Tài liệu Ecological concern and sustainability in the selected works of al gore (sum)

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Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam Batangas State University Republic of Philippines PHUNG THI THU HA ECOLOGICAL CONCERN AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE SELECTED WORKS OF AL GORE Specialty: English Language and Literature Ph. D DISSERTATION SUMARY OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE THAI NGUYEN, 2014 The Dissertation was completed in: THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Advisor: Maria Luisa A. Valdez, Ph.D. Reviewer No.1: ............................................. Reviewer No.2: ............................................. Reviewer No.3: ............................................. The Dissertation will be evaluated at the State Council held at: ……………………………………………………………………….. At: hour ... date ... month ...year 2014 Dissertation can be found at the libraries: - National library of Vietnam; - Learning Resource Center - Thai Nguyen University; - Library of International Training and Development Center; - Library of Batangas State University, Philippines. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Global warming, climate change, a decrease in the area of the eternal ice cover, increasing sea level, ozone depletion, depletion of natural resources, bio-diversity degradation, severely narrowed natural forests, ocean acidification, acid rain, a great increase of the world population, urban sprawl, environmental pollution, breed depletion, spread of new diseases ... are the serious environmental problems that the world faces. Therefore, the cause of environmental protection is a vital issue not only within some countries, or some of the areas but is also a global problem and one of the determinants of sustainable development, closely related to the socio-economic development of every single country in particular and the whole world in general. ‘Global warming' and 'climate crisis' not only attracted the attention of scientists, educators, writers, poets, environmentalists around the world, but the recession serious environmental focus is also being studied by many senior leaders in the world and Al Gore is among them. Albert Arnold Gore (Al Gore) is a former Vice President of the United States, the period of 1993-2001. He was the Democratic presidential nomination in 2000, and in 2007 he was co-authored by Nobel Prize for his having made great contributions to the study of global climate change. 2 He was one of the world’s first advocates on environmental stewardship, who began to study the environment when he was at school. The world really knows about him with his great concern for the ecological environment not only through international conferences or through the movement for environmental protection but also through his works written from the hearts of a person with a deep sense of the true value of the ecological environment. Among many of his great contributions to the protection of ecological environment in the world, two of Al Gore's books titled ‘Earth in the Balance’, his first book, published in 1992, and ‘An Inconvenient Truth’, published in 2006, gave readers a lot of deep feelings about the environmental situation in the world. Along with other environmental activists, he has nurtured the good feelings of the people for Mother Earth, while evoking a sense of responsibility of each person in the protection of ecological environment of Green planet, the only place where life can survive and develop. With a desire to learn more about the value of the ecological environment, sustainability and lessons on the respect for the as well as environmental sense that the author wants to convey to the readers, especially young readers, the researchers chose to conduct an analysis of two such works of Al Gore. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study is an analysis of the ecological concerns and sustainability reflected in the selected literary works of Al Gore, pointing out the teachings on ecological stewardship that may be drawn from the analysis which shall benefit the Vietnamese students. 3 Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: 1. What reflections of the author on environment may be gleaned in the following selections: 1.1 Earth in the Balance; and 1.2 The Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It? 2. How is ecological concern reflected in the selected works in terms of: 2.1 respecting Earth and life in all its diversity; 2.2 safeguarding Earth’s regenerative capacities; 2.3 caring for community life; and 2.4 appreciating Earth’s bounty and beauty? 3. How is sustainability manifested in the selections with regard to reconciliation of: 3.1 environmental demands; 3.2 social equity demands; 3.3 and economic demands? 4. What literary devices were used in unveiling Al Gore’s theme of ecological concern and sustainability? 5. What literary approaches are prevalent in the treatment of the selected works? 4 6. What teachings on ecological stewardship may be drawn from the analysis which shall benefit the Vietnamese students? 