Tài liệu Easier english intermediate dictionary

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EASIER ENGLISH INTERMEDIATE DICTIONARY second edition Also published by Bloomsbury Reference: Easier English™ titles: Easier English Basic Dictionary 0 7475 6644 5 Easier English Basic Synonyms 0 7475 6979 7 Easier English Dictionary: Handy Pocket Edition 0 7475 6625 9 Easier English Student Dictionary 0 7475 6624 0 English Thesaurus for Students 1 9016 5931 3 Check Your English Vocabulary workbooks: Business 0 7475 6626 7 Computing 1 9016 5928 3 Academic English 0 7475 6691 7 PET 0 7475 6627 5 IELTS 0 7475 6982 7 FCE + 0 7475 6981 9 TOEFL® 0 7475 6984 3 Specialist dictionaries: Dictionary of Accounting 0 7475 6991 6 Dictionary of Banking and Finance 0 7475 6685 2 Dictionary of Business 0 7475 6980 0 Dictionary of Computing 0 7475 6622 4 Dictionary of Economics 0 7475 6632 1 Dictionary of Environment and Ecology 0 7475 7201 1 Dictionary of Hotels, Tourism and Catering Management 1 9016 5999 2 Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management 0 7475 6623 2 Dictionary of ICT 0 7475 6990 8 Dictionary of Law 0 7475 6636 4 Dictionary of Marketing 0 7475 6621 6 Dictionary of Medical Terms 0 7475 6987 8 Dictionary of Military Terms 0 7475 7477 4 Dictionary of Nursing 0 7475 6634 8 Dictionary of Politics and Government 0 7475 7220 8 Dictionary of Science and Technology 0 7475 6620 8 Visit our website for full details of all our books: www.bloomsbury.com/reference EASIER ENGLISH second edition A BLOOMSBURY REFERENCE BOOK www.bloomsbury.com/reference Originally published by Peter Collin Publishing as English Study Dictionary First published 2000, 2001 Second edition published 2004 Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB Copyright © P.H. Collin, F. Collin, S.M.H. Collin 2000 This edition copyright © Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publishers. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7475 6989 4 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0199-5 All papers used by Bloomsbury Publishing are natural, recyclable products made from wood grown in well-managed forests. The manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Text processed and computer typeset by Bloomsbury Printed and bound in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc General Editor P.H. Collin Editorial Contributors Sandra Anderson, Lesley Brown, Stephen Curtis, Alice Grandison, Isabel Griffiths, Penelope Hands, Imogen Kerr, Heloise McGuinness, Howard Sargeant Text Production and Proofreading Katy McAdam, Heather Bateman, Emma Harris, Ruth Hillmore Preface This dictionary contains the essential words and phrases needed for everyday communication by learners of English and information on how these words and phrases are commonly used. It builds on the Easier English™ Basic Dictionary and is especially useful for intermediate learners of all ages who are expanding their vocabulary and knowledge of English. Each main word, including compound words and phrasal verbs, has its own easy-to-find entry in bold type and a pronunciation in the International Phonetic Alphabet. The relative frequency of the most commonly used words is indicated. Common phrases, verb patterns and idioms associated with the main term are shown in bold type and separately defined within the entry. The meanings of the main common senses of each word are given clearly and simply, using a limited and easily understood vocabulary. Meanings are grouped together by their part of speech. Examples are given for words that are likely to be used in practice, to provide patterns for the user’s own production of English sentences. The prepositions that are regularly used with a word are also shown for common words, in square brackets. Some less frequently encountered words, which may only need to be recognised and understood, are given definitions only. Noted at the end of some entries are words with a different part of speech whose meanings can be easily understood from the rest of the entry. Extra help is offered in Notes at the end of some entries. These include warnings about words which can be confused with each other and unusual inflected forms. The major differences between US and British spelling are noted. Parts of Speech abbr (abbreviation) adj (adjective) adv (adverb) article conj (conjunction) interj (interjection) modal verb n (noun) plural noun (always takes a plural verb) prefix prep (preposition) pron (pronoun) v (verb) Symbols ቢ ባ ቤ í ć „ ȣ ı ‘ indicates words which are commonly used, from ቢ the most basic and essential, ባ frequent and useful to know, to ቤ starting to develop a wider vocabulary. before a new part of speech before examples before a phrase or idiom before an idiom an explanation of the word will be found at the place indicated extra information will be found at the place indicated Pronunciation The following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the main words in the dictionary. Stress is indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark ( ) . Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to its position in the sentence. Vowels Consonants back b buck ɑ harm d dead ɒ stop ð other a type d jump aυ how f fare aə hire gold aυə hour h head ɔ course j yellow ɔ annoy k cab e head l leave eə fair m mix e make n nil eυ go ŋ sing word p print i keep r rest i happy s save ə about ʃ shop  fit t take ə near tʃ change u annual θ theft u pool v value υ book w work υə tour x loch shut measure z zone Intermediate.fm Page 1 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM A a1 /e/, A noun the first letter of the alpha- abattoir / bətwɑ / noun a place where a abattoir bet, followed by B ć Do you mean ‘dependant’ spelt with an ‘a’ or ‘dependent’ with an ‘e’? ȣ from A to Z completely, all the way through a2 /ə, e/, an /ən, n/ article 1. one ć an enormous hole ć a useful guidebook ć She’s bought a new car. ć I want a cup of tea. ć We had to wait an hour for the bus. animals are killed for meat abbey / bi/ noun 1. a place where a community of Christian monks or nuns live 2. a large church ć Westminster Abbey abbreviated /ə bri vietd/ adj shortened by having something left out abbreviation /ə bri vi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a short form of a word. Compare acronym abdicate / bdket/ (abdicates, abdicating, abdicated) verb 1. to give up the position as king or queen of a country 2. to fail to carry out a duty or responsibility a (NOTE: an is used before words beginning with a, e, i, o, u and with h if the h is not pronounced: an apple or an hour. a is used before words beginning with all other letters and also before u where u is pronounced /ju / : a useful guidebook) 2. for each or to each ć Apples cost £1.50 a kilo. ć The car was travelling at 50 kilometres an hour. ć He earns £100 a day. A&E / e ənd i / abbr accident and emergency aback /ə b k/ adv ˽ taken aback surprised and shocked by something unpleasant ć She was somewhat taken aback when he told her there was no train that evening. abacus / bəkəs/ noun an object used for counting consisting of a frame with balls which can be moved on bars ቤ abandon /ə b ndən/ (abandons, abandoning, abandoned) verb 1. to leave someone or something in an unkind way ć The dog had been abandoned by its owner. 2. to leave somewhere for ever ć The village had been abandoned when the dam was built. 3. to give up or stop doing something ć The company has decided to abandon the project. ć We abandoned the idea of setting up a London office. abandoned /ə b ndənd/ adj no longer used or lived in abandonment /ə b ndənmənt/ noun the act or process of leaving someone or something without help abashed /ə b ʃt/ adj ashamed or embarrassed abate /ə bet/ (abates, abating, abated) verb to become less strong or forceful A&E aback | abacus abandon | abandoned | abandonment | abashed | abate | (formal) abbey abbreviated | abbreviation | | abdicate (formal) (NOTE: + abdication n) abdomen / bdəmən/ noun the space in abdomen the front part of your body, containing the stomach and other organs abdominal / b dɒmn(ə)l/ adj referring to the abdomen abduct / b d kt/ (abducts, abducting, abducted) verb to take someone away, usually by force (NOTE: + abduction n) aberration / bə reʃ(ə)n/ noun an action or thing which is not usual or expected abdominal | abduct | aberration | (formal) abhorrent /əb hɒrənt / adj horrible or disgusting (formal ) abide /ə bad/ (abides, abiding, abode or abided) verb 1. ˽ to abide by to keep to rules, agreements or customs ć You must abide by the rules of the game. ć We have to abide by the decision of the referee. 