Tài liệu Environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming in tam giang lagoon, vietnam local perception

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LOCAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF SHRIMP FARMING IN TAM GIANG LAGOON, VIETNAM. TUONG PHI LAI A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Science (Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture) Submitted to: Norwegian University of Life Sciences Department of International Environment and Development Studies June, 2005 The Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, is the international gateway for the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). Eight departments, associated research institutions and the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine in Oslo. Established in 1986, Noragric’s contribution to international development lies in the interface between research, education (Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes) and assignments. The Noragric Master theses are the final theses submitted by students in order to fulfil the requirements under the Noragric Master programme “Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture” (MNRSA), “Development Studies” and other Master programmes. The findings in this thesis do not necessarily reflect the views of Noragric. Extracts from this publication may only be reproduced after prior consultation with the author and on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation contact Noragric. © Tuong Phi Lai, June 2005 E-mail: tuongphilai@yahoo.com Formatted: French (France) Noragric Department of International Environment and Development Studies P.O. Box 5003 N-1432 Ås Norway Tel.: +47 64 96 52 00 Fax: +47 64 96 52 01 Internet: http://www.umb.no/noragric Formatted: English (U.S.) ii DECLARATION I, Tuong Phi Lai, do hereby declare to the Senate of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, that this dissertation is entirely the product of my own original research work, unless where it is acknowledged, and that it has not been submitted to any other University or academic institution for award of any degree. ------------------------(TUONG PHI LAI) -----------------Date iii Acknowledgements I am thankful for Dr Nguyen Viet Nam and Msc Tran Van Nhuong - who paved the way for me to attain a NORAD scholarship by giving information and encouragement. I also would like to express my gratitude to Prof. Ian Bryceson, my main supervisor for his patience in correction of my English and straightforwardness in guidance for completion of this study. My hearty thanks are also given to my local supervisor Dr Le Thanh Luu for his valuable guidance and administrative support during my fieldwork. Special thanks NORAD for awarding me the scholarship provided an opportunity to improve my knowledge. Many gratitude are given to to all Noragric staff for their academic presentations and hosting me in Norway. I am thankful to Mr Nguyen Luong Hien, Mr Nguyen Quang Vinh Binh, Ms Vo Tuyet Hong, Mr Tran Xuan Binh and Ms Lam Thi Thu Suu for providing me valuable information and academic knowledge for carrying out the fieldwork in the study area. Personally, I heartily would like to express many thanks to Mr Phan Van Xuan, Mr Chau Ngoc Phi and Mr Le The Nhan who worked so hard with me in field and helped me a lot in primary collecting data. Additionally, I would like to thank all the people as to whom I can not name all here: Ngo Trung Nhat Quang, Pham Quang Anh Khoi, Phan Thanh Anh Dung and all participants from three communes for their valuable assistance and patience during the field survey. Many thanks are given to Nguyen Dac Ve, Lai Duy Phuong, Lai Thi Hoa, Ho Cong Huong, Nguyen Van Khanh, Van Thi Thu Vinh, Tran Thi Nguyet Minh, Nguyen Van Tuan, and Dinh Hung for their assistance in data collection; many thanks also given to Mai Van Tai, Shagufta Jeelani and Ngo Thi Thom for their assistance in correcting my languages and academic comments in this thesis. I also would like to thank the Diversity Enhancement Fund (DEF) for a partial financial support during my student’s life in Norway. Special thanks are given to Ms Nguyen Thi Thanh Binh and other staff in Centre for Educational Exchange in Vietnam (CEEVN). Last but not the least, my hearty thanks to my parents and my friends and those who always provided me encouragement and who contributed in various ways towards the accomplishment of this study. iv Abstract Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major economic activities in coastal areas of Vietnam. However, the relation between shrimp aquaculture and coastal environmental and social issues are not well documented in the Tam Giang lagoon. This thesis focused on the environmental and social implications of shrimp aquaculture in three coastal shrimp farming communes: Phu An, Phu Da and Vinh Ha in Phu Vang district. The links between the impacts of shrimp farming and policies, institutions and farming practices were investigated. Attention was paid to both negative and positive impacts of shrimp farming. Local people's perceptions of these factors were investigated using a participatory approach. We found that people perceived that waste discharges, fishery reduction, habitat destruction and salinisation of soil to be the foremost environmental impacts of shrimp farming. Meanwhile, conflicts among shrimp farmers, traders, fishers and rice-farmers are important social impacts. In addition, debt burden, migration of women and conflicts