Tài liệu English grammar in use - vietnamese (cực hay)

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Listening, thinking, and working Thanh Dâng, Khánh Nhon,17/07/2013 Unit 1. Present Continuous A. XÃt tÉnh huêng sau: Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work. Ann ½ang ò trong xe hïi. Cé Þy ½ang trãn ½õñng ½i l¿m. She is driving to work. Cé Þy ½ang l¾i xe ½i l¿m. CÝu n¿y cÍ nghËa l¿: Cé Þy bÝy giñ ½ang l¾i xe. TÂi thñi ½iæm ½ang nÍi, h¿nh ½îng l¾i xe chõa chÞm döt. Am/is/are -ing l¿ thÉ hièn tÂi tiäp diçn (present continuous) B. I am doing something = Téi ½ang l¿m vièc gÉ ½Í; Téi ½ang ò giùa thñi ½iæm l¿m céng vièc ½Í; Téi ½Á khòi sú v¿ chõa ho¿n tÞt céng vièc. Thõñng thÉ h¿nh ½îng ½ang xÀy ra tÂi thñi ½iæm nÍi:  Please don’t make so much noise. I’m working. (not 'I work'). Xin ½÷ng l¿m ën qu¾ nhõ vây. Téi ½ang l¿m vièc.  ’Where’s Margaret?’ ’She’s having a bath.’ (not 'she has a bath'). 'Margaret ò ½Ýu vây?' 'Cé Þy ½ang tØm'.  Let’s go out now. It isn’t raining any more. (not 'It doesn't rain'). BÝy giñ chÒng ta hÁy ½i ra ngo¿i. Trñi khéng cÎn mõa nùa.  (at a party) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not 'do you enjoy'). (tÂi mît buìi tièc) Xin ch¿o Jane. BÂn cÍ thÈch buìi tièc n¿y khéng?  I’m tired. I’m going to bed now. Goodnight! Téi mèt rëi. Téi ½i ngÔ bÝy giñ ½Ýy. ChÒc ngÔ ngon nhÃ! Nhõng h¿nh ½îng khéng nhÞt thiät xÀy ra tÂi thñi ½iæm ½ang nÍi. VÈ dÖ nhõ: Tom and Ann are talking in a café. Tom says: Tom v¿ Ann ½ang nÍi chuyèn trong qu¾n c¿phã. Tom nÍi: I’m reading an interesting book at the moment. I’ll lend it to you when I’ve finished it. LÒc n¿y téi ½ang ½Ñc mît quyæn s¾ch hay. Téi sÆ cho bÂn mõôn khi n¿o téi ½Ñc xong. Tom khéng ½Ñc s¾ch v¿o lÒc nÍi vði Ann. Anh Þy muên nÍi l¿ anh Þy ½Á khòi sú ½Ñc cuên s¾ch ½Í nhõng chõa ½Ñc xong. Anh Þy ½ang trong thñi gian ½Ñc. Xem thãm mît sê vÈ dÖ:  Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian. (V¿o thñi ½iæm nÍi cÍ thæ cé Þy khéng phÀi ½ang hÑc tiäng @).  Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope it will finished before next summer. ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present continuous khi nÍi vå nhùng vièc xÀy ra tÂi mît khoÀng thñi gian gßn vði lÒc nÍi, vÈ dÖ nhõ today (hém nay), this week (tußn n¿y), this evening (chiåu nay) v.v...  “You’re working hard today.” “Yes, I have a lot to do” (not 'you work hard today').  “Is Susan working this week?” “No, she’s on holiday”. C. ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present continuous khi nÍi vå nhùng thay ½ìi ½ang diçn ra trong thñi gian nÍi:  The population of the world is rising very fast. (not 'rise'). DÝn sê thä giði ½ang gia t×ng rÞt nhanh.  Is your English getting better? Tiäng Anh cÔa bÂn kh¾ hïn rëi chö? Unit 2. Present Simple A XÃt tÉnh huêng sau: Alex is bus driver, but now he is in bed asleep. So: He is not driving a bus. (He is asleep) but He drives a bus. (He is a bus driver.) (Alex l¿ mît t¿i xä l¾i xe buût, nhõng bÝy giñ anh Þy ½ang ngÔ). VÉ vây: Anh Þy khéng phÀi ½ang l¾i xe (Anh Þy ½ang ngÔ) nhõng Anh Þy l¾i xe buût. (Anh Þy l¿ t¿i xä xe buût). Drive(s)/Work(s)/Do(es), v.v... l¿ thÉ present simple (thÉ hièn tÂi ½ïn). ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present simple ½æ nÍi mît c¾ch chung chung vå nhùng sú vât hay sú vièc n¿o ½Í. Ta khéng chÊ riãng ½å câp ½än hièn tÂi m¿ théi. ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ n¿y ½æ nÍi vå nhùng sú vièc, h¿nh ½îng xÀy ra thõñng xuyãn hay lÜp ½i lÜp lÂi, hoÜc nhùng sú vièc hiæn nhiãn ½Òng nÍi chung. Sú vièc ½ang nÍi cÍ diçn ra lÒc ½Í hay khéng l¿ khéng quan trÑng.  Nurses look after patients in hospitals.  I usually go away at weekends.  The earth goes round the sun. HÁy nhð rÙng ta nÍi: he/she/it -s. #÷ng quãn thãm s v¿o ½îng t÷.  I work... nhõng He works...  They teach nhõng My sister teaches. B ChÒng ta dÓng do/does ½æ ½Üt cÝu nghi vÞn v¿ phÔ ½Ình: do does I/we/they he/she/it      I/we/you/they he/she/it don’t doesn’t work work? work? work I come from Canada. Where do you come from? “Would you like a cigarette?” “No, thanks. I don’t smoke”. What does this word mean? Rice doesn’t grow in cold climates. (LÒa khéng mÑc ½õôc ò vÓng khÈ hâu lÂnh) Trong nhùng vÈ dÖ sau do cÕng l¿ ½îng t÷ chÈnh:  “What do you do?” (= What's your job?) “I work in a shop”.  He’s so lazy. He doesn’t do anything to help me. (not 'He doesn't anything.') C ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present simple khi muên diçn ½Ât möc ½î thõñng xuyãn xÀy ra cÔa sú vièc:  I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.  Ann doesn’t drink tea very often.  In summer John usually plays tennis once or twice a week. D I promise/I apologise, v.v... Khi bÂn höa l¿m vièc gÉ ½Í, bÂn cÍ thæ nÍi I promise...; khi bÂn ½å nghÌ ½iåu gÉ, bÂn cÍ thæ nÍi I suggest.... ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present simple (promise/suggest v.v...) trong nhùng cÝu nhõ vây:  I promise I won’t be late. (not 'I'm promising').  “What do you suggest I do?”. “I suggest that you...” Tõïng tú chÒng ta nÍi: I apologise... / I insist....(nÙn nÉ) / I agree... (½ëng û) / I refuse (t÷ chêi) v.v... Unit 3. Present Continuous and present simple (1) A HÁy nghiãn cöu c¾c lñi giÀi thÈch v¿ so s¾nh c¾c vÈ dÖ sau: Present continuous (I am doing) HÁy dÓng thÉ Present Continuous ½æ diçn tÀ nhùng sú vièc xÀy ra ngay lÒc ta nÍi hay xung quanh thñi ½iæm ½Í, v¿ h¿nh ½îng chõa chÞm döt.  The water is boiling. Can you turn it off? (Nõðc ½ang séi. BÂn cÍ thæ tØt bäp ½õôc khéng)  Listen to those people. What language are they speaking? (HÁy nghe nhùng ngõñi kia. HÑ ½ang nÍi tiäng nõðc n¿o vây?)  Let’s go out. It isn’t raining now. (MÉnh ra ngo¿i ½i. Hièn trñi khéng mõa ½Ýu.)  “Don’t disturb me. I’m busy.” “Why? What are you doing?” ("#÷ng quÞy rßy téi. Téi ½ang bân." "Sao? BÂn ½ang l¿m gÉ ½Í?")  I am going to bed now. Goodnight! (Téi ½i ngÔ ½Ýy. ChÒc ngÔ ngon!)  Maria is in Britain at the moment. She’s learning English. (Maria hièn giñ ½ang ò Anh quêc. Cé Þy ½ang hÑc tiäng Anh.) HÁy dÓng thÉ Present Continuous ½æ diçn ½Ât mît tÉnh huêng hay trÂng th¾i cÍ tÈnh chÞt tÂm thñi:  I’m living with some friends until I find a flat. (Téi hièn ò chung vði mÞy ngõñi bÂn cho ½än khi téi tÉm ½õôc mît c×n hî.)  “You’re working hard today” “Yes, I’ve got a lot to do.” ("Hém nay bÂn l¿m vièc vÞt vÀ thât" "¹, mÉnh cÍ nhiåu vièc phÀi l¿m qu¾.") Xem thãm UNIT 1. Present Simple (I do) HÁy dÓng thÉ Present Simple ½æ ½å câp tði c¾c sú vièc mît c¾ch chung chung, hay nhùng sú vièc ½õôc lÜp ½i lÜp lÂi,  Water boils at 100 degrees celcius. (Nõðc séi ò 100 ½î C).  