1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study was undertaken to explore the ecological concern and its sustainability in the two selected works of Al Gore. On that basis, the lessons learned in order to raise awareness of environmental protection for students of literature, sociology and the environment at Thai Nguyen University (TNU) in particular and all other students throughout TNU in general. The research analyzes the problems of ecology and sustainable development is reflected in the literature selected by Al Gore, on that basis, it finds out the lessons of ecological management for Vietnamese students Likewise, this research tries to present the author's reflections on the environment through the research works; the ecological concerns are reflected in the works in terms of respecting the Earth and life and its diversity, safeguarding the regenerative capacities of the Earth, caring for community life, and appreciating the beauty and bounty of the Earth; Sustainability in the selections related to the environmental demands, social demands and economic demands; literary devices Al Gore used to express his deep concern about ecology and sustainable development; and the common literary approaches in the selected works. This study used qualitative methods in the analysis of problems of ecology and sustainable development in the two works of Al Gore. Similarly, this analysis used the social and philosophical 5 approaches as the basis for the analysis. Other approaches in literary criticism normally used in the analysis as the historical-critical, biographical criticism, psychology and criticism are not part of this study. This study also analyzes related content, which is a system of engineering analysis of the text and word processing. The data analyzed in this study focuses on the model search and extraction of significance of the works selected for the study, the essential element in the analysis of documents that were considered in the research process of this study. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Applicability of literary analysis is an integral part of the research is based on the importance of it. Here are the different groups may use the results of this study: TNUT managers: Research could provide TNU with a reference selecting development programs, projects and environmental policies in the member schools. Research inspires them to conduct environmental activities related to respecting the earth and life in its diversity, protecting regeneration capacity of the earth, caring for community life, and appreciating the generosity of the Earth and its beauty in community education programs to achieve the benefits of an ecologically sustainable environment for all people regardless of gender, race, nationality and religion. Ecological experts: Research supports them in defining the role of the actions and decisions of their own in the protection of ecological environment. With expertise and experience available, 6 they can inspire learners, listeners, and readers in organizing activities to encourage maintaining an environment in which the mediation of love environmental needs, social demands, and economic requirement of their workplace are the basic elements. These suggestions can evoke, and guide them to the concerns about the environment and its sustainability. Since then, the application of the principles developed into living and working guidelines in their conditions. Teachers: This study provides suggestions for teachers on the selection of themed lectures on environmental and sustainable development of ecological management, conservation of global resources, satisfying the needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations. Students of literature: Research helps them acutely aware that global warming, ozone depletion, depletion of agricultural land and fisheries, depletion of water resources, pollution, acid rain, overexploitation levels of natural resources etc ... were and are the dangers, and will threaten the lives of all species on earth. On that basis, the formation of consciousness respect for the environment, actively participate in the protection and caring of the ecological environment are built. Others: This study, in addition to support for education professionals, literature, sociology, and environment, can assist researchers in other fields related to the ecological environment, such as economics, construction, law, anthropology etc ... Members of the community: This study helps them to understand that the planet's ecosystems are being degraded, in which 7 the human impact to the environment is the main cause, which evoke a sense responsibility of each individual to the environment on earth. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is presented with the end view of identifying the constructs of the study. RESEARCH LITERATURE This section presents the published and unpublished researches that are related to the present study. SYNTHEIS OF LITERATURE REVIEWED This section justifies the direct influence of the literary concept for this study and presents the similarities and differences of the literature cited in the current research. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This section presents the key issues in other words, is the main engine of the present study. DEFINITION OF TERMS This section provides definitions of the terms used in the study, in order to help the readers understand exactly what the researcher wanted to mention. 8 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the research methodology in terms of the research design and treatment of the materials studied. RESEARCH DESIGN This study used qualitative methods in the analysis of problems of ecological environment and its sustainability in the selected literature. Patton (2002) pointed out that the goal of qualitative data analysis is to explore the topic of interest, models, concepts, and knowledge. Therefore, this study also analyzed the relevant content, a systematic technique for analyzing text and word processing. TREATMENT OF MATERIALS The study sought to understand, exploit, and analyze the works selected for the purpose of finding out the concerns of Al Gore to the ecological environment and its sustainability. The research work is said to contain the moral values and social values, to help the reader aware of the social issues concerned; from which the reader identify attitudes toward social issues. This study analyzed the selected works in order to analyze the author's concern for the environment and ecological concerns are reflected in the work related to respecting the earth and life and its diversity, protecting the regeneration capacity of the earth, caring for community life, and appreciating the generosity and beauty of the 9 earth. Sustainability in the selections is related to the needs of the environment, social demands and economic demands. The literary tools used by Gore aims to express concern about the ecology and sustainable development; the literary approach common in the study of the selected works. 