of interests among resource users and sectors and local government were also considered to be critical issues. However, shrimp farming also significantly contributes to income generation, employment creation and livelihood diversification in coastal poor communities. The sector contributed to changing the livelihoods of local people from subsistence and small-commodity production into commercial production, that in the long run are important for local communities in the context of trade liberalization and globalisation. The environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming are strongly linked to economic reforms, aquaculture promotion policies and the management of local government and local farming practices. We highlighted the need to internalise the externalities of shrimp farming sector. We recommend the introduction of environmentally friendly aquaculture within the framework of community-based and integrated coastal area management. We also recommend the necessity of adjustment of institutional frameworks to enhance environmental protection and improve the feasibility of aquaculture planning and building capacity for local authorities and lagoon resource users. v List of Abbreviations and Acronyms CRES Centre for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies CSSH Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities DFID DOFI DOSTE EIA EJF Department for International Development Provincial Department of Fisheries Provincial Department of Science, Technology and Environment Environmental Impacts Assessment Environmental Justice Foundation FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations GO Government Organization HIO HSU Hai Phong Institute of Oceanography Hue Science University ICLARM International Centre for Living Aquatic Resource Management IDRC IFEP IUCN MOFI MOSTE MPI International Development Research Centre Institute for Fisheries and Economic Planning World Conservation Union Ministry of Fisheries of Vietnam Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Ministry of Planning and Investment NACA NEA NGO NORAD Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific National Environment Agency Non-Government Organisation Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation PCC People Committee of Commune PCD PCP People Committee of District People Committee of Province PRA RAMSAR Participatory Rural Appraisals The convention of wet land resources reservation RIA RIMF RRA SLA/F SRV Research Institute for Aquaculture Research Institute for Marine Fisheries Rapid Rural Appraisals Sustainable Livelihood Approach/Framework Socialist Republic of Vietnam UNDP VND United Nations Development Programme Vietnamese currency Unit (Đong) vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abstract List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 1 1.1. Objectives of the study........................................................................................... 10 1.2. Research questions................................................................................................. 10 MATERIALS AND METHODS ............................................................... 11 2.1. Study area............................................................................................................... 11 2.2. Site selection .......................................................................................................... 14 2.3. Data collection techniques ..................................................................................... 16 2.3.1. Secondary data collection ............................................................................... 16 2.3.2. Primary data collection ................................................................................... 17 2.3.3. Standard survey............................................................................................... 18 2.4. Analytical framework ............................................................................................ 21 2.5. Data processing and analysis ................................................................................. 22 2.6. Limitations of the study ......................................................................................... 22 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SHRIMP FARMING .................. 23 3.1. Areal expansion ..................................................................................................... 23 3.2. Water consumption ................................................................................................ 25 3.3. Feed use ................................................................................................................. 26 3.4. Chemicals use ........................................................................................................ 27 3.5. Waste discharge ..................................................................................................... 29 3.6. Disease issues......................................................................................................... 31 3.7. Destruction of nursery beds and breeding grounds................................................ 34 3.8. Effects on sea-grasses ............................................................................................ 36 3.9. Impacts on fisheries ............................................................................................... 