Tài liệu Face2face starter teachers book

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ChrisRedston CnvrnRrDGE PRESS UNIVERSITY CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,Sao Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.orgl97805217I27 50 @ Cambridge University Press 2009 This publication is in copl'right. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2009 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A cataloguerecordJor this publication is availablefrom the British Library ISBN 978-0-52L-7L275-0 Teacher'sBook ISBN 978-0-521-71273-6Studenr'sBook with CD-ROM/Audio CD ISBN 978-0-521-71274-3Workbook with Key ISBN 978-0-521-7L277-4ClassAudio CDs It is normally necessaryfor written permission for copying to be obtained in adyance from a publisher. The CD-ROM/Audio CD: User Instructions in the Introduction, and the Class Activities worksheets, Vocabulary Plus worksheets and ProgressTests at the back of this book are designed to be copied and distributed in class. The normal requirements are waived here and it is not necessaryto write to Cambridge University Press for permission for an individual teacher to make copies for use within his or her own classroom. Only those pageswhich carry the wording'@ Cambridge University Press' may be copied. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, train times and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of going to print but Cambridge University Pressdoes not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Contents {aceRface p4 StaderComponents fnce2fsce p4 Approach Thefaecgf;ic# ps Book TheStudent's p6 CD:Instructionsp l o TheCD-R0M/Audio Framework European TheCommon p13 (cEF) Tips Teaching pla instructions p747 lnstructions 1 Thingsin a room p151 1B hefrom? Where's lC Realnames p'|13 2 andnationalitiespl52 Countries andwords 1D Pictures p114 3 Foodanddrink pl53 p'll5 4 Freetimeactivities pl54 EmPloYment 2.Q Thenine2five plle Agency 5 Jobs p't55 6 andfurniture Rooms pl56 7 Partsof the body pt57 a with at, in,on Places pl58 2B Newidentities 3A saya numbertr117 Heara number, p118 WherearetheY? 3B family Barry andWendy's From stadtofinish Findtwopeople p119 bingo Shopping Timedomtnoes life Mypadner's r'12S 1 Newfriends p21 2 Allaboutyou andplaces People p30 4B p3A 4C Myworld p46 4D 5 life Dayto-day p54 6 Townsandcities p62 7 Loveit,likeit, hateit! p_70 a Daysto remember p7A 9 away Going pa5 10 Myfuture p93 4 plOO pll2 2D 3 Plus Vocabulary Class Activities 3D 5A pl21 pl5s pl6() p122 p124 p125 p126 week A writer's never pl2A som€times, 5 D Always, pl29 Road 6B London pl31 inyourbag? 5 C What's andladders p132 snakes ED Review p133 7A: I likedominoes pl34 da? 7B Whatcantheclass pI35 7e It'sontheleft p137 adjectives 8A 0pposite you? pl3A youorweren't AE Were 5B years anddates pI39 Numbers, p'l4() 9A Mypast you did doonholidaY?p-141 9E} What p1rt3 moneyl money, 9D Money, yourpartner's future p'|45 1oB Guess AD thecourse lOC After verbs I lrregular 'lO Theweather pl46 Progress Tests Instructions Scripts Answer KeyandRecording 1 Test Progress Test2 Progress Test3 Progress Test4 Progress Test5 Progress Test6 Progress Progress Test7 Test8 Progress Progress Test9 10 ProgressTest p161 pl6l pI64 pt65 pl65 plE7 pl6A p17O p171 p172, p173 P174 Mfe!*mrme tm ffmffiffiffiffmmwH face2faceis a general English course for adults and young adults who want to learn to communicate quickly and effectively in todays world. face2faceis basedon the communicative approach and combines the best in current methodology with special new features designed to make learning and teaching easler. The facefface syllabus integratesthe learning of new Ianguagewith skills development and places equal emphasison vocabulary and grammar. faceZfaceuses a guided discovery approach to learning, first allowing students to check what they know, then helping them to work out the rules for themselves through carefully structured examplesand concept questions. All new languageis included in the interactive Language Summanesin the back of the face2faceStudent'sBooks and is regularly recycled and reviewed. There is a strong focus on listening and speaking throughout face2face. tac,e?face Innovative Help with Listaing sectionshelp students to understandnatural spoken English in context and there are numerous opportunities for communicative, personalised speaking