10 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FINDINGS The results of analysis and interpretation revealed that: 1. Reflections of the author on environment may be gleaned in 1.1 The selected work ‘Earth in the Balance’ Al Gore has faithfully described his observations about the alarming degradation of the world's ecological environment such as global warming, climate change, an area of the eternal ice cover are increasingly shrinking, sea level rise, ozone depletion, depletion of natural resources, biodiversity degradation, deforestation combustion phenomena causing widespread natural forest area shrunk severely weight, ocean acidification, acid rain, ideal population increase, urban sprawl, environmental pollution, depletion of physical race, new diseases spread. He pointed out the factors leading to increased temperature of the Earth, such as uncontrolled burning, burning of fossil fuels in the life of the people, especially the major industrial areas concentrated in the most Most developed countries and developing countries discharged a huge amount of CO2 and other harmful gases such as methane and nitrous oxide into the atmosphere (Gore, part 1, p 22). Al Gore stressed global warming is the main cause of environmental degradation. Earth's temperature increase leads to ozone depletion (Gore, part 1 p. 86), a natural shield giant earth help limit the harmful effects of heat directly from the sun. Earth's 11 temperature thus increasing, the global climate change increasingly irregular and difficult to control. Rapid population growth is one of the focal point that Al Gore is concerned. Due to overpopulation, the basic needs of food, clean water, shelter, also becomes easier to control. To ensure the life, man has constantly sought to exploit to the depletion of resources on the earth, causing serious deterioration of ecological environment, decrease the diversity of plant and animal species, leading to alarming situation of different types of pollution such as waste pollution, water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution… From the above analysis can go to receive the world's ecological environment is degraded and one of the reasons mainly due to lack of human consciousness. 1.2 The selected work ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ Following the success of the book "Earth in the Balance ', Al Gore once again share a deep concern before implementation of environmental degradation in the world ‘An Inconvenient Truth'. Unlike the way in which he expressed in the book published in 1992, Al Gore shared with readers a series of vivid images of the Earth and the charts, diagrams containing persuasive information to clarify the issues as the focus of world ecology. Industrial pollution emissions have led to the accumulation of CO2, the most dangerous emissions of the gases due to the greenhouse effect, increasingly giant is the first image is used to 12 illustrate the human impact on the ecological environment. He pointed out that people are discharged into the environment so that large amounts of CO2, literally, have changed the relationship between the Earth and the sun. Al Gore asserts that the climate crisis is an uncomfortable truth that every creature on earth is going through right now and that we need to change our own lifestyle. Global warming leads to melting of a huge area of icebergs in the Arctic and in many other regions of the world, threatening the lives of animals and plants not only in those areas where also cause serious impact to the marine environment as well as terrestrial ecosystems. 'Climate Crisis', and 'global warming' cause abnormal weather changes such as droughts, floods, tsunamis ... In addition, forest fires, crop failures, famine, disease is the post-disaster environment of marine ecosystem change made to the lives of all creatures, especially humans encountered numerous difficulties. Referring to the same topic of environmental degradation the selected works both expressed deep concern of Al Gore before the present and the future of Earth. He urged the world to join hands consensus and efforts to find the solution and agreed to take back the inherent beauty of the Earth and the ability to maintain or re-create the life of existing species and in the future. 13 2. How is ecological concern reflected in the selected works in terms of: 2.1 Respecting Earth and life in all its diversity To express special respect for the Earth, AL Gore insisted on calling the Earth ‘Mother Earth’ and all humans in the world are Mother Earth’s children. As Mother Earth teaches people know patience, love (part 3, p261). Earth, with the variety of factors that constitute it as a landscape, sea, lake, river, mountain, land, water, air ... and everything has created a warm home for all creatures . Mother Earth does not belong to anyone in particular and the life of the Earth as well as the properties of Earth's diversity should be respected. 2.2 Safeguarding Earth’s regenerative capacities The fact that the recession is still ongoing environment every day mainly under the influence of humans’ activities. However, Al Gore, along with some environmentalists, has confirmed the ability of the Earth to regenerate while seeking answers to questions related to improving the climate crisis ‘What can We Do about it?' he asserts that ‘We can do it'. He stressed the value of each personal consciousness as well as the consensus of the world for career improvement of ecological environment in the 'saving energy in the home', 'consume less, conserve more', and 'be a catalyst for change'.... 