38 3.10. Salinisation of agriculture land ............................................................................ 40 SOCIAL IMPACTS OF SHRIMP FARMING ....................................... 43 4.1. Income generation.................................................................................................. 43 4.2. Employment........................................................................................................... 44 4.3. Shifting of livelihoods............................................................................................ 46 4.4. Changes in living conditions.................................................................................. 49 4.5. The risks in shrimp business .................................................................................. 51 4.6. Debt issues ............................................................................................................. 55 4.7. Gender issues ......................................................................................................... 58 4.8. Conflicts among resource users ............................................................................. 59 4.9. Conflicts among sectors and policies..................................................................... 66 CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................... 71 REFERENCES............................................................................................ 74 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Aquaculture production of Penaeus monodon by countries (1980-2002)........... 2 Figure 2. Map research site: Phu Vang district in Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon, Vietnam 11 Figure 3. Analytical framework for environmental and social impacts of shrimp farming ........................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 4. Extensive net-enclosure (left) and intensive shrimp aquaculture (right) in Tam Giang lagoon..................................................................................................................... 25 Figure 5. Map of nursery sites in and the replacement of those sites by shrimp farming Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon system.................................................................................. 35 Figure 6. Net enclosure aquaculture (left) and fishing boats (right) in Tam Giang lagoon ........................................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 7. Numbers of shrimp farmers and shrimp traders in three communes in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon ............................................................................................... 45 Figure 8. Original livelihoods of present shrimp farmers in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon................................................................................................................................ 48 Figure 9. Proportion of farm affected by disease in Phu Vang district and Tam Giang lagoon................................................................................................................................ 52 Figure 10. Perceived levels of risk in relation to various livelihoods............................... 54 Figure 11. Shrimp farming, transportation and fishing activities in Tam Giang lagoon .. 62 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Overview of Potential Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Pond Construction and Operation (reproduced from Clay, 1996 cited in Tobey et al., 1998)................................. 5 Table 2. Overview of Potential Social and Economic Impacts of Shrimp Pond Construction and Operation (reproduced from Clay, 1996 cited in Tobey et al., 1998) .... 6 Table 3. Development trend of shrimp farming in Vietnam: area, production and yield... 7 Table 4. Baseline socio-economic data in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon............ 12 Table 5. Gross Domestic Production of economic activities in coastal area and Tam Giang lagoon (Unit: million VND)................................................................................... 13 Table 6. Baseline data of shrimp aquaculture in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon.. 13 Table 7. General criteria for selection of study sites in Tam Giang lagoon, Thua Thien Hue province..................................................................................................................... 14 Table 8. Specific criteria for study site selection in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon ........................................................................................................................................... 15 Table 9. Number of respondents in different groups under impacts of shrimp farming in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon (N=294 respondents)............................................ 18 Table 10. Criteria for characterizing farming system in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon................................................................................................................................ 19 Table 11. Numbers of respondents from different shrimp farm systems in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon ............................................................................................... 20 Table 12. Water consumed by shrimp farming as estimated through interviews............. 