2. ˽ can’t abide something to dislike something or someone ć I can’t abide the smell of cigars. ć If you can’t abide him, why do you accept his invitation? abiding /ə badŋ/ adj lasting a long time abhorrent | abide | abiding | (formal) ቢ ability /ə blti/ (plural abilities) noun 1. a natural tendency to do something well [~in] ć I admire his ability to stay calm unability | der pressure. ć We can develop their natural abilities in music further. ˽ I’ll do it to the best of my ability I’ll do it as well as I can 2. the fact of being clever ć suitable for different levels of ability (NOTE: no plural in this sense) Intermediate.fm Page 2 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM abject 2 abject / bd ekt/ adj (formal) 1. very bad abject abject poverty 2. making you feel ashamed ć an abject apology ć abject terror ablaze /ə blez/ adv 1. on fire ć Thirty hectares of trees were ablaze. 2. shining brightly ć At midnight the house was still ablaze with lights. ቢ able / eb(ə)l/ adj 1. ˽ to be able to do something to be capable of something or have the chance to do something ć They weren’t able to find the house. ć Will you be able to come to the meeting? 2. good at doing something, or good at doing many things ć She’s a very able manager. ć There are special activities for able children. able-bodied / eb(ə)l bɒdid/ adj fit and healthy ably / ebli/ adv in a very competent or efficient way abnormal / b nɔ m(ə)l/ adj not normal abnormality / bnɔ m lti / (plural abnormalities) noun 1. the state of being abnormal 2. something which is abnormal aboard /ə bɔ d/ adv, prep on a ship or vehicle ć The passengers went aboard the ‘Queen Elizabeth’ at 10 p.m. ć When the ship docked, customs officers came aboard to inspect the cargo. abode /ə bəυd/ noun the place where someone lives (literary) ˽ of no fixed abode with no permanent address (formal) abolish /ə bɒlʃ/ (abolishes, abolishing, abolished) verb to get rid of something such as a law or right abolition / bə lʃ(ə)n/ noun the act of abolishing something such as a law or right abominable /ə bɒmnəb(ə)l/ adj very bad (formal) Aboriginal / bə rd n(ə)l/ adj referring to Aborigines í noun same as Aborigć ablaze | able able-bodied ably abnormal | abnormality | aboard | abode | abolish | abolition | abominable | Aboriginal | ine doctor about? 2. ˽ to be about to do something to be going to do something very soon ć We were about to go home when you arrived. 3. not exactly ć I’ve been waiting for about four hours. ć She’s only about fifteen years old. ˽ while you’re about it at the same time as the thing you are doing ć While you’re about it, can you post this letter? ȣ how about? 1. what do you think about? ć We can’t find a new chairperson for the club – What about Sarah? 2. would you like a cup of tea? ȣ while you’re about it at the same time as the thing you are doing ć While you’re about it, can you post this letter? about-turn / əbaυt t n/, about-face noun 1. an order to soldiers to turn to face in the opposite direction 2. an act of changing your plans or policy to the opposite of what you did before ቢ above /ə b v/ prep 1. higher than ć The plane was flying above the clouds. ć The temperature in the street was above 30 degrees. ć At prices above £20, nobody will buy it. 2. older than ć If you are above 18, you have to pay the full fare. 3. louder than ć I couldn’t hear the telephone above the noise of the drills. above board /ə b v bɔ d/ adj openly honest and legal abrasive /ə bresv/ adj rude and impatient in dealing with people í noun a substance which rubs away a surface ć Avoid using abrasives to clean this surface. abreast / ə brest/ adv side by side abridged /ə brd d/ adj shortened by removing parts of a text ባ abroad /ə brɔ d/ adv in or to another country ć I lived abroad for three years. abrupt /ə br pt/ adj 1. sudden 2. using few words and not being very polite abruptly /ə br ptli/ adv briefly and impolitely abruptness /ə br ptnəs/ noun the fact of using few words and not being very polite abscess / bses/ noun a collection of pus in the body abscond /əb skɒnd/ (absconds, absconding, absconded) verb (formal) 1. to leave somewhere suddenly and secretly [~with] ć The sports club’s treasurer absconded with their funds. 