14 In his "Earth in the Balance ', when referring to the solution to the environmental problems, Al Gore pointed out that the stability of the world population have an important role of a (p. 307). In addition, in order to assert its role in protecting human regenerative capacity of the Earth, he stressed the United States, one of the country generated a large amount of the world's CO2 emissions, have committed acts environmental movements and become a leader in the movement of the environment (p. 314). 2.3 Caring for community life Al Gore pointed out that family planning has a key role in ensuring the quality of community life. This view shows the consistency of his awareness of the challenges of environmental degradation due to the implications of population growth in the world over. In addition, the degradation of the family as early marriages, early childbearing, internal conflicts, abuse and lack of care for children are also the author mentions. 2.4 Appreciating Earth’s bounty and beauty Earth is the only place for life to exist and develop. The natural environment is an indispensable part of human life. The miraculous transformation of natural beauty makes people always pleasant surprise. Beautiful natural landscape and make people feel relaxed, happy. Conversely harsh climate can also cause physical and human heart becomes dry. Earth was very generous in giving me the same 15 things, a life with food, drinking water, with abundant resources and poetic landscape. But sadly, people, due to not being fully aware of the rights and obligations with respect to the environment, causing depletion of natural resources, environmental degradation today. 3. How sustainability is manifested in the selections with regard to reconciliation of environmental demands; social equity demands; economic demands. Sustainability is based on a basic principle: all things that humans need to survive are directly or indirectly dependent on the environment for sustainable Tinh create and maintain conditions in which man and nature can exist in harmony with the needs of social development, economic and other needs of the current generation and the future. The sustainability of the global environment and human life will not be achieved unless people fully aware of their impact on the environment from which these considerations, planning out action star for ensuring social development, economic and cultural, but at the same time maintaining a healthy ecological environment. Al Gore encourages the use and invention of new technologies to improve the level of harm to the environment while ensuring economic efficiency. He said, "In some cases, the whole production line should be redesigned so that they are easier to recycle products. 16 For example, some beverage containers made of plastic containing a metal recycling so we cannot '(Gore, Part 3, p. 334). 4. What literary devices were used in unveiling Al Gore’s theme of ecological concern and sustainability. Any writer, when writing, has to use different literary tools for conveying their ideas into work. To express their ideas successfully, Al Gore has cleverly used as comparative measures, metaphor, metonymy, alliteration and rhetorical questions. He used comparisons and metaphors to compare objects in correlation things make content come alive described, the comparison becomes clear and effective. The use of alliteration is not only for sentence rhythm, but also helps readers find the work easy to read and impressive. 5. What literary approaches are prevalent in the treatment of the selected works Literary approach helps readers understand why the author wrote the work and understand the impact of that work. Al Gore has used social approach combined with philosophical approach in his work. Sociological approach which he used to help the reader understand the context of culture, politics works. Philosophical approach used to determine whether the works convey any lessons or messages or can help readers better understand the world, improve their lives. 17 6. What teachings on ecological stewardship may be drawn from the analysis which shall benefit the Vietnamese students Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia and is one of the countries that suffered the effects of global climate change, especially in the coastal areas, such as abnormal flooding, saltwater intrusion, declining ecosystem diversity ... The activity of promoting awareness of the role, value and ability of the environment to the youth, especially young intellectuals and students has long-term implications for the comprehensive development of Vietnam in particular and other countries in the region and the world in general. 18 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendation of the study. SUMMARY This study deeply analyzed of the ecological concerns and sustainable development reflected in the selected literary works of Al Gore, showing lessons on ecological management associated with education awareness of protecting the ecological environment for Vietnamese students. This study used qualitative methods in the analysis of Gore's concept of ecological concerns and sustainable development in the literature typically selected. Similarly, this analysis used the approach of sociology and philosophy as the basis for analysis. This paper also analyzed related content, which is a system of analysis techniques of the text and word processing. The selected works of Al Gore titled ‘Earth in the Balance’ and ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ are two important sources used in this study. CONCLUSIONS Based on the summary, the following conclusions are drawn:
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