26 viii Deleted: 51 Deleted: 61 Table 13. Usage of pellets and raw-fish or home-made feed in shrimp farms in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon (N=100 respondents)............................................................. 26 Table 14. Chemicals and drugs use in shrimp farming in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon................................................................................................................................ 28 Table 15. Estimations of solids waste discharged from shrimp farming.......................... 29 Table 16. Local perception about effects of shrimp farming waste on the lagoon water quality (N=294 respondents) ............................................................................................ 30 Table 17. Proportion of shrimp farms that encountered disease and their responses in Phu Vang district in 2004 (N=294 respondents)...................................................................... 33 Table 18. Local perceptions about the effects of shrimp farming on nursery and breeding ground in Tam Giang lagoon (N=294 respondents) ......................................................... 35 Table 19. Local perspectives on the effect of shrimp farming on the sea-grass condition in Tam Giang lagoon (N=294 rspondents) ........................................................................... 37 Table 20. Local perspectives on the effect of shrimp farming expansion on the reduction of fishery production in the lagoon (N=294 respondents) ................................................ 38 Table 21. Factors effecting lagoon fishery resource reduction in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon..................................................................................................................... 39 Table 22. Local perspectives concerning the effect of shrimp farming on salinisation of agriculture land in Tam Giang lagoon (N=294 respondents) ........................................... 41 Table 23. Various income sources of local people in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon (N=294 respondents)............................................................................................. 43 Table 24. Numbers of shrimp households and jobs related to shrimp farming in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon ............................................................................................... 44 Table 25. Numbers of jobs in different shrimp farming systems in Tam Giang area (N=100 respondents)......................................................................................................... 46 Table 26. Local people’s identification of rich and poor in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon................................................................................................................................ 47 Table 27. Original livelihoods of present shrimp farmers in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon (N=100 respondents)............................................................................................. 47 Table 28. Background of shrimp farmers in relation to different farming systems in Tam Giang lagoon (N= 100 respondents) ................................................................................. 48 Table 29. Local perspectives on the impacts of shrimp farming on the living condition of local community (N=294 respondents)............................................................................. 50 Table 30. Proportion of diseased farms in the three communes in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon during 2004 ................................................................................................ 52 Table 31. Proportion of shrimp farm failures due to disease outbreaks in different farming systems in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon in 2004................................................ 53 Table 32. Local people's perspective on the risk level of different livelihood options in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang area................................................................................... 53 Table 33. Debt situation of different livelihood groups in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang area (N=294 respondents) ................................................................................................. 56 Table 34. Debt situation of shrimp farmers in Phu Vang district, Tam Giang lagoon (N=100 farms)................................................................................................................... 57 Table 35. Local perception of the conflicts among resource users in Tam Giang lagoon 60 ix Deleted: 59 INTRODUCTION The shrimp aquaculture industry is looked upon as a highly profitable business in several developing countries. The sector attracts a range of investors including the state, private enterprises and external assistance in many of these nations. During the last two decades, shrimp aquaculture has become a major sector of aquaculture in terms of space occupied and market values. There has been a rapid expansion of shrimp aquaculture in many parts of the tropical world since 1980s (Gräslund & Bengtsson, 2001). In 1975, shrimp aquaculture contributed to 2.5% of total shrimp production, which gradually increased to around 30% of total shrimp supply in the 1990s (Rönnbäck, 2002). Global production of farm shrimp increased from 71,000 tons