practice in faee?face.The Real World lessons in eachunit focus on the functional and situational language students need for day-to-day life. The face2hceSarter Student'sBook provides approximately 60 hours of core teaching material, which can be extended to 90 hours with the photocopiable resourcesand extra ideas in.this Teacher'sBook. Each self-containeddoublepage lesson is easily teachableoff the page with minimal preparation. The vocabulary selectionin face2facehas been informed by the Cambidge lntemational Corpusand the Carnbndge Learner Corpus. taceZfaceis fully compatible with the CommonEuropean Frameworh oJReference for Languages(CEF) and gives students regular opportunities to evaluatetheir progress. faceZfaceSarter coverslevel Al (seep13). Starter Components CD $tudent'sBooktruithfreeCD-ROM/Audio Workhook The Student'sBook provides 40 double-pagelessonsin l0 thematically linked units, eachwith 4 lessonsof 2 pages. Each lesson takes approximately 90 minutes. The Workbook provides further practice of all language presentedin the Student'sBook. It also includes a 2}-page Readingand Wnting Portfolio basedon the CommonEuropean Frameworhof Referarcefor Languages,which can be used either for extra work in classor for homework. The free CD-ROM/Audio CD is an invaluable resourcefor students,with over 200 exercisesin all languageareas,plus video, recording and playback capability,a fu\ searchable section andWordList, all the sounds in Grammar ReJerence English, customisableMy ActivitiesandMy Testsections,and Progresssectionswhere students evaluatetheir own progress. The free Starter CD-ROM/Audio CD also contains all the new languagedrills from the Student'sBook, so students can practise their pronunciation at home. Help studens to get the most out of the CD-ROM/Audio CD by giung them the photocopiableinstructionson p10-p12. ClassAudiaGDs The three ClassAudio CDs contain all the listening material for the Student'sBook, including conversations,drills and the Iistening sections of the ProgressTestsfor units 5 and 10. Book Teacher's This Teacher'sBook includes TeachingTips, TeachingN otes and photocopiablematerials:29 ClassActivities(p100-p146), l0 YocabularyPlus workshees (p1'17-p160) and I0 Progress Tesfs(p16l-p175). Website Visit the {ace2facewebsite www.cambrid ge.or{ elt/face2face for downloadableword lists, placement tests,sample materials and full details of how face2facecovers the Ianguageareasspecifiedby the CEE The tac,e?face Approach Listening A typical listening practice activity checks students' understanding of gist and then asks questions about specific detailg.The innovative Help with Listeningsectionsin face2faceSurter take students a step further by focusing on the underlying reasons why listening to English can be so problematic. Activities in these sections: o introduce the concept of stresson words and phrases o focus on sentencestressand is relationship to the important information in a text o explain why words are often linked together in natural spoken English . help students to identify and understand contractions . infioduce some common weak forms o show students how thesefeaturesof connectedspeech combine to give spoken English its natural rhythm. For TeachingTips on Listening, seepl8. Speaking All the lessons in face2face Starter and the Class Activities photocopiablesprovide students with numerous speaking opportunities. Many of these activities focus on acctracy, while fluency activities help students to gain confidence, take risks and try out what they have leamed. For fluency activities to be truly'fluenf, however, students often need time to formulate their ideas before they speak. This preparation stageis incorporated into the Get ready ... Get it nght! activities at the end of eachA and B lesson. For TeachingTipson Speaking,seepI9. andWriting Reading In the face2faceSarter Student'sBook, reading texts from a variety of genresare used both to present new languageand to provide reading practice. There are also a number of writing activities which consolidate the languageinput of the lesson. For classesthat require more practice of reading and writing skills, there is the 20-pageReadtngandWntingPortfolio in the face2faceSmrterWorkbook. This section contains 10 double-pagestand-alonelessons,one for each unit of the Student'sBbok, which are designedfor students to do