Excuse me. Do you speak English? (Xin líi. BÂn nÍi ½õôc tiäng Anh khéng?)  It doesn’t rain very much in the summer. (Trñi khéng mõa qu¾ nhiåu v¿o mÓa hÄ.)  What do you usually do at weekends? (BÂn thõñng l¿m gÉ v¿o cuêi tußn?)  I always go to bed before midnight. (Téi thõñng ½i ngÔ trõðc 12 giñ ½ãm)  Most people learn to swim when they are children. (Hßu hät mÑi ngõñi hÑc bïi khi hÑ cÎn nhÏ.) HÁy dÓng thÉ Present Simple ½æ diçn ½Ât mît tÉnh huêng hay trÂng th¾i cÍ tÈnh ìn ½Ình, lÝu d¿i:  My parents live in London. They have lived there for all their lives. (Cha mÇ téi sêng ò London. Hai ngõñi ½Á sêng ò ½Í suêt ½ñi.)  John isn’t lazy. He works very hard most of the time. (John khéng lõñi ½Ýu. Hßu nhõ lÒc n¿o anh Þy cÕng l¿m vièc rÞt ch×m chÊ.) Xem thãm UNIT 2. B I always do v¿ I'm always doing. Théng thõñng chÒng ta dÓng “I always do something” (=Téi lÒc n¿o cÕng l¿m vièc ½Í):  I always go to work by car. Téi luén ½i l¿m bÙng xe hïi. (khéng nÍi 'I'm always going'). BÂn cÕng cÍ thæ nÍi “I’m always doing something”, nhõng vði mît û nghËa kh¾c. LÞy vÈ dÖ:  I’ve lost my key again. I’m always losing things. Téi lÂi l¿m mÞt chÉa khÍa. Téi luén l¿m mÞt ½ë.  “I’m always losing things” khéng cÍ nghËa l¿ téi lÒc n¿o cÕng l¿m mÞt ½ë m¿ cÍ nghËa l¿ vièc téi l¿m mÞt ½ë xÀy ra qu¾ thõñng xuyãn, nhiåu hïn bÉnh thõñng.  “You’re always -ing” cÍ nghËa bÂn l¿m vièc ½Í rÞt thõñng xuyãn, sú thõñng xuyãn m¿ ngõñi nÍi cho l¿ nhiåu hïn bÉnh thõñng. Unit 4. Present Continuous and present simple (2) A ChÒng ta chÊ dÓng thÉ Present Continuous vði c¾c h¿nh ½îng hay c¾c sú kièn (nhõ they are eating/it is raining ...) Mît sê ½îng t÷, vÈ dÖ nhõ know v¿ like khéng phÀi l¿ nhùng ½îng t÷ h¿nh ½îng. BÂn khéng thæ nÍi 'I am knowing' hay 'they are liking'; BÂn chÊ cÍ thæ nÍi “I know”, “they like”. Nhùng ½îng t÷ sau ½Ýy khéng ½õôc dÓng vði thÉ Present Continuous: like need suppose remember depend love prefer mean belong seem hate know understand contain want realise believe consist  I’m hungry. I want something to eat. (not 'I am wanting') Téi ½ang ½Íi. Téi muên ×n mît chÒt gÉ ½Í.  Do you understand what I mean? BÂn cÍ hiæu û téi muên nÍi gÉ khéng?  Ann doesn’t seem very happy at the moment. LÒc n¿y dõñng nhõ Ann khéng ½õôc vui. Khi think ½õôc dÓng vði nghËa believe (tin tõòng), ta khéng dÓng thÉ Present Continuous:  What do you think (=believe) will happen? BÂn nghË ½iåu gÉ sÆ xÀy ra? (khéng dÓng 'What are you thinking') nhõng  You look serious. What are you thinking about? (=What is going on in your mind?) BÂn tréng thât nghiãm nghÌ. BÂn ½ang nghË ½iåu gÉ vây? (c¾i gÉ diçn ra trong tÝm trÈ bÂn vây?)  I’m thinking of giving up my job. (= I am considering) Téi ½ang nghË tði chuyèn théi vièc (= Téi ½ang xem xÃt) Khi have cÍ nghËa sò hùu (possess),.v.v... ta khéng dÓng vði thÉ continuous (xem UNIT 17):  We’re enjoying our holiday. We have a nice room in the hotel. (not 'we're having') (ChÒng téi h¿i lÎng vði kü nghÊ cÔa chÒng téi. ChÒng téi cÍ mît phÎng têt ò kh¾ch sÂn.) nhõng  We’re enjoying our holiday. We’re having a great time. ChÒng téi h¿i lÎng vði kü nghÊ cÔa chÒng téi. ChÒng téi ½ang cÍ mît khoÀng thñi gian hÂnh phÒc. B See, hear, smell, taste Ta thõñng dÓng thÉ present simple (khéng dÓng continuous) vði nhùng ½îng t÷ dõði ½Ýy:  Do you see that man over there? (not 'are you seeing') BÂn cÍ nhÉn thÞy ngõñi ½¿n éng ½Ùng kia khéng?  