in 1980 to 1,271,000 tons in 2001, in which 80% production from Asia (FAO, 2004). In the South East Asia, the production of cultured crustaceans increased by over 500% between 1981 and 1995 (FAO 1997a cited by Gräslund & Bengtsson, 2001). By 1998, the total shrimp aquaculture in the region was 580,000 tones, i.e. slightly more than the quantity of shrimp caught in the wild (Gräslund & Bengtsson, 2001). Today shrimp makes up only 3-4% of global aquaculture production by weight, but almost 15% by value (FAO 1999a cited by Rönnbäck, 2002). The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, accounts for more than fifty percent of the total shrimp aquaculture output (Rosenberry, 1999 cited by Rönnbäck, 2002). It is speculated that the market for shrimp will continue to grow and the demand for shrimp is likely to remain high and their farming will play a more important role in the future compared to capture by trawling (World Bank, 1998). In Thailand, which is the largest producer of farmed shrimp in the world, the shrimp industry as a whole employs more than 150,000 people of which some 97,000 are directly involved in shrimp farming. It is estimated that 500,000 households are connected in some ways in shrimp farming and that for every 1 Thai Baht of shrimp produced there are ∼ 3.5 Thai Baht in associated industries (Kongkeo, 1994; World Bank 1995 cited by ODA, 1996). There were many examples of how shrimp farming contributes to improve livelihood of coastal community and benefits to both rich and poor people. The fact that 1 the majority of intensive shrimp farmers in Thailand were previously either poor fishermen or rice farmers could be considered evidence (Edward, 2000). Vietnam provides another example where shrimp are now produced by relatively poor households and production of often integrated as rice-shrimp and mangrove-shrimp aquaculture in the Mekong Delta (Edward, 2000). In addition there are a large number of poor people employed in shrimp farming as labour or small-scale traders indicating the economic opportunities offered by the sector (Nhuong et al., 2003). It is clear that shrimp farming is one of few options for economic development in poor coastal areas with saline soils. It has potential for enhancing small holders income, or to provide relatively wellpaid employment in comparison with other feasible alternatives in poor coastal areas (World Bank, 1998). 300,000 Production (tons) 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 T haia lnd I n don esia I n dia Viet n am Phip il pin es M alaysia Sr iLan ka M adagascar Chin a T aiw an ot her s (Source: FAO FishStat (2005), prepared by Ian Bryceson) Figure 1. Aquaculture production of Penaeus monodon by countries (1980-2002) 2 There is no doubt that shrimp aquaculture is a very important economic factor in many countries. However, many other environmental and social issues also need to be highlighted. Negative impacts included habitat degradation, pollution by nutrients and organic wastes from effluents and wastes, chemicals and medicinal residues to water and soil, salinisation of agricultural land and introductions of non-native species (World Bank, 1998). Hopkins et al. (1995) claimed that the main environmental concerns of shrimp farming have been the destruction of mangroves and other wetlands for the construction of shrimp ponds. More than 50% of the world’s mangroves have been removed, and the establishment of shrimp ponds has been a major cause behind this loss in many countries (Primavera, 1998; Rönnbäck, 2002). NACA reports that 20-50% of all current mangroves deforestation is due to shrimp farming. In areas of Ecuador and Thailand, large areas of mangroves have been destroyed for shrimp ponds (World Bank, 1998). There have been several studies focused on the impacts of shrimp farming on the salinisation of the soil and contamination of ground water since it encroaches on agriculture and the use of freshwater for farming. It is argued that for each metric ton of shrimp produced, intensive farms require 50-60 million of litres of water (Gujja & Finger Stitch, 1995). Seepage through pond bottoms, discharge of pond wastes into freshwater and seepage from pond sediments can contaminate freshwater with salt (Boy, 1997), canals and rice paddies (Funge-Smith & Steward, 1996). Shrimp farming can also create eutrophication, with increased risk of algal blooms, oxygen depletion and toxic chemical discharge such as sulphide and ammonia (Clay, 1996; Dieberg & Kiatimisimkul, 1996, Lin, 1995; Flaherty et al., 1995, Rönnbäck, 2002). Other impacts are linked to depletion of wild fish population (Primavera, 1998; Kautsky et al., 2000a) and human health in term of misuses of drugs and chemicals (Gräslund & Bengtsson, 2001). The worldwide transfers and introduction of preferred culture species might conflict with endemic fauna, causing biological pollution of native stock and introduction of diseases and parasites to wild stocks (Hopkins et al., 1995; Kautsky et al., 2000; Rönnbäck, 2002). 