in class or at home. The topics and content of these lessonsare based closely on the CEF reading and writing competences for level 'can do' A1. At the end of this section there is a list of progress. their statementsthat allows students to track Uocabulary lace?tace Starter recognises the importance of vocabulary in successful communication. There is lexical input in every lesson,which is consolidatedfor student referencein the LanguageSummanesin the back of the Student'sBook. The areasof vocabulary include: o lexical fields (a teacher,a doctotran actor,amanaget, etc.) o collocations(go onholiday,go to thebeach,tahephotos,etc.) . sentencestems(Wouldyoulihe ... ?, Canlhave ... ?, etc.) o fixed and semi-fixed phrases(Seeyou soon.,Not for me, thanhs., etc.) In addition, each unit in face2faceSarter includes at least one Help withVocabulary section. These sectionsare designed to guide students towards a better understanding of the lexical systemsof English. For longer courses and/or more able students, this Teacher's Book also contains oneYocabulary Plusworksheet for each unit. These stand-aloneworksheets introduce and practise new vocabulary that is not included in the Student'sBook. For TeachingTips on Vocabulary seepl9. Grammar Grammar is a central strand in the face2face Starter syllabus and new grammar structures are always introduced in context in a listening or a reading text. We believe students are more likely to understand and remember new language if they have actively tried to work out the rules for themselves. Therefore in the Help with Grammar sectionsstudents are often asked to focus on the meaning and form of the structure for themselves before checking with the teacher or in the appropriate Language Summary.All new grammar forms are practised in regular recorded pronunciation drills and communicative speaking activities, and then consolidated through written practice. For TeachingTips on Grammaq seepl9. Language Functional andSituational face2faceSarter placesgreat emphasison the functional and situational languagestudents need to communicate effectively in an English-speaking environment. Each unit has a double-pageRealWorld lesson that introduces and practises this language.Typical functions and situations include: o functions: greetings,saying goodbye, making suggestions o situations: in a caf€,in a shop, in a restaurant,at a station. Pronunciation Pronunciation is inte$ated throughout face2faceStarter.Drills for all new vocabulary grammar structures andRealWorld languageare included on the ClassAudio CDs and indicated in the Student'sBook and Teacher'sBook by the icon ffi. These drills are also included on the CD-ROM/Audio CD, allowing students to practise their pronunciation at home. In faee2faceSarter there is alsoa Help with Soundssection at the end ofeach unit. Thesesectionspresent and practise sounds that are often problematic for students. These drills are also included on the CD-ROM/Audio CD. For TeachingTips on Pronunciation, seep20. andRecycling Reviewing We believe that regular reviewing and recycling of language are essential and previously taught language is recycled in every lesson. Opportunities for review are also provided in the QuichRevion sectionsat the beginmng of every lesson, the Reviau sectionsat the end of each unit, and the l0 photocopiableProgressTestsin this Teacher'sBook. For kachingTips on Reviewing and Recycling,seep20. The Student's Book andB in eachunit LessonsA new andpractise introduce in vocabulary andgrammar realisticcontexts. askstudents HelpwithGrammarsections to focuson the rulesof form andusefor with the beforechecking themselves Summary. teacheror in the Language Menuboxeslistthe language taughtand reviewed in eachlesson. 6A $ a) V.rd *nr.ffi !J b pi.tm A{ r Tftdc@iudeF* ia thr pa d 2 tftrR rR 'e. Ffle r l]ld.m.lotd@hinlhrgk r ; ? 4 t llR( Tlan tfitN Tlew fteft fher. 