This room smells. Let’s open a window. PhÎng n¿y cÍ mÓi. Ta mò cøa sì ra ½i. ChÒng ta thõñng dÓng can+see/hear/smell/taste:  Listen! Can you hear something? ChÒ û! BÂn cÍ nghe thÞy gÉ khéng? Nhõng bÂn cÍ thæ dÓng thÉ continuous vði see (I’m seeing) mang û nghËa “having a meeting with” (gÜp mÜt, gÜp gó) ½Üc bièt ò thÉ tõïng lai (Xem UNIT 19A):  I’m seeing the manager tomorow morning. S¾ng mai téi sÆ gÜp ngõñi quÀn lû. C He is selfish v¿ He is being selfish #îng t÷ be chia ò thÉ present continuous l¿ I am being/He is being. You are being v.v...  I’m being = I'm behaving / I am acting. So s¾nh c¾c cÝu sau:  I can’t understand why he’s being so selfish. He isn’t usually like that. Téi khéng hiæu tÂi sao giñ anh ta lÂi tÏ ra Èch ký nhõ vây. BÉnh thõñng anh Þy ½Ýu cÍ nhõ vây ½Ýu. (Being selfish = behaving selfihsly at the moment = h¿nh vi Èch ký tÂi thñi ½iæm ½Í) nhõng  He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish. Anh ta khéng bao giñ nghË ½än ngõñi kh¾c cÀ. Anh ta rÞt Èch ký. (= NÍi chung l¿ tÈnh anh ta Èch ký, khéng chÊ riãng v¿o lÒc n¿o cÀ) ChÒng ta dÓng am/is/are being ½æ nÍi h¿nh vi cÔa ngõñi kh¾c nhõ thä n¿o, v¿ khéng thõñng ½õôc dÓng trong nhùng trõñng hôp kh¾c, chÚng hÂn nhõ:  It’s hot today. Hém nay trñi nÍng (khéng dÓng 'it is being hot')  Sarah is very tired. Sarah rÞt mèt (khéng dÓng 'Sarah is being tired') D Look v¿ feel BÂn cÍ thæ dÓng thÉ present simple hay continuous khi diçn tÀ d¾ng vÅ hay cÀm gi¾c cÔa ngõñi n¿o ½Í v¿o thñi ½iæm nÍi:  You look well today. hay You’re looking well today. Hém nay tréng bÂn khÏe ½Þy.  How do you feel now? hay How are you feeling now? BÝy giñ bÂn cÀm thÞy thä n¿o? nhõng  I usually feel tired in the morning. Téi thõñng cÀm thÞy mèt v¿o buìi s¾ng. (not 'I'm usually feeling') Unit 5. Past Simple A Xem xÃt vÈ dÖ sau: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart l¿ mît nhÂc sË v¿ nh¿ soÂn nhÂc ngõñi Áo. €o. «ng sêng t÷ n×m 1756 ½än n×m 1791. «ng bØt ½ßu soÂn nhÂc lÒc n×m tuìi v¿ ½Á viät hïn 600 bÀn nhÂc. «ng chät khi «ng chÊ mði 35 tuìi. Lived/Started/wrote/was/died ½åu ò thÉ past simple. B Thõñng thÉ ½îng t÷ thÉ past simple tân cÓng bÙng -ed (½îng t÷ cÍ qui tØc — regular verbs):  I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a shop. Téi hièn giñ ½ang l¿m ò mît v×n phÎng du lÌch. Trõðc ½Ýy téi l¿ vièc ò mît cøa hièu.  We invite them to our party but they decided not to come. ChÒng téi ½Á mñi hÑ dú tièc vði chÒng téi nhõng hÑ ½Á quyät ½Ình khéng ½än.  The police stopped me on my way home last night.  She passed her examination because she studied very hard. Nhõng cÍ nhiåu ½îng t÷ bÞt qui tØc (irregular) khi ò thÉ past simple khéng tân cÓng bÙng -ed. VÈ dÖ: write — wrote see — saw go — went shut — shut Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music. We saw Rose in town a few days ago. I went to cinema three times last week. It was cold, so I shut the window. Xem bÀng lièt kã c¾c ½îng t÷ bÞt qui tØc. C Trong c¾c cÝu nghi vÞn v¿ c¾c cÝu phÔ ½Ình chÒng ta dÓng did/didn’t + infinitive (enjoy/see/go...) I enjoyed She saw They went      Did