2. to escape from prison abseil / bsel/ (abseils, abseiling, abseiled) verb to come down a cliff or wall using a fixed rope wound around your body about-turn | above | above board | abrasive | abreast | abridged | abroad | abrupt | abruptly | abruptness Aborigine / bə rd ni/ noun an AusAborigine | tralian who is a member of the peoples who lived in Australia before Europeans arrived abort /ə bɔ t/ (aborts, aborting, aborted) verb 1. to stop something taking place 2. to perform an abortion on a foetus abortion /ə bɔ ʃ(ə)n/ noun the ending of a woman’s pregnancy before a live infant can be born abortive /ə bɔ tv/ adj attempted without success ቢ about /ə baυt/ prep 1. referring to something ć He told me all about his operation. ć What do you want to speak to the abort | abortion | abortive | about | | abscess abscond | abseil Intermediate.fm Page 3 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 3 bsəns/ noun the fact of being away from a place [~from] ć She did not explain her absence from the meeting. ˽ in the absence of, in someone’s absence because someone or something is not there ć In the absence of the chairman orIn the chairman’s absence, his deputy took over. ć In the absence of any official support, we had to raise our own funds. ቤ absent / bsənt/ adj not there ć Ten of the staff are absent with flu. absentee / bsən ti / noun a person who is not there absenteeism / bs(ə)n ti z(ə)m/ noun the act or fact of deliberately staying away from work absent-minded / bs(ə)nt mandd/ adj often forgetting things ባ absolute / bsəlu t/ adj complete or total ቢ absolutely adv 1. / bsəlu tli / completely ć I am absolutely sure I left the keys in my coat pocket. 2. / bsə lu tli/ yes, of course ć Did you build it yourself? – Absolutely! absolve /əb zɒlv/ (absolves, absolving, absolved) verb to remove blame for a sin from someone ቤ absorb /əb zɔ b/ (absorbs, absorbing, absorbed) verb 1. to take in something such as a liquid ć The water should be absorbed by the paper. ć Salt absorbs moisture from the air. 2. to reduce a shock ć The car’s springs are supposed to absorb any shock from the road surface. absorbent /əb zɔ bənt/ adj which can absorb something such as a liquid absorbing / əb zɔ bŋ/ adj very interesting absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun 1. the act of absorbing something or of being absorbed 2. the fact of being very interested in something abstain /əb sten/ (abstains, abstaining, abstained) verb 1. deliberately not to do something [~from] ć His doctor recommended he should abstain from drinking coffee for six months. 2. not to vote on a matter abstention /əb stenʃən/ noun the act or fact of deliberately not voting on a matter abstinence / bstnəns/ noun the act or fact of deliberately not doing something, especially not drinking alcohol abstract / bstr kt/ adj 1. which exists only in the mind rather than in the physical ባ absence / absence absent absentee | absenteeism | absent-minded absolute absolutely | absolve | absorb | absorbent | absorbing | absorption | abstain | abstention | abstinence abstract accelerate world 2. (of art) which does not copy things exactly as they appear abstract noun / bstr kt naυn/ noun a noun that refers to an idea or quality, e.g. ‘truth’ absurd /əb s d/ adj completely unreasonable or impossible to believe ć It’s absurd to expect you will win the lottery if you only buy one ticket. abundance /ə b ndəns/ noun a large quantity abundant /ə b ndənt/ adj existing in large quantities abundantly /ə b ndənt(ə)li/ adv in large or more than large enough quantities ባ abuse1 /ə bju s/ noun 1. very bad treatment ć the sexual abuse of children ć She suffered physical abuse in prison. (NOTE: no plural in this sense) 2. a bad use of something ć The government’s action is an abuse of power. 3. rude words ć The people being arrested shouted abuse at the police. (NOTE: no plural in this sense) abuse2 /ə bju z/ (abuses, abusing, abused) verb 1. to treat someone very badly, usually physically or sexually ć She had been abused as a child. 2. to make the wrong use of something ć He abused his position as finance director. 3. to say rude things about someone ć The crowd noisily abused the group of politicians as they entered the building. abusive /ə bju sv/ adj 1. rude and insulting ć an abusive letter ć He had too much to drink and became abusive. 