). Similarly, according to The economic Times 16 April 2010, South Korea’s SK Telecom bought 49% of Hana Financial Corporation’s credit card unit and Japan’s NTT DoCoMo purchased stakes in Sumitomo Mitsui Card Corporation and UC Card Corporation. Many Banks in Asia are already providing mobile services over SMS, mobile web and handset applications for personal finance management. Juniper estimate the number of mobile subscribers who use mobile banking will exceed 400 million globally by 2013. Mobile banking (Internet banking using mobile devices, also known as MBanking, SMS Banking etc.) can perform account balances and transaction history inquiries, funds transfers, and bill payments via mobile devices (Laukkanen, 2007; Turban, King, Viehland, & Lee, 2006). Identifying and understanding the factors influencing attitude and behavioral intention toward continuing to use the mobile banking is one of the fundamental requisites for development of mobile banking services (Hsiu-Fen Lin, 2011). Mobile banking was provided by three major mobile service providers in Taiwan. Chunghwa Telecom, Far EasTone and Taiwan Mobile co-operated to 20 banks (Taiwan Telecommunications Report, 2009). By January 2009, Taiwan had 1.55 million mobile commerce (m-commerce) customers (approximately 7.77% of the total population) (iThome, 2009). However, according to a report of MIC (Market Intelligence Center, Taiwan’s leading IT industry analysis and consulting service provider) states that less than 2.3% of banking transactions in Taiwan were conducted through mobile devices (MIC, 2009). Moreover, mobile banking remains in its infancy and international adoption rates are low (Datamonitor, 2009). Mobile Payments has big opportunity in the future, as Juniper analysis report Mobile Payments will grow from $170B in 2010 to almost $630B in 2014, Number of mobile payment users will grow from 351 million to 1.06 billion, Mobile payment transactions will grow from 37.4 billion to 1.13 trillion (Jorge Campos, 2011). 12
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