you enjoy? I didn't enjoy Did she see? She didn't see Did they go? They didn't go A: Did you go out last night? B: Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn’t enjoy the film much. “When did Mr. Thomas die?” “About ten years ago.” They didn’t invite her to party, so he didn’t go. “Did you have time to write the letter?” “No, I didn’t”. Càn thân khi do l¿ ½îng t÷ chÈnh trong cÝu:  What did you do at the weekend? (khéng nÍi 'what did you at the weekend')  I didn’t do anything. (khéng nÍi 'I didn't do anything') D Qu¾ khö cÔa be (am/ is/ are) l¿ was/ were: I/he/she/it we/you/they was/wasn’t were/weren’t were was we/you/they? I/he/she/it? Ghi chÒ rÙng ta khéng dÓng did trong cÝu nghi vÞn v¿ phÔ ½Ình vði was/were.     I was angry because they were late. Was the weather good when you on holiday? They weren’t able to come because they were so busy. Did you go out last night or were you too tired? Unit 6. Past Continuous A HÁy xem vÈ dÖ sau: Yesterday Karen and Jim played tennis. They began at 10 o’clock and finished at 11.30. So, at 10.30 they were playing tennis. Hém qua Karen v¿ Jim chïi qußn vôt. HÑ ½Á bØt ½ßu chïi lÒc 10h v¿ kät thÒc lÒc 11h30. Vây lÒc 10 h30 hÑ ½ang chïi qußn vôt. They were playing = "HÑ ½ang ò giùa cuîc chïi lÒc ½Í v¿ hÑ chõa kät thÒc cuîc chïi." Was/were -ing l¿ thÉ past continuous (qu¾ khö tiäp diçn): playing I/he/she/it was doing we/you/they were working etc B ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ past continuous ½æ diçn tÀ mît ngõñi n¿o ½Í ½ang thúc hièn mît céng vièc dò dang tÂi thñi ½iæm ½õôc ½å câp. H¿nh ½îng hay sú vièc ½Á xÀy ra trõðc thñi ½iæm n¿y nhõng chõa kät thÒc.  This time last year I was living in Brazil. V¿o thñi ½iæm n¿y n×m ngo¾i téi ½ang sêng ò Brazil.  What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?  I waved to her but she wasn’t looking. C So s¾nh thÉ past continuous — qu¾ khö tiäp diçn (I was doing) v¿ past simple — qu¾ khö ½ïn (I did): Past continuous (½ang ò giùa h¿nh ½îng)  I was walking home when I meet Dave. (= ò giùa ½õñng ½i vå nh¿ téi gÜp Dave)  Ann was watching television when the phone rang. Ann ½ang xem TV khi ½ièn thoÂi reng. Past simple (ho¿n tÞt h¿nh ½îng)  I walked home after the party last night. (= téi ½Á ½i vå nh¿, ho¿n tÞt).  Ann watched television a lot when she was ill last year. Ann ½Á xem TV rÞt nhiåu khi cé Þy bènh n×m ngo¾i. D Ta thõñng dÓng thÉ past simple v¿ past continuous cÓng vði nhau ½æ diçn tÀ mît sú vièc xÀy ra v¿o lÒc ½ang xÀy ra mît sú vièc kh¾c:  Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner.  I saw you in the park yesterday. You were sitting on the grass and reading a book.  While I was working in the garden, I hurt my back. Nhõng chÒng ta dÓng thÉ past simple khi mît sú vièc xÀy ra sau mît sú vièc kh¾c:  I was walking along the road when I saw Dave. So I stopped and we had a chat. Khi ½ang ½i trãn ½õñng thÉ téi gÜp Dave. Téi ½Á d÷ng lÂi v¿ chÒng téi cÓng trÎ chuyèn. HÁy so s¾nh hai cÝu sau ½æ thÞy rÐ sú kh¾c bièt vå û nghËa:  When Karen arrived, we were having dinner. Khi Karen tði, chÒng téi ½ang ×n têi. (= ChÒng téi ½Á ×n têi trõðc khi Karen tði.)  