'lire Il! . When you have finishedthe activity, you can get your final scoreby clickingon the chequeredflag the mms Youcan do the activity againand correctyour wrong answers. lc We{come to the€tasstJ 3.14 ffi w'kh the dd€o. ltutd' tha Effi Youcanalsoseethe Dy correctanswers clicking on the keyicon to th€ p€6pte- ffi iconffi. Youcan checkyour score for the activityand find the Student'sBookpage numbersthat the languagecomesfrom in the Feedbackbox. Emffi Hetbo. Hels. H€les Hi. Ema EhH l'mffne, H€l€* l'mOX, thank5, Efiffi Hetlo, hlyflffie's strdens Efrm f{sw are yN? thanks AndyEil? EEma. l'mpur He{to. Het{E. ffiat's vDsr fiEt nare. you can lf necessary, clickon thequestion markicon@ for Extrahelp!,whereyou canalsoseethe Scriptof the Recording recorded activities. Three screenshotsfrom face2faceShrter CD-ROM/Audio CD Press 2009 @Cambridge University The Gommon European Framework (CEF) *44'*ffin@BF (GEF)? Framework European Whatis theGommcn Sincethe early 1970s,a seriesof Council of Europe initiatives has developeda description of the languageknowledge and skills.that people need to live, work and survive in any country or environment where the main languageof communication is different form their own language. Waystage19901 , Threshold1990'zandVantage3detail the knowledge and skills required at different levels of ability The contents of these languagespecific documents served as the basis for the more general CommonEuropeanFrameworh of Reference for Languages:Learning,teaching,assessment (CEF)4which was officially launched by the Council of 'can do' statementsor Europe in 2001 and includes sets of '.o-p"t"tt."t'. A related document, The EuropeanLanguage Portfolio, encourageslearners to assesstheir progressby matching their competencesagainst the'can do' statements. The faceZfaceserieshas been developedto include comprehensivecoverageof the requirements of the CEE The table above right shows how facefface relatesto the CEF and the examinations which can be taken at each level through University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations (Cambridge ESOL), which is a member of ALTE (The Association of LanguageTestersin EuroPe). face2laceStarterandCEFlevelA1 The table on the right describesthe generaldegreeof skill required at AI of the CEE Details of the languageknowledge 'can do' statements required for Al are listed in Breahthrough.The for Al are listed in the CommonEuropeanFrameworhoJ Leaming. teaching,assessment. ReJerence Jor Lcmguages: faceZlaceSmrter covers level A1. The Listening, Reading, Speakingand Writing tableson pI4-pI7 show where the required competencesfor level Al are coveredin {ace2laceStarter. More information about how face2faceStarter covers the grammatical, lexical and other areasspecified for Al by Breahthroughcan be found on our website: www. cambrid ge.orgl elt/face2face FCE in English FintCertificate In the spirit of The EuropeanLanguagePortfolio developed from the CEF, face2faceprovides a ProgressPortJolioat the end of every Student'sBook unit. Studentsare encouragedto assesstheir ability to use the languagethey have learned so far and to review any aspectsby using the CD-ROM/Audio CD In the Workbook there is a 2}-page ReadingmdWriting Portfoliosection linked to the CEF and a comprehensivelist of 'can do' statementsin the ReadingandWntingProgress Portfolio,which allows students to track their own progress. U N Listening I can recognise familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly Reading I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences,for example on notices and posters or 1n catalogues Spoken Interaction I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I'm trying to say I can ask and answer simple questions in areasof immediate need or on very familiar topics Spoken Production I can use simple phrasesand sentencesto describe where I live and people I know Writing I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings I can fill in forms with personal deuils, for example entering my name, nationality and addresson a hotel registration form E R S T I N G s P E K I G w I T I N G 1 Waystage1990 Avan Ek andJ L M Trim, Council of Europe,CambridgeUniversity PressISBN 978-0-52L-56707-7 J 2 thieshild lgg0 J Avan Ek andJ L M Trim, Council of Europe,CambridgeUniversity PressISBN 978-0-521-56706-0 3 VantageJA van Ek andJ L M Tiim, Council of Europe,CambridgeUniversity PressISBN 987-0-52L-56705-3 (2001) council of EuropeModern LanguagesDivision, a comion EuropeanFrnneworhoJReJeratce Leaming teaching assessment Jor Laflguages: ofEurope Council @ 978-0-521-80313-7 strasbourg,cambridge UniversityPressISBN The CEF !