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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC QUY NHƠN DƯƠNG BẠCH NHẬT – NGUYỄN THỊ XUÂN TRANG ENGLISH IN SOCIAL WORK Faculty of Psychology, Social work and Special Education Quy Nhon, 2009 CONTENTS OF THE COURSE Titles 45 pages periods LESSON 1: NATURE OF SOCIAL WORK 4 2 LESSON 2: ORIGINS 4 5 LESSON 3: TYPES OF SOCIAL WORK 4 9 LESSON 4: WORK ENVIRONMENT - EMPLOYMENT 4 13 LESSON 5: TRAINING (1) 4 16 LESSON 6: TRAINING – QUALIFICATIONSADVANCEMENT (2) 4 19 LESSON 7: NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS 4 22 LESSON 8: STANDARDS FOR PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND DEVELOPMENT 4 27 LESSON 9: TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL INTERVENTION 4 31 LESSON 10: CONTEMPORARY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 4 34 FURTHER READINGS 37 BIBLIOGRAPHY 47 1 LESSON 1 NATURE OF SOCIAL WORK Social work is a profession for those with a strong desire to help improve people’s lives. Social workers assist people by helping them cope with issues in their everyday lives, deal with their relationships, and solve personal and family problems. Some social workers help clients who face a disability or a life-threatening disease or a social problem, such as inadequate housing, unemployment, or substance abuse. Social workers also assist families that have serious domestic conflicts, sometimes involving child or spousal abuse. Some social workers conduct research, advocate for improved services, engage in systems design or are involved in planning or policy development. Many social workers specialize in serving a particular population or working in a specific setting. - Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Social Workers. Social work is a discipline involving the application of social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people, groups, and societies. It incorporates and uses other social sciences as a means to improve the human condition and positively change society's response to chronic problems. Social work is a profession committed to the pursuit of social justice, to the enhancement of the quality of life, and to the development of the full potential of each individual, group and community in society. It seeks to simultaneously address and resolve social issues at every level of society and economic status, but especially among the poor and sick. Social workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. They work with individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Social work has its roots in the struggle of society to deal with poverty and the resultant problems. Therefore, social work is intricately linked with the idea of charity work; but must be understood as distinctly different as well. The concept of charity goes back to ancient times, and the practice of providing for the poor has roots in all major world religions. Today social workers are employed in a myriad of pursuits and settings. Professional social workers are generally considered those who hold a professional degree in social work and often also have a license or are professionally registered. Social workers have organized themselves into local, national, and international professional bodies to further the aims of the profession. 2 New words: - cope (v) : giải quyết - chronic (adj) : kinh niên - client (n) : khách hàng - pursuit (v) : theo đuổi - inadequate (adj) : không đầy đủ - justice (n) : sự công bằng - resolve (v) : giải quyết - impact (n) : sự ảnh hưởng - substance abuse (n) : lạm dụng chất gây nghiện - advocate (n) : ủng hộ - intricately (adv) : rắc rối - engage (v) : tham gia - myriad (n) : vô số - incorporate (v) : bao gồm EXERCISES A. COMPREHESION QUESTIONS I. Match the definitions in column B with the words in column A: A B 1. cope a. at the same time 2. assist b. row at home 3. disability c. deal with 4. clients d. defend or support 5. inadequate e. the public opinion in the society 6. substance abuse f. the act of following sth. 7. domestic conflicts g. give support 8. spousal h. have a deep knowledge 9. advocate i. influences 10. engage k. marriage 11. specialize l. not adequate 12. chronic m. one who consults a legal adviser 13. social justice n. participate 14. pursuit o. relating to time 15. simultaneously p. state of being disabled 16. impacts q. using drug in a wrong way 17. incorporate r. aim of obtaining sth 18. myriad s. a big number 19. pursuit t. work together with 20. settings u. way or place sth is fixed II. True (T) or False (F)? 1. Social work doesn’t require uncommon dedication to strive for social reform. 2. Social workers help people function the best way they can in their environment, but they do not concern themselves in helping people dealing with their personal relationships. 3 3. Clients of social workers are not the people who face a life-threatening disease or a social problem. 4. The families that have serious conflicts can receive assistance from social workers. 5. If you can’t find a job, you can ask social workers for their assistance. 6. You are not a client of social workers in the case that your son is a drug addict. 7. Social workers never participate in making policy of the government. 