2. treating someone in a violent or cruel way, or referring to a violent and cruel situation ć an abusive father ć an abusive relationship abysmal /ə bzm(ə)l/ adj extremely bad abyss /ə bs/ noun 1. a deep hole 2. a horrible or frightening situation ባ academic / kə demk/ adj 1. relating to study at a university ć Members of the academic staff received a letter from the principal. 2. only in theory, not in practice ć It is only of academic interest. í noun a university teacher ć All her friends are academics. academy /ə k dəmi/ noun 1. a college where specialised subjects are taught 2. a private society for the study of art or science accelerate /ək seləret/ (accelerates, accelerating, accelerated) verb to go faster ć Don’t accelerate when you get to traffic lights. abstract noun absurd | abundance | abundant | abundantly | abuse | abuse | abusive | abysmal | abyss | academic | academy | accelerate | Intermediate.fm Page 4 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM accelerator 4 ቤ accelerator /ək seləretə/ noun a accelerator | pedal which makes a car go faster accent / ksənt/ noun 1. a particular way of pronouncing something ć He speaks with an American accent. 2. the stronger or louder part of a word or sentence ć In the word ‘letter’ the accent is on the first syllable. 3. a mark over a letter showing a particular way of pronouncing it ć Café has an accent on the ‘e’. 4. emphasis ć The accent is on youth unemployment. accentuate / k sentʃuet/ (accentuates, accentuating, accentuated) verb to put emphasis on something ቢ accept / ək sept / (accepts, accepting, accepted) verb 1. to take and keep a present ć We hope you will accept this little gift. 2. to say ‘yes’ or to agree to something ć She accepted the offer of a job in Australia. ć I invited her to come with us and she accepted. (NOTE: Do not confuse with exaccent accentuate | accept | cept.) ቤ acceptable /ək septəb(ə)l/ adj good acceptable | enough to be accepted, although not particularly good ć Fighting in the street is not acceptable behaviour. ć Smoking is becoming less socially acceptable. ć A small gift of flowers would be very acceptable. ć The offer is not acceptable to the vendor. ቤ acceptance /ək septəns/ noun 1. the act of taking something which is offered 2. the act or fact of agreeing to do something ቤ accepted /ək septd/ adj which is taken as correct by most people ቢ access / kses/ noun a way of reaching a place ć The concert hall has access for wheelchairs. ć At present there is no access to the site. ˽ to have access to something to be able to reach a place, meet a person, or obtain something ć I’ll have access to the studio day and night. ć The company has access to substantial funds. í verb (accesses, accessing, accessed) to get information from a computer ć She tried to access the address list. access course / kses kɔ s/ noun a course of study designed to qualify someone for higher education accessible /ək sesb(ə)l/ adj 1. easily reached ć They live on a farm which is not accessible by car. 2. easy to read or understand ć Her style of writing is quite accessible. 3. suitable for disabled people ć accessible toilets ć accessible holidays ቤ accessory /ək sesəri/ (plural accessories) noun 1. a useful piece of equipment, added to others 2. a small item of clothing 3. a person who helps someone acceptance | accepted | access access course accessible | accessory | commit a crime [~to] ć an accessory to the crime ቢ accident / ksd(ə)nt/ noun 1. an unpleasant thing which happens and causes damage or injury ć He lost his leg in an accident at work. ć She was involved in a car accident and had to go to hospital. 