-lstening A tanguage userat [eve[Al can: I 2 3 understandbasicgreetingsand phrases(Hello,Excuseme, etc.) 1A 1C 2A 2C 2D 3C understand simptequestions aboutthemselves 1A 1B ,IC 28 2C 2D 3B veryshortdialogues understand 1A 1B ,IC 28 2C 2D 38 3C 3D 1A 2D 3C 1 2 3 understand numbers, andtimes Drices understand shortsimD[e directions Reading A languageuserat levelAl can: veryshort,simpletexts,a singlephraseat a time understand 3A WBPl pickout familiarnames, in veryshort,simptetexts wordsandphrases JA postersandcalendars pickout informationfrom catalogues, of pub{iceventsaboutthe time andplaceof films,concerts, etc. get an ideaof the contentof simpterinformationalmaterialand (especialty if there is visualsupport) short,simptedescriptions understand inforrnation aboutpeoplein newspapers, etc.(age,place of residence, etc.) understandsimpleformswe[[ enoughto give basicpersonaldetails 2C WBP2 understand commoncommands Thiscompetenceis practisedthroughoutthe coursein the rubrics. fotlowinstructions that haveclearoicturesandfew words is practised throughout the Thiscompetence coursein the rubrics. followshort,simplewrittendirections WBP3 on postcards understand short,simplemessages understand simplemessages writtenby friendsor colteagues about (textmessages, etc.) everyday situations invitations, Bookunit 1 lesson A 1A= lace2faccStarterStudent's Reading 1 Starter Workbook andWritingPortfolio WBP1= tace2face The CEF 5 4A 48 WBP4 5A 5D WBP5 4A 48 WBP4 5D WBP5 8 6 6A 7A WBPT 8A 9A 98 9D 10A 7A WBPT 8A 9A 98 9D 10A 9A 98 WBP9 10A 4D 6C WBPS WBP4 6A WBP6 8A 8D 48 'l10 5D WBP5 9A 7C WBPlO The CEF $peaking A [anguage userat levelAl can: 1 2 introducesomeoneand usebasicgreetingand [eave-taking exDressrons 1A 2C 1A 1B ,IC'ID 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 38 3C 1B 28 2C 2D 38 3D 1A 1B 1C 2A 28 2C 2D 3B 1A 2C 2D 3C askandanswer simplequestions andinitiateandrespond to simple statements in areas'of immediate needor on veryfa'mitiar topics' andotherpeopte, askandanswerquestions aboutthemselves wherethey [ive,thingsthey have,peop[ethey know givepersonaI (address, information tetephone number, etc.) 3 describewherehe/shelives quantities, handlenumbers, costsandtimes makesimplepurchases 3C askpeoplefor thingsandgivepeoplethings 3C indicatetime by suchphrases asnextweek,in November, on Monday,etc. saywhenhe/shedoesn'tunderstand 1C 'lc asksomeoneto repeatwhat they say Writing 'l A languageuseratlevelAl can: 2 3 Thiscompetenceis practisedthroughout the Student'sBookandWorkbook. copyfamiliarwordsandshortphrases 'lB nationality andotherpersonaI detaits spe[[his/heraddress, 1C WBPl write sentences and others and simplephrasesabout themselves (wherethey liveand what they do, etc.) WBP'I 2A 2C WBP2 3D 2C WBP2 filt in a questionnaire or formwith personal details write a greetingscard write a simplepostcard WBP3. linkwordsor groupsof wordswith verybasiclinearconnectors (and,but, so,because,etc.) WBP3 A 1A= faceZface StarterStudent's Bookunit 1 lesson '1 Reading WBP1= faceZfae e Starter Workbook andWritingPortfotio The CEF 4 7 5 8 9 10 10c 4A 48 4D 5A 64 68 7A 7C 8A 8B 9A 98 9C 9D 10A10B 10c 48 5A 58 68 6D 7A 78 7D 88 8C 98 9C 9D 1 0 B1 0 c 4A 5A 5D 8A 8C 9A 10A 8C 8D 9C 9D 6A 68 48 4C 4D 5C 6C 9C 5C 6C 9C 54 58 5D 6C 5 6 5A 58 5D WBP5 64 6D WBP6 4C 4C 4 4A 48 WBP4 6A 68 7 7A 78 WBPT 8A 8B 8C 9A 98 8 9 8A WBPS 9A 98 9C WBPg 1 0 A1 0 B i0c 10A10B WBPlO WBP5 WBPT WBP9 Teaching Tips Starter Glasses Teaching MixedLevels Teaching TeachingStarter classescan often be challenging as well as rewarding. Starter studens can lack confidence and might not have studied a languageformally before. Here are some tips to help you teach Starter classes. In Starter classesteachersare often faced with a mixture of real beginners and'false'beginners. Here are some tips to help you deal with teaching low-level mixed-ability classes. o Each lessonin the Student'sBook is carefully stagedand takes students step-by-stepfrom presentation to practice. Go slowly and methodically through the material exercise by exercise,making sure that students understand each point before moving on. . Keep your instructions in classshort, clear and to the point. Studentscan often get lost if the teachertalks too much in English. It is perfectly acceptableto use imperatives to give instructions (Looh at acercise3. Worh in pairs., etc.). Teachthe words and phrasesin Classroom Instructions, SBp127 early in the course. o Most exercisesin the Student'sBook have an example aheady filled in. Use these examples to check that the class knows what to do before asking