8. There are social workers who investigate the population of the world. 9 Thanks to the social workers’ contribution, the social life is improved. 10. Social workers work with not only an individual but also a large group of people. 11. Social work and charity are the same concept. 12. Most social workers specialize. III. Answer the following questions 1. What are similarities in defining ‘social work’ between Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 and Wikipedia encyclopedia? 2. What are differences in defining ‘social work’ between Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 and Wikipedia encyclopedia? 3. What did social work derive from? B- GRAMMAR Questions - Simple present tense Make questions for the underlined parts 1- Social workers are employed in a myriad of pursuits and settings. 2- It incorporates and uses other social sciences. 3- They work with individuals, families, groups, organizations and communities. 4- Social work has its roots in the struggle of society. 5- Social workers assist people by helping them cope with issues in their everyday lives. 4 LESSON 2 ORIGINS -WESTERN WORLDDuring the Middle Ages, the Christian church had vast influence on European society and charity was considered to be a responsibility and a sign of one’s piety. This charity was in the form of direct relief (for example, giving money, food, or other material goods to alleviate a particular need), as opposed to trying to change the root causes of poverty. The practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern (19th century) and scientific origin. Social work, as a profession or pursuit, originated in the 19th century. The movement began primarily in the United States and England. After the end of feudalism, the poor were seen as a more direct threat to the social order, and so the state formed an organized system to care for them. In England, the Poor Law served this purpose. This system of laws sorted the poor into different categories, such as the able bodied poor, the impotent poor, and the idle poor. This system developed different responses to these different groups. Social work involves ameliorating social problems such as poverty and homelessness. The 19th century ushered in the Industrial Revolution. There was a great leap in technological and scientific achievement, but there was also a great migration to urban areas throughout the Western world. This led to many social problems, which in turn led to an increase in social activism. Also with the dawn of the 19th century came a great "missionary" push from many Protestant denominations. Some of these mission efforts (urban missions), attempted to resolve the problems inherent in large cities like poverty, prostitution, disease, and other afflictions. In the United States workers known as "friendly visitors", stipended by church and other charitable bodies, worked through direct relief, prayer, and evangelism to alleviate these problems. In Europe, chaplains or almoners were appointed to administrate the church's mission to the poor. Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement and is considered one of the early influences on professional social work in the United States. During this time, rescue societies were initiated to find more appropriate means of self-support for women involved in prostitution. Mental asylums grew to assist in taking care of the mentally ill. A new philosophy of "scientific charity" emerged, which stated charity should be "secular, rational and empirical as opposed to sectarian, sentimental, and dogmatic." In the late 1880s, a new system to provide aid for social ills came in to being, which became known as the settlement movement. The settlement movement focused on the causes of poverty through the "three Rs" - Research, Reform, and Residence. They provided a variety of services including educational, legal, and health services. These programs also 5 advocated changes in social policy. Workers in the settlement movement immersed themselves in the culture of those they were helping. In America, the various approaches to social work led to a fundamental question - is social work a profession?,… Even as many schools of social work opened and formalized processes for social work began to be developed, the question lingered. In 1915, at the National Conference of Charities and Corrections, Dr. Abraham Flexner spoke on the topic "Is Social Work a Profession?" He contended that it was not because it lacked specialized knowledge and specific application of theoretical and intellectual knowledge to solve human and social problems. This led to the professionalization of social work, concentrating on case work and the scientific method. New words - affliction (n) : sự khổ sở - stipend (v) : thu nhập chính thức - evangelism (n) : truyền giáo - chaplain (n) : cha tuyên uý - almoner (n) : người phát chẩn : yếu đuối - rescue (n) : sự cứu trợ - ameliorate (v) : cải thiện - asylum (n) : nơi an toàn - usher (v) : mở ra - secular (n) : thế tục - denomination (n) : nhóm tôn giáo - sectarian (n) : bè phái - mission (n) : nhiệm vụ - dogmatic (n) : giáo điều - charity (n) : lòng từ thiện - piety (n) : lòng mộ đạo - poverty (n) : sự nghèo đói - alleviate (v) : làm dịu đi - feudalism (n) : chế độ phong kiến - impotent (adj) EXERCISES A. COMPREHESION QUESTIONS I. Match the definitions in column B with the words in column A: A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. piety charity alleviate poverty feudalism sorted impotent ameliorating usher B a- a system based on the relationships between the lord and those subject to him. b- arrange sth in groups c- begin d- being poor e- beliefs and teachings f- causing improvement g- giving help to the needy h- help 6 10. leap 11. affliction 12. denomination 13. stipend 14. chaplain 15. evangelism 16. rescue 17. asylum 18. secular 19. trace back 20. linger i- hospital k- lessen / make easier to be endured l- name, type, classification m- not concerned with religious affairs n- obedience, faithfulness o- pay monthly salary p- person working in a church q- rapid increase r- the cause of continued pain of body or mind s- weak t- be unwilling to leave u- derive from II. Answer the following questions 1- When did the Christian church have vast influence on European society? 2- When was social work seen as a profession or pursuit? 3- Why was there an increase in social activism in the 19 th century? 4- What is “three Rs’? 5- What led to the professionalization of social work, concentrating on case work and the scientific method? III. Complete the following summary Social work as a defined pursuit and profession began in the (1) ………. century. This was in response to societal problems that resulted from the (2) ………………..and an increased interest in applying scientific theory to various aspects of study. Eventually an increasing number of educational institutions began to offer social work programs. The (3) ………………’s emphasis on advocacy and case work became part of social work practice. During the 20th century, the profession began to rely more on research and evidenced-based practice as it attempted to improve its professionalism. IV. Translate into Vietnamese: In America, the various approaches to social work led to a fundamental question – is social work a profession? This debate can be traced back to the early 20th century debate between Mary Richmond's Charity Organization Society (COS) and Jane Addams's Settlement House Movement. The essence of this debate was whether the problem should be approached from COS' traditional, scientific method focused on efficiency and prevention or the Settlement House Movement's immersion into the problem, blurring the lines of practitioner and client. 7 B. GRAMMAR: Questions - simple past tense  Make questions for the underlined parts 1- This charity was in the form of direct relief. 2- The movement began primarily in the United States and England. 3- There was a great leap in technological and scientific achievement. 4- Chaplains or almoners were appointed to administrate the church's mission to the poor. 5- Jane Addams was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement 8 LESSON 3 TYPES OF SOCIAL WORK 3.1. Child, family, and school social workers Child, family, and school social workers provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the well-being of families and the academic functioning of children. They may assist single parents, arrange adoptions, or help find foster homes for neglected, abandoned, or abused children. Some specialize in services for senior citizens. These social workers may run support groups for the children of aging parents; advise elderly people or family members about housing, transportation, long-term care, and other services; and coordinate and monitor these services. Through employee assistance programs, social workers may help people cope with job-related pressures or with personal problems that affect the quality of their work. In schools, social workers often serve as the link between students’ families and the school, working with parents, guardians, teachers, and other school officials to ensure students reach their academic and personal potential. In addition, they address problems such as misbehavior, truancy, and teenage pregnancy and advise teachers on how to cope with difficult students. Increasingly, school social workers teach workshops to entire classes. Child, family, and school social workers may also be known as child welfare social workers, family services social workers, child protective services social workers, occupational social workers, or gerontology social workers. They often work for individual and family services agencies, schools, or State or local governments. 3.2. Medical and public health social workers Medical and public health social workers provide psychosocial support to people, families, or vulnerable populations so they can cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, or AIDS. They also advise family caregivers, counsel patients, and help plan for patients’ needs after discharge from hospitals. They may arrange for at-home services, such as meals-on-wheels or home care. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evaluate certain kinds of patients - geriatric or organ transplant patients, for example. Medical and public health social workers may work for hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, individual and family services agencies, or local governments. 