3 Regarding social impacts, critics claim that intensive farms are commonly associated with the better-off households. Shrimp exports bring substantial foreign exchange to developing countries and contribute to national short-term economic growth. It also improves income for some producers and labourers (Barraclough & Finger-Stich, 1996). However the long-term effect of the sector, particularly on the poorest group in coastal area, seems to be neglected by those who support the industry (Barraclough & FingerStich, 1996). The subsidies and institutional support goes to the companies and the rich meanwhile it is putting at risk the livelihood and food security of many coastal populations. After disease outbreak, most of the shrimp farm areas become polluted and abandoned with the mode of “rape and run” production. In Taiwan production collapsed over three consecutive years (80,000 tons in 1988 to 9,000 tons in 1990). Similar experiences in the Gulf of Thailand caused losses estimated at about 40,000 ha of shrimp farm were abandoned due to consistent crop failures; they remain unused today (ODA, 1996). These areas have inhibited the spontaneous regeneration of vegetation and their use for agriculture, forestry and other aquaculture or related fishing activities (Barraclough & Finger-Stich, 1996). It was argued that the shrimp aquaculture has also brought about social displacement and marginalisation of fishers and small-scale farmers. It has also caused reduction of food production for local people on quality land used for other crops; the depletion of drinking water and loss in other environmental services have also been criticized (Barraclough & Finger-Stich, 1996; Rönnbäck, 2002). Recently shrimp farming has resulted in serious human rights violations and social conflicts in rural areas, particularly in Bangladesh and India, where there were over 100 Bangladeshi villagers killed in conflicts over land acquisition by the shrimp industry (Ahmed, 1997) consequently, Bangladeshi women and children were identified as the most affected victims of the disputed situation (EFJ, 2002 and Fatima, 2004). 4 Clay (1996 cited in CRC, 1998) has summarised major environmental and socioeconomic impacts of shrimp farming in Latin America. Many of these same impacts were observed in our study in Tam Giang lagoon, Vietnam. Table 1. Overview of Potential Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Pond Construction and Operation (reproduced from Clay, 1996 cited in Tobey et al., 1998) 5 Table 2. Overview of Potential Social and Economic Impacts of Shrimp Pond Construction and Operation (reproduced from Clay, 1996 cited in Tobey et al., 1998) In Vietnam, shrimp farming plays an important economic role; it holds third position in contributing to the export earnings of foreign exchange and it is considered to be one of the most significant and attractive livelihoods to farmers in coastal areas (Nhuong et. al., 2002). The sector has been initiated since the 1980’s and it is seen as export-oriented and fuelled by the government support, private sector and external assistance. There are different shrimp farming systems found in country but extensive and improved extensive systems are dominating the sector (MOFI, 1999; Nhuong et al., 2003). 6 Table 3. Development trend of shrimp farming in Vietnam: area, production and yield Production Yield (tons) (Kg/ha) Year Area (ha) 1995 251 334 56 344 224 1999 255 000 100 000 392 2001 478 800 162 713 340 2002 530 000 180 000 340 (Source: Nhuong et al., 2003) Development of shrimp farming in Vietnam has recently experienced a trend of increasing intensification together with expansion of area. In 1999 the total shrimp area was about 255,000 ha and increased up to 530,000 ha in 2002, more than double. The MOFI has now established the new target of 700,000 ha of shrimp farming in 2005. Together with the rapid development of shrimp farming, there are also several negative social and environmental problems, and recently trading competitive and anti-dumping issues. One of the most serious environmental problems is the pressure of expanding shrimp farming on the coastal environmental resources, particularly mangrove forests. Data shows that from 1943 to 2000, there was a reduction of about 290,000 hectares of mangroves in Vietnam: the reduction of forest coverage in this period result from aquaculture development, particularly in the Mekong delta (EJF, 2003; Wade H, 2002; Nhuong et al., 2002). The majority of coastal farming areas after 2000 resulted from transferring low productivity rice fields, while the minority of them originated from mangrove forest (MOFI, 2001). The disadvantages of mangrove forest destruction have been shown clearly such as the reduction of biodiversity, coastal erosion, and salinisation of agricultural land, which threatens the sustainable development of shrimp farming (Hong, 1999). Additionally, evidence shows the signals of environmental pollution appeared in many zones of intensive farming as well as shortage of freshwater and reduction of underground water in sandy shrimp farming zones. The discharge of waste 7 directly to the environment causes harm and increases the risk of spreading epidemic diseases which damages the interests of shrimp farmers themselves. Since 1994-1995, epidemics spread widely in southern provinces, influencing 84,858 hectares of shrimp area and caused a loss of VND 249 billion (MOFI, 1996). In 2001 and 2002, shrimp diseases continued to threaten and cause great damages to farmers in the Mekong delta (Nhuong et al., 2002). Although shrimp culture has been practiced for more than 15 years in Vietnam, an institutional framework for environmental management of shrimp farming area first came into effect in 2002 and applied to concentrated shrimp farming areas only. However, there were no guidelines for the preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports of shrimp farms until 2004 although it was legally required since 1998. In addition, most of recent EIA reports