When Karen arrived, we had dinner. Khi Karen tði, chÒng téi ×n têi. (= Karen tði trõðc rëi sau ½Í chÒng téi ×n têi.) E CÍ mît sê ½îng t÷ (vÈ dÖ nhõ know/ want/ believe) khéng ½õôc dÓng ò c¾c thÉ continuous (xem UNIT 4A ½æ biät thãm chi tiät):  We were good friends. We knew each other well. (not 'we were knowing') ChÒng téi l¿ nhùng ngõñi bÂn têt. ChÒng téi hiæu rÐ vå nhau.  I was enjoying the party but Chris wanted to go home. (not 'was wanting') Téi ½Á rÞt thÈch buìi tièc nhõng Chris muên vå nh¿. Unit 7. Present Perfect (1) A XÃt vÈ dÖ sau:   Tom is looking for his key. He can’t find it. Tom ½ang tÉm chiäc chÉa khÍa. Anh Þy khéng tÉm thÞy nÍ. He has lost his key. Anh ½Á l¿m mÞt chiäc chÉa khÍa cÔa anh Þy “He has lost his key” = Anh Þy l¿m mÞt chiäc chÉa khÍa v¿ ½än bÞy giñ ván chõa tÉm ra. Have/ has lost l¿ thÉ Present perfect simple ThÉ Present perfect simple = Have/has + past participle (qu¾ khö phÝn t÷) thõñng tân cÓng bÙng -ed (finished/dicided...) nhõng nhiåu ½îng t÷ quan trÑng lÂi l¿ bÞt qui tØc — irregular (lost/done/been/written...). B Khi chÒng ta dÓng thÉ present perfect thÉ luén luén cÍ mît sú liãn hè tði hièn tÂi. H¿nh ½îng xÀy ra ò qu¾ khö nhõng kät quÀ cÔa nÍ lÂi ò hièn tÂi:  “Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I’ve lost it.” (I haven't got it now).  He told me his name but I’ve forgotten it. (I can't remember it now).  “Is Sally here?” “No, she’s gone out.” (she is out now). ChÒng ta thõñng dÓng thÉ present perfect ½æ ½õa ra mît théng tin mði hay céng bê mît sú vièc v÷a xÀy ra:  Ow! I’ve cut my finger.  The road is closed. There’s been (=but has been) an accident.  (from the news) The police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery. CÀnh s¾t v÷a bØt hai ngõñi liãn quan ½än mît vÖ cõðp. C BÂn cÍ thæ dÓng thÉ present perfect simple vði just, already v¿ yet: Just = “a short time ago” (v÷a mði xÀy ra trõðc ½Í):  “Would you like something to eat?” “No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.”  Hello. Have you just arrived? Xin ch¿o. Anh v÷a mði ½än phÀi khéng. ChÒng ta dÓng already ½æ nÍi vå mît sú vièc xÀy ra sðm hïn dú ½o¾n (nãn xem Unit 110D):  “Don’t forget to post the letter, will you?” “I’ve already posted it.” "#÷ng quãn gøi thõ nhÃ, bÂn sÆ gøi chö?". "Téi v÷a mði gøi thõ rëi".  “What time is Mark leaving?” “He’s already gone.” Yet = “until now — cho ½än bÝy giñ” v¿ diçn tÀ ngõñi nÍi mong chñ sú vièc n¿o ½Í xÀy ra. ChÊ dÓng yet trong cÝu nghi vÞn v¿ phÔ ½Ình. (xem UNIT 110C).  Has it stopped raining yet?  I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet. Téi ½Á viät xong l¾ thõ nhõng téi chõa kÌp gøi. D ChÒ û sú kh¾c nhau giùa gone to v¿ been to:  Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Spain. (= he is there now or on his way there) Jim ½ang ½i nghÊ. Anh Þy ½Á ½i TÝy Ban Nha. (= Anh Þy hièn giñ ½ang ò ½Í hay ½ang ½i trãn ½õñng).  Jane is back home from holiday now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now comeback from Italy). Jane hièn giñ ½Á ½i nghÊ vå. Cé Þy ½Á ò @. (=Cé Þy ½Á vå t÷ @). Xem thãm UNIT 8 v¿ 125B. Unit 8. Present Perfect (2) A HÁy xem máu ½êi thoÂi dõði ½Ýy: Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Jane? Jane: Dave: Jane: Dave: Jane: BÂn cÍ ½i du lÌch nhiåu khéng, Jane? Yes, I’ve been to a lot of a places. Really? Have you ever been to China? Thât õ? Thä bÂn ½Á t÷ng ½än Trung Quêc chõa? Yes, I’ve been to China twice. What about India? No, I’ve been to India. Khi chÒng ta ½å câp tði mît khoÀng thñi gian liãn tÖc t÷ qu¾ khö ½än hièn tÂi, chÒng ta dÓng thÉ present perfect (have been/ have travelled ...) ´ ½Ýy Dave v¿ Jane ½ang nÍi vå nhùng nïi m¿ Jane ½Á ½än trong cuîc ½ñi cé Þy (l¿ khoÀng thñi gian kÃo d¿i ½än hièn tÂi)  Have you ever eaten caviar? (in your life) BÂn cÍ bao giñ ×n mÍn tröng c¾ muêi chõa?  