3.3. Mental health and substance abuse social workers Mental health and substance abuse social workers assess and treat individuals with mental illness or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. Such services include individual and group therapy, outreach, crisis intervention, 9 social rehabilitation, and teaching skills needed for everyday living. They also may help plan for supportive services to ease clients’ return to the community. Mental health and substance abuse social workers are likely to work in hospitals, substance abuse treatment centers, individual and family services agencies, or local governments. These social workers may be known as clinical social workers. 3.4. Other types of social workers Other types of social workers include social work administrators, planners and policymakers, who develop and implement programs to address issues such as child abuse, homelessness, substance abuse, poverty, and violence. These workers research and analyze policies, programs, and regulations. They identify social problems and suggest legislative and other solutions. They may help raise funds or write grants to support these programs. New words: - assistance (v) : sự giúp đỡ - psychological (adj) : tâm lý - adoption (n) : việc nhận con nuôi - abandon (v) : bỏ rơi - abuse (v) : lạm dụng - pressures (n) : áp lực - gerontology (n) : lão khoa - vulnerable (adj) : dễ bị tổn thương - acute (adj) : nghiêm trọng - transplant (v) : cấy ghép - therapy (n) : phép chữa bệnh - administrator (n) : nhà quản lý - legislative (n) : lập pháp EXERCISES A. COMPREHESION QUESTIONS I. Match the definitions in column B with the words in column A: A 1- misbehavor 2- abandoned children 3- truancy 4- assess B a- treatment b- children with no parents c- collect (money) d- escaping from school 10 5- entire 6- discharge 7- ease 8- therapy 9- raise 10- family caregiver e- help f- help to do sth easily g- leave h- person who look after patients at home i- whole k- wrong action II. Make two questions for each paragraph: Paragraph 1- Who …………………………………………? Paragraph 2- With whom ………………………………….? Paragraph 3- What kind ……………………………………? Paragraph 4- Why……..……………………………………? Paragraph 5- Whom ………………………………………..? Paragraph 6- What …………………………………………? III. What is the kind of social worker? a- Child, family, and school social workers b- Medical and public health social workers c- Mental health and substance abuse social workers d- Other types of social workers 1- Social workers help children the problems in social and physical function. 2- Social workers help ill people, disabled people. 3- Social workers help people with drug abuse problems. 4- Social workers help people with mental illness. 5- Social workers help children abandoned by their parents. 6- Social workers help 18-year-old pregnant girls 7- Social workers help wives beaten by their husbands. 8- Social workers help parents have meals-on-wheel. IV. Summarize the main idea of the whole reading passage: ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 B. GRAMMAR: Purpose: to-infinitive Re-read the reading passage and complete the following sentences with the verbs in the box: 1- Child, family, and school social workers provide social services and assistance to….. 2- Social workers often serve as the link between students’ families and the school, working with parents, guardians, teachers, and other school officials to ……. 3- School social workers teach workshops to ………classes. 4- Mental health and substance abuse social workers may help raise funds or write grants to………….. 5- Other types of social workers include social work administrators, planners and policymakers, who develop and implement programs to………….. improve address ensure entire ease 12 LESSON 4 WORK ENVIRONMENT – EMPLOYMENT 4.1. Work environment Social workers usually spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but they also may travel locally to visit clients, meet with service providers, or attend meetings. Some may meet with clients in one of several offices within a local area. Social work, while satisfying, can be challenging. Understaffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. To tend to patient care or client needs, many hospitals and long-term care facilities employ social workers on teams with a broad mix of occupations, including clinical specialists, registered nurses, and health aides. Full-time social workers usually work a standard 40-hour week, but some occasionally work evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some work part time, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies. 4.2. Employment Social workers held about 562,000 jobs in 2004. About 9 out of 10 jobs were in health care and social assistance industries, as well as State and local governments agencies, primarily in departments of health and human services. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. The following tabulation shows 2004 employment by type of social workers: Child, family, and school social workers 272,000 Medical and public health social workers 116,000 Mental health and substance abuse social workers 110,000 Social workers, all other 64.000 Social workers held about 595,000 jobs in 2006. About 5 out of 10 jobs were in health care and social assistance industries and 3 out of 10 are employed by State and local government agencies, primarily in departments of health and human services. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. The following tabulation shows 2006 employment by type of social workers: Child, family, and school social workers 282,000 Medical and public health social workers 124,000 Mental health and substance abuse social workers 122,000 Social workers, all other 66,000 13 New words: - residential (adj) : cư trú - facility (n) : điều kiện thuận lợi - satisfying (adj) : làm thoả mãn - challenging (adj) : thử thách - tend (v) : để đáp ứng - voluntary nonprofit agency : tổ chức phi lợi nhuận tình nguyện : bảng thống kê - tabulation (n) EXERCISES A. COMPREHESION QUESTIONS I. Match the information in column B with the words in column A: A B 2004 1-Child, family, and school social workers 2-Medical workers and public health a-one hundred and twenty four thousands social b-two hundred and seventy two thousands 3-Mental health and substance abuse c-one hundred and twenty two social workers thousands 4-Social workers, all other d-one hundred and sixteen thousands 5-Child, family, and school social workers e-one hundred and ten thousands 2006 6-Medical workers and public health social f-sixty six thousands 7-Mental health and substance abuse g-sixty four thousands social workers 8-Social workers, all other h-two hundred and eighty two thousands II. Answer the following questions: 1- How did the number of social workers increase within 2 years (from 2004-2006)? 2- Which group of social workers increased fastest? III. True (T) or False (F)? 1- Social workers hardly spend most of their time in an office or residential facility 2- Several social workers may meet with clients in one of several offices within a local area. 14 3- Social work is interesting and not difficult. 4- Social workers are employed on teams with a broad mix of occupations in many hospitals and long-term care facilities. 5- Full-time social workers usually work a standard 40-hour month. 6- Social workers are not allowed to work part-time. 7- Social workers have no free time because they always work on weekend days. IV. Summarize the main idea of the whole reading passage. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… B. GRAMMAR: Comparison Translate into English: 1- Có nhiều nhân viên công tác xã hội (CTXH) vào năm 2004 hơn năm 2006. 2- Ngành CTXH thú vị nhưng khó hơn các ngành khác. 3- Số lượng nhân viên của ngành CTXH về sức khoẻ tinh thần và lạm dụng chất gây nghiện tăng nhanh nhất. 4- Nhân viên CTXH chuyên về lạm dụng chất gây nghiện có công việc nguy hiểm hơn các ngành khác. 5- Nhân viên CTXH phải kiên nhẫn hơn các nghề khác. 6- Nhân viên CTXH làm việc bao nhiều giờ một tuần? 7- Tại sao công việc của nhân viên CTXH lại đầy thử thách? 15 LESSON 5 TRAINING (1) A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for entry into the occupation, but many positions require an advanced degree. All States and the District of Columbia have some licensure, certification, or registration requirement, but the regulations vary. Education and training. A bachelor’s degree in social work (BSW) is the most common minimum requirement to qualify for a job as a social worker; however, majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields may qualify for some entry-level jobs, especially in small community agencies. Although a bachelor’s degree is sufficient for entry into the field, an advanced degree has become the standard for many positions. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is typically required for positions in health settings and is required for clinical work as well. Some jobs in public and private agencies also may require an advanced degree, such as a master’s degree in social services policy or administration. Supervisory, administrative, and staff training positions usually require an advanced degree. College and university teaching positions and most research appointments normally require a doctorate in social work (DSW or Ph.D.). As of 2006, the Council on Social Work Education accredited 458 bachelor’s programs and 181 master’s programs. The Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education listed 74 doctoral programs in social work (DSW or Ph. D.) in the United States. Bachelor’s degree programs prepare graduates for direct service positions, such as caseworker, and include courses in social work values and ethics, dealing with a culturally diverse clientele and at-risk populations, promotion of social and economic justice, human behavior and the social environment, social welfare policy and services, social work practice, social research methods, and field education. Accredited programs require a minimum of 400 hours of supervised field experience. Master’s degree programs prepare graduates for work in their chosen field of concentration and continue to develop the skills required to perform clinical assessments, manage large caseloads, take on supervisory roles, and explore new ways of drawing upon social services to meet the needs of clients. Master’s programs last 2 years and include a minimum of 900 hours of supervised field instruction or internship. A part-time program may take 4 years. Entry into a master’s program does not require a bachelor’s