studens to work on their own or in pairs. o Take time to demonstrate communicative activities with the class.At Starter level, demonstration is often a more effective way to give instructions than describing what to do. You can demonstrateactivities yourself or by using a confident student as your partner. o Do a lot of drilling. This helps to build students' confidence and allows them time to practise new language in a controlled way All new vocabulary grarnrn r andReal Worldlanguage is included on the Class Audio CDs to provide clear models of new language.Seethe tips on drilling on p20. . Using the board is particularly important with Starter studens. In the TeachingNotes (p2l-p99) thrs iconl@ indicates a point in the lessonwhere it may be useful for . you to use the board. o When using the board, try to involve students in what you are writing by asking questions (Whatl the nut word?, Wherel the stress?,etc.). Give students time to copy what you have written and leave useful languageon the board so that students can refer to it during the lesson. o Show students theLanguageSummaneson SBp100-pll9 early on in the course and encourage them to refer to these in class and when doing homework. o Starter students need a lot of revision and recycling throughout the course. Seethe tips on reviewing and recycling on p20. o It is, of course,very useful to know the students' first language.If you have a monolingual class,you rnay want to use the students' language to give or check instructions for speaking activities, or to deal with students' queries. However, try to speak to the class in English as much as possible, as this will help establish the classroom as an English-speaking environment. o Rememberthat at Starter level, encouragementand praise are very important, particularly for weaker studens. o Work at the pace of the averagestudent. Try not to let the fastestor slowest students dictate the pace. o To prevent stronger students from dominating, nominate the quieter ones to answer easierquestions. o Ask stronger and more confident students to demonstrate activities for the whole class. o Allow time for students to check answers in pairs or groups before checking with the whole class. o Encouragestronger students to help weaker ones; for example, if a student has finished an activiql ask him/her to work with a slower student. o Give students time to think by asking them to write down answers rather than calling them out. This helps prevent the more able students from dominating the class. o When monitoring during pair and group work, go to the weaker students first to check that they have understood the instructions and are doing the activity correctly o Plan which studens are going to work together in pair and group work. Vary the interaction so that stronger students sometimeswork with weaker students, and at other times (for example, during freer speaking activities) students work with other students of the samelevel. o Dont feel that you have to wait for everyonein the class to finish an exercise.It is usually best to stop an activity when most of the classhas finished. . Vary the amount and tlpe of correction you give according to the level of the student, in order to push stronger students and to avoid overwhelming those who are less confident. Rememberto praise successfulcommunication as well as correct language. o Give weaker students extra homework from the Workbook or the CD-ROM/Audio CD to help them catch up with areasof languagethe rest of the classis confident with. Listening o For most Starter students,listening to spoken English is usually very challenging. Be sensitive to the difficulties that students might be having and play a recording several times if necessary o At this level, activities where students listen and tead at the same time are very useful, as they allow srudents to 'tune in' to spoken English and make the connection between what they hear and the written word. Make full use of the'listen and read' activities in the Student'sBook in your classes.For other listening activities, you can ask students to read the Recording Scrips (SBpl20-p125) when they listen and check their answers. o Before asking students to listen to a recordinS, establish the context, the charactersand what information you want them to listen for.
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