2. something that happens unexpectedly ć Their third baby was an accident. ȣ by accident without being planned or expected ć He found the missing papers by accident. accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adj happening without being planned or expected ć an accidental meeting ć accidental damage ć His death was not accidental. accidentally / ks dent(ə)li/ adv without being planned or expected acclaim /ə klem/ noun great praise acclaimed /ə klemd/ adj much praised, especially publicly accolade / kəled/ noun a thing given to someone as a sign of praise ቤ accommodate /ə kɒmədet/ (acaccident accidental | accidentally | acclaim | acclaimed | accolade accommodate | commodates, accommodating, accommodated) verb to provide someone with a place to live accommodating /ə kɒmədetŋ/ adj accommodating | taking trouble to help people ባ accommodation /ə kɒmə deʃ(ə)n/ noun a place to live or somewhere to stay for a short time ć Are you still looking for accommodation? ć Visitors have difficulty in finding hotel accommodation during the summer. (NOTE: In British English, accomaccommodation | | modation has no plural.) accompaniment /ə k mp(ə)nimənt/ accompaniment | noun 1. music played to accompany some- one singing or playing an instrument ć a piece for violin with piano accompaniment 2. a thing which accompanies something ć They served cranberry sauce as an accompaniment to the turkey. ባ accompany /ə k mp(ə)ni/ (accomaccompany | panies, accompanying, accompanied) verb 1. to go with someone or something ć She accompanied me to the door. 2. to play a musical instrument while someone else plays another instrument or sings ć She sang and was accompanied on the piano by her father. (NOTE: accompanied by someone or something) accomplice /ə k mpls/ noun a person accomplice | who helps another person to commit a crime accomplish /ə k mplʃ/ (accomplishaccomplish | es, accomplishing, accomplished) verb to do something successfully ć You won’t accomplish anything by arguing. Intermediate.fm Page 5 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 5 accomplished /ə k mplʃt/ adj talentaccomplished | ed or skilled accomplishment accomplishment /ə k mplʃmənt/ | noun the successful finishing of something after a lot of work accord / ə kɔ d/ noun 1. an agreement 2. [~between] ˽ of your own accord without being ordered or forced by anyone ć Of his own accord he decided to sell the business and retire to a Greek island. í verb (accords, according, accorded) to give something to someone as an honour accordingly /ə kɔ dŋli/ adv as a result of something just mentioned ቢ according to /ə kɔ dŋ tu / prep 1. as someone says or writes ć The washing machine was installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. ć According to the police, the car was going too fast. 2. in agreement with rules or a system ć Everything went according to plan or schedule. 3. in relation to ć The teachers have separated the children into classes according to their ages. accost /ə kɒst/ (accosts, accosting, accosted) verb to approach or stop someone in an aggressive or suggestive way ቢ account /ə kaυnt/ noun 1. same as bank account 2. (in a shop) an arrangement which a customer makes with a shop to buy goods and pay for them later ć Put it on my account or Charge it to my account. í verb (accounts, accounting, accounted) ˽ to account for to explain something that has happened (formal ) ć He was asked to account for all his expenditure. ȣ by all accounts as everyone says ć By all accounts, she is a very attractive woman. ȣ on account of because of, due to ć The trains are late on account of the fog. ć We don’t use the car much on account of the price of petrol. ȣ on no account not at all ȣ on someone’s account for or because of someone ć I was worried on her account by the news the letter. ȣ take accord | accordingly | according to | accost | account | something into account or take account of something to consider something ć We have to take the weather into account. accountable /ə kaυntəb(ə)l/ adj having to explain what you have done, especially how you have spent or received money accountancy /ə kaυntənsi/ noun the study or the work of being an accountant ቤ accountant /ə kaυntənt/ noun a person who deals with financial accounts accounting /ə kaυntŋ/ noun the work of recording money paid, received, borrowed or owed accountable | accountancy | accountant | accounting | ache accredited /ə kredtd/ adj given offiaccredited | cial approval ቤ accumulate /ə kju mjυlet/ (accumulates, accumulating, accumulated) verb to increase gradually, or collect someaccumulate | thing over a period of time ć Fat had accumulated in the arteries. ć We’ve accumulated so many books and papers since we moved into this office. accumulation / ə kju mjυ leʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the action of accumulating something 2. an amount of something built up over time accuracy / kjυrəsi/ noun the fact of being correct in every detail ባ accurate / kjυrət/ adj correct in every detail ć Are the figures accurate? ć We asked them to make an accurate copy of the plan. accurately / kjυrətli/ adv correctly ć The weather forecast accurately predicted the storm. accusation / kju zeʃ(ə)n/ noun a statement that someone has done something wrong accusative /ə kju zətv/ adj in the accusative ቤ accuse /ə kju z/ (accuses, accusing, accused) verb to say that someone has done something wrong ć The shopkeeper accused her of theft. ć She was accused of stealing the money. (NOTE: You accuse accumulation | | accuracy accurate accurately accusation | accusative | accuse | someone of a crime or of doing something.) accusing /ə kju zŋ/ adj as if you are acaccusing | cusing someone of something ć ’You forgot to meet me,’ she said in an accusing voice. accustom /ə k stəm/ (accustoms, accustoming, accustomed) verb ˽ to accustom yourself to something to gradually accept that something is normal or usual ć accustomed to doing something ć They had to accustom themselves to working in Swedish. ć It took him some time to become accustomed to driving on the right-hand side of the road. accustomed /ə k stəmd/ adj 1. normal or usual 2. used to [~to] ć He is accustomed to assistants and plenty of people to help ć She was accustomed to walking her dog in the park every morning. ace /es / noun 1. a playing card with one spot 2. someone who is excellent at doing something 3. a service in tennis which the opponent cannot return ቤ ache /ek/ noun a pain that lasts for a while. ı toothache, headache í verb (aches, aching, ached) 1. to hurt or feel accustom | accustomed | ace ache Intermediate.fm Page 6 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM achieve 6 pain that lasts for a while (formal) 2. to feel a painful desire ቢ achieve /ə tʃi v/ (achieves, achieving, achieved) verb to succeed in doing something after trying very hard ć Have you achieved all your aims? ć The company has achieved great success in the USA. ባ achievement /ə tʃi vmənt/ noun something which has been done successfully ć She is very modest about her achievements. ć Coming sixth was a great achievement, since he had never entered the competition before. ባ acid / sd/ noun a chemical substance that is able to dissolve metals acidic /ə sdk/ adj having a sour taste acidity / ə sdti/ noun 1. the percentage of acid in something 2. bitter taste acid rain / sd ren/ noun polluted rain which kills trees acid test / sd test/ noun a test which will show the true value of something ቤ acknowledge /ək nɒld / (acknowlachieve | achievement | acid acidic | acidity | acid rain acid test acknowledge | edges, acknowledging, acknowledged) verb 1. to say that something has been re- ceived ć She didn’t acknowledge receiving my letter. 2. to accept that something is true [~that] ć She acknowledged that she had seen me there. acknowledgement / ək nɒld mənt/ noun a letter or note sent to say that something has been received acne / kni/ noun spots on the skin, usually on the face, neck and shoulders acolyte / kəlat/ noun a person who supports someone else, often without criticising their behaviour or opinions acorn / ekɔ n/ noun the fruit of an oak tree acoustic /ə ku stk/ adj referring to sound acoustics /ə ku stks/ plural noun the ability to carry sound without changing its quality ć The acoustics in the concert hall are good. acquaint /ə kwent/ (acquaints, acquainting, acquainted) verb 1. ˽ to be acquainted with someone or something to have some knowledge of someone or something (formal ) ć Is he acquainted with the details of the case? ć She is acquainted with my father. 2. to inform someone acquaintance /ə kwentəns/ noun a person you know slightly ć She has many acquaintances in the travel industry but no real friends. acknowledgement | acne acolyte acorn acoustic | acoustics | acquaint | acquaintance | ባ acquire /ə kwaə/ (acquires, acquiring, acquired) verb to become the owner of acquire | something ć She has acquired a large collection of old books. ቤ acquisition / kw zʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of acquiring something ć His acquisition of half the shares in the company surprised the staff. 