focus on the impacts of intensive farming project levels only (less than 200 hectares), and there are few documents addressing the negative impacts of shrimp farming at the communal, district and provincial levels. Consequently, the environmental impacts and wider externalities are usually overlooked in the Master Plan of Development and Master Plan of Aquaculture (Hoi & Dung, 2004). In Vietnam, the negative impacts of shrimp farming have been carefully studied at national level and intensive project level. However, most previous studies focused on identifying the types of impacts rather than understanding the causes of those impacts. Moreover it seems that much attention was paid to the impacts of shrimp aquaculture on mangrove reduction and water pollution, but there are few documents written about the environmental and social impacts of encroachment of shrimp ponds into lagoons despite the fact that these are important ecosystems in coastal areas. The Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon system is well known in Vietnam and is one of the largest coastal lagoons in South-East Asia. The lagoon plays an important role, not only for provincial socio-economic development, but also for national wetland programs. It is known that the lagoons provide important spawning, feeding and nursery grounds for fish and shellfish, which are the foundation for fishery and aquaculture. More importantly, the 8 lagoon is important to larger numbers of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds, which have attracted the attention of scientists preparing proposals for RAMSAR site (DOSTE, 2004). The lagoons are thought to provide coastal protection to prevent saltwater intrusion inland and to regulate the microclimate of densely inhabited and intensively cultivated coastal areas. The lagoons also facilitate boat transport between towns and villages along their shores, and provide sheltered ports for ocean-going vessels. PCP, (1998) considered this area as a valuable resource with important ecological functions that should be managed, conserved and developed in sustainable way. Previously, several studies have been carried out in the Tam Giang related to water monitoring, community based natural resource management, environmental management in coastal aquaculture. However, despite the growing literature on the description of lagoon environment and its socio-economic characteristics, the relationships between human activities and the lagoon environment and poverty are still poorly understood, particularly the impacts of shrimp farming on the lagoon environment and on local livelihoods. It seems that although local people and researchers are aware of the problems, research on this topic has remained limited and does not provide information to local and central policy-makers for making appropriate plans and policies to achieve sustainable development of aquaculture and lagoon management. This study been conducted in Phu Vang district, a central area of the Tam Giang lagoon, in collaboration with ongoing projects: one conducting by the Research Institute of Aquaculture No. 1 (RIA No. 1), a government agency, the other practiced by the Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities (CSSH), a semi non-government organization (NGO): both projects were in cooperation with the Department of Fisheries (DOFI). The study attempts to provide a balanced analysis of both the positive and the negative impacts of shrimp farming on the environment and local livelihoods. We attempt to discuss the causes of problems and suggest solutions for shrimp aquaculture development within a framework of integrated coastal zone management. 9 1.1. Objectives of the study 1. To study local people's perceptions about the impacts of shrimp farming on the Tam Giang lagoon environment with emphasis on the major positive and negative aspects. 2. To study perceptions about the impacts of shrimp farming on livelihoods of local people in the lagoon community with emphasis on the major positive and negative aspects. 3. To discuss the role of policy, institutions and farming practices in relation to the negative impacts of shrimp farming 1.2. Research questions 1. Is shrimp farming perceived to negatively impact the lagoon environment, how and at what levels? 2. Is shrimp farming expansion perceived to benefit or harm the poorest groups in the local community and if so, how? 3. How do policies, institution and farming practices link in relation to those identified impacts of shrimp farming? 10 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. Study area The lagoon of Tam Giang-Cau Hai is located at16º17’ - 16º40’N and 107º25’ - 107 º 57’ E along five districts of Thua Thien Hue in the central province of Vietnam. It comprises a series of coastal lagoons, covering 22.000 ha. Tam Giang – Cau Hai is one of the largest lagoons in Southeast-Asia and is separated from the open sea by a large sand dune system. Even though the lagoons occupies about 4.5% of total area of Thue-Thien Hue, it provides livelihood for 350.000 inhabitants, about 32% of the total population of the province (DOFI, 2002). (Prepared by: Nguyen Van Khanh, 2004) Figure 2. Map research site: Phu Vang district in Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon, Vietnam Tam Giang – Cau Hai has a tropical climate. The mean annual temperature is 25.2 ºC with little variation. Thua-Thien Hue is one of the areas with highest rainfall in Vietnam; 11
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