We’ve never had a car. ChÒng téi chõa bao giñ cÍ ½õôc mît chiäc xe hïi.  “Have you read Hamlet?” “No, I haven’t read any of Shakespeare’s plays.” "BÂn ½Á ½Ñc Hamlet chõa?" "Chõa, téi chõa ½Ñc t¾c phàm n¿o cÔa Shakespear cÀ."  Susan really loves that film. She’s seen it eight times! Susan thât sú thÈch cuên phim ½Í. Cé Þy ½Á xem cuên phim ½Í t¾m lßn!  What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen. Cuên phim mði ch¾n l¿m sao! #Í l¿ mît cuên phim dò nhÞt m¿ téi t÷ng xem. Trong nhùng vÈ dÖ sau ngõñi diçn ½Ât ½ang nÍi vå khoÀng thñi gian m¿ liãn tÖc ½än bÝy giñ (recently / in the last few days / so far / since breakfast v.v ...):  Have you heard from George recently? Gßn ½Ýy bÂn cÍ ½õôc tin gÉ vå George khéng?  I’ve met a lot of people in the last few days. Téi ½Á gÜp nhiåu ngõñi trong nhùng ng¿y gßn ½Ýy.  Everything is going well. We haven’t had any problems so far. MÑi chuyèn ½åu têt ½Çp. LÝu nay chÒng téi khéng gÜp phiån phöc gÉ.  I’m hungry. I haven’t eaten anything since breakfast. (= from breakfast until now) MÉnh ½Íi rëi. T÷ s¾ng tði giñ mÉnh chõa ×n gÉ cÀ.  It’s nice to see you again. We haven’t seen each other for a long time. Thât l¿ vui ½õôc gÜp lÂi bÂn. RÞt lÝu rëi chÒng ta khéng gÜp nhau. B. ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present perfect vði today/ this morning/ this evening... khi nhùng khoÀng thñi gian n¿y chõa kät thÒc v¿o thñi ½iæm nÍi (xem UNIT 14B):  I’ve drunk four cups of coffee today. (perhaps I'll drink more before today finished). Hém nay téi ½Á uêng bên ly c¿ phã. (cÍ thæ téi cÎn uêng thãm nùa trõðc khi hät ng¿y hém nay).  Have you had a holiday this year (yet)? N×m nay bÂn ½Á nghÊ phÃp chõa?  I haven’t seen Tom this morning. Have you? S¾ng nay téi khéng gÜp Tom. BÂn cÍ gÜp khéng?  Ron hasn’t worked very hard this term. Ron hÑc khéng ch×m lØm trong hÑc kü n¿y. C. ChÒ û l¿ chÒng ta phÀi dÓng present perfect khi nÍi “It’s the first time somthing has happened” (#Í l¿ lßn ½ßu tiãn mît sú vièc n¿o ½Í ½Á xÀy ra). VÈ dÖ nhõ:  Don is having a driving lesson. He is very nervous and unsure because it is the first lesson. Don ½ang cÍ b¿i hÑc l¾i xe. Anh Þy rÞt hëi hîp v¿ lo lØng bòi vÉ ½Ýy l¿ b¿i hÑc ½ßu tiãn.  It’s the first time he has driven a car. (not "drive") #Ýy l¿ lßn ½ßu tiãn anh Þy l¾i mît c¾i xe hïi. hoÜc  He has never driven a car before. Trõðc giñ anh Þy chõa bao giñ l¾i xe.  Linda has lost her pastport again. It’s the second time this has happened. (not "happen") Linda lÂi l¿m mÞt hî chiäu. #Ýy l¿ lßn thö hai xÀy ra chuyèn n¿y.  This is a lovely meal. It’s the first good meal I’ve had for ages. (not “I have”) Thât l¿ mît bùa ×n ngon. #Ýy l¿ bùa ×n ngon ½ßu tiãn cÔa téi trong nhiåu n×m.  