degree in social work, but courses in psychology, biology, sociology, economics, political science, and social work are recommended. In addition, a second language can be very helpful. Most master’s programs offer advanced standing for those with a bachelor’s degree from an accredited social work program. Licensure. All States and the District of Columbia have licensing, certification, or registration requirements regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. Although standards for licensing vary by State, a growing number of States are placing greater emphasis on communications skills, professional ethics, and sensitivity to cultural 16 diversity issues. Most States require 2 years (3,000 hours) of supervised clinical experience for licensure of clinical social workers. New words: - bachelor (n) : cử nhân - concentration (n) : sự tập trung - entry-level (n) : trình độ đầu vào - perform (v) : trình bày - sufficient (adj) : đủ - recommend (v) : gợi ý - license (v) : cấp bằng - doctorate (n) : bằng cấp tiến sĩ - diversity (n) : sự đa dạng - accredit (v) : công nhận chính thức EXERCISES A. COMPREHESION QUESTIONS I. What are the following abbreviations? 1- B.A. :………………………………………………………………………… 2- M.A. :………………………………………………………………………… 3- MSW :………………………………………………………………………… 4- Ph.D. :………………………………………………………………………… 5- DSW :………………………………………………………………………… II. Answer the following questions: 1- What is the minimum requirement for entry into the occupation of social work? 2- What kind of degree do colleges and universities normally require in social work? 3- Which organizations have licensing, certification, or registration requirements regarding social work practice? III.True (T) or False (F)? 1- Many positions require a degree of M.A or Ph.D. 2- When applying for some social work jobs, applicants’ majors must be in psychology, sociology, and related fields. 3- University graduates are prepared for direct service positions. 4- Accredited programs require a minimum of 24,000 minuets of supervised field experience 5- Second language is necessary for social work. 6- A part-time program may take about 6,000 hours. 7- The number of States which are placing greater emphasis on communications skills is increasing. 17 IV. Summarize the main idea of the whole reading passage. …………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… B. GRAMMAR: Verb Phrase (V + full infinitive, V+Ving) Translate into English: 1- Tôi bồi dưỡng một số kỹ năng ngành CTXH để thực hành đánh giá trị liệu. 2- Nhân viên CTXH phải tìm tòi những phương pháp mới để đáp ứng nhu cầu của khách hàng. 3- Chúng tôi muốn theo học khoá học Thạc sĩ về chuyên ngành CTXH nhằm nâng cao kiến thức về các chuyên môn chính trong ngành của mình. 4- Các trường Đại Học cần các Tiến Sĩ về chuyên ngành CTXH để giảng dạy cho sinh viên thuộc chuyên ngành này. 5- Sinh viên phải có kiến thức tối thiểu thuộc chương trình Cử nhân về CTXH để có thể đủ kiện xin việc trong tương lai. 18 LESSON 6 TRAINING - QUALIFICATIONS - ADVANCEMENT (2) Other qualifications. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensitive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle responsibility, work independently, and maintain good working relationships with clients and coworkers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aid can help people test their interest in this field. Certification and advancement. The National Association of Social Workers offers voluntary credentials. Social workers with a master’s degree in social work may be eligible for the Academy of Certified Social Workers (ACSW), the Qualified Clinical Social Worker (QCSW), or the Diplomate in Clinical Social Work (DCSW) credential, based on their professional experience. Credentials are particularly important for those in private practice; some health insurance providers require social workers to have them in order to be reimbursed for services. Advancement to supervisor, program manager, assistant director, or executive director of a social service agency or department usually requires an advanced degree and related work experience. Other career options for social workers include teaching, research, and consulting. Some of these workers also help formulate government policies by analyzing and advocating policy positions in government agencies, in research institutions, and on legislators’ staffs. Some social workers go into private practice. Most private practitioners are clinical social workers who provide psychotherapy, usually paid for through health insurance or by the client themselves. Private practitioners must have at least a master’s degree and a period of supervised work experience. A network of contacts for referrals also is essential. Many private practitioners split their time between working for an agency or hospital and working in their private practice. They may continue to hold a position at a hospital or agency in order to receive health and life insurance. New words: - objective (adj) : khách quan - sensitive (adj) : nhạy bén - credential (n) : phẩm chất, giấy chứng nhận - eligible (adj) : thích hợp - reimburse (v) : bồi hoàn - legislator (n) : thành viên của cơ quan lập pháp - psychotherapy (n) : trị liệu tâm lý 19
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