Bill is phoning his girlfriend again. That’s the third time he’s phoned her this evening. Bill lÂi ½ang gÑi ½ièn thoÂi cho cé bÂn g¾i cÔa anh Þy. #Í l¿ lßn thö ba anh Þy gÑi ½ièn cho cé Þy chiåu nay. Unit 9. Present Perfect Continuous A It has been raining. Xem vÈ dÖ sau: Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet. It has been raining. Trñi mði v÷a mõa xong. Have/has been -ing l¿ thÉ present perfect continuous. I/we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been doing I/we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been waiting I/we/they/you have (=I've etc.) been playing etc. he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been doing he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been waiting he/she/it has (=he's ect.) been playing etc. Ta dÓng thÉ present perfect continuous khi nÍi vå nhùng h¿nh ½îng ½Á kät thÒc gßn ½Ýy hay mði v÷a kät thÒc v¿ kät quÀ cÔa nÍ cÍ sú liãn hè hay Ành hõòng tði hièn tÂi:  You’re out to breath. Have you been running? (you are out of breath now) BÂn tréng mèt ½öt hïi. BÂn v÷a mði chÂy phÀi khéng? (hièn giñ anh Þy nhõ ½öt hïi).  Paul is very tired. He’s been working very hard. (he's tired now) Paul rÞt mèt. Anh Þy v÷a mði l¿m vièc rÞt c×ng. (bÝy giñ anh Þy ½ang mèt).  Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? Sao qußn ¾o bÂn bàn thä. BÂn v÷a mði l¿m gÉ vây?  I’ve been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks that ... MÉnh v÷a mði ½å câp ½än vÞn ½å cÔa Carol v¿ cé Þy nghË l¿ ... B It has been raining for two hours. XÃt vÈ dÖ sau: It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. Trñi ½ang mõa. Trñi ½Á mõa ½õôc hai giñ rëi v¿ bÝy giñ cÎn ½ang mõa. How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours. Trñi ½Á mõa ½õôc hai tiäng ½ëng hë. ChÒng ta dÓng thÉ present perfect contiuous cho nhùng trõñng hôp n¿y, ½Üc bièt l¿ dÓng vði how long, for ... v¿ since... H¿nh ½îng l¿ ván ½ang xÀy ra (nhõ vÈ dÖ trãn) hay v÷a mði chÞm döt.  How long have you been learning English? (you're still learning English) BÂn ½Á hÑc tiäng Anh ½õôc bao lÝu rëi? (bÂn ván ½ang cÎn hÑc tiäng Anh)  Tim is watching television. He has been watching television for two hours. Tim ½ang xem TV. Anh Þy ½Á xem TV ½õôc hai giñ rëi.  Where have you been? I have been looking for you for the last half hour. Anh ½Á ò ½Ýu vây? Téi ½Á tÉm anh nøa tiäng ½ëng hë rëi.  George hasn’t been feeling well recently. George v÷a mði cÀm thÞy khÏe gßn ½Ýy. ChÒng ta cÍ thæ dÓng thÉ present perfect continuous ½æ chÊ nhùng h¿nh ½îng lÜp ½i lÜp lÂi trong mît khoÀng thñi gian:  Debbie is a very good player tennis. She’s been playing since she was eight. Debbie l¿ mît vân ½îng viãn qußn vôt rÞt giÏi. Cé Þy ½Á chïi qußn vôt t÷ khi lãn t¾m.  Every morning they meet in the same café. They’ve been going there for years. Míi s¾ng hÑ lÂi gÜp nhau ò cÓng mît qu¾n c¿ phã. HÑ ½Á ½än qu¾n ½Í nhiåu n×m rëi. C So s¾nh I am doing (xem UNIT 1) v¿ I have been doing  Don’t disturb me now. I am working . #÷ng quÞy rßy téi bÝy giñ. Téi ½ang l¿m vièc.  I’ve been working hard, so now I’m going to have a rest. Téi ½Á l¿m vièc nhiåu rëi nãn bÝy giñ téi sÆ ½i nghÊ.  We need an umbrella. It’s raining. ChÒng téi cßn mît cÝy dÓ. Trñi ½ang mõa.  The ground is wet. It’s been raining. MÜt ½Þt cÎn õðt. Trñi ½Á mõa.  Hurry up ! We’re waiting.  We’ve been waiting for an hour.
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