2. a thing which has been acquired acquisitive /ə kwztv/ adj always wanting to acquire new things acquit /ə kwt/ (acquits, acquitting, acquitted) verb to state formally that someone is not guilty acquittal /ə kwt(ə)l/ noun a decision by a court that someone is not guilty acre / ekə/ noun a measure of land, 4840 square yards or 0.4047 hectares (NOTE: The acquisition | acquisitive | acquit | acquittal | acre plural is used with figures, except before a noun: a farm of 250 acres or a 250-acre farm.) acrid / krd/ adj with a bitter smell acrimonious / kr məυniəs/ adj anacrid acrimonious | gry and bitter acrobat / krəb t/ noun a person who performs difficult and exciting physical movements for the public acrobatic / krə b tk/ adj lively and energetic acrobatics / krə b tks/ plural noun 1. acrobatic movements 2. skills used in doing something difficult ć We enjoyed the verbal acrobatics as they tried to explain their actions. acronym / krənm/ noun a word made from the first letters of the name of something ć NATO and AIDS are both acronyms. Compare abbreviation ቢ across /ə krɒs/ prep 1. from one side to the other ć Don’t run across the road without looking to see if there is any traffic coming. 2. on the other side of ć He saw her across the street. í adv from one side to the other ć The river is only twenty feet across. ć The stream is very narrow – you can easily jump across. across-the-board /ə krɒs ðə bɔ d / adj, adv having the same effect on everyone or everything acrylic /ə krlk/ noun a synthetic substance used to make many products, including fibres í adj made from acrylic ቢ act / kt/ noun 1. something which is done ć He thanked her for the many acts of friendship she had shown him over the years. 2. a part of a play or show ć Act 2 of the play takes place in the garden. 3. a acrobat acrobatic | acrobatics | acronym across | across-the-board | acrylic | act Intermediate.fm Page 7 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 7 short performance ć The show includes acts by several young singers. 4. a law passed by Parliament ć an act to ban the sale of weapons í verb (acts, acting, acted) 1. to take part in a performance such as a film or play ć She’s acted on TV many times. ć He acted the part of Hamlet in the film. 2. to do something ć You will have to act quickly if you want to stop the fire. ˽ to act as someone or something to do the work of someone or something ć The thick curtain acts as a screen to cut out noise from the street. 3. to behave in a particular way ć She’s been acting very strangely. ć She acted in a very responsible way. 4. to take effect ć How long will the drug take to act? ȣ to get your act together to organise yourself properly ć If they don’t get their act together, they’ll miss their train. acting / ktŋ/ noun the profession of an actor ቢ action / kʃən/ noun 1. the fact of doing something ć We recommend swift action to prevent the problem spreading. ć What action are you going to take to prevent accidents? 2. something that is done ć They’ve shown their commitment by their actions. 3. a movement ć Avoid sudden actions that could alarm the animals. 4. the things that happen in a performance such as a play or film ć The action of the play takes place in a flat in London. 5. a case in a law court where someone tries to get money from someone else ć an action for libel or a libel action ć to bring an action for damages against someone ȣ out of action not working ć The car has been out of action for a week. action-packed / kʃən p kt/ adj with a large number of exciting events action replay / kʃən ri ple/ noun a section of a sporting event which is shown again on TV at a slower speed, so that the action can be examined carefully ቤ activate / ktvet/ (activates, activating, activated) verb to make something start to work ባ active / ktv/ adj 1. involved in an activity or activities, especially in an energetic way ć He didn’t play an active part in the attack on the police station. ć My grandmother is still very active at the age of 88. 2. (of a volcano) exploding or likely to explode ć Scientists think the volcano is no longer active. í noun the form of a verb which shows that the subject is doing something (NOTE: If you say ‘the car hit him’ acting action action-packed action replay activate active Adam’s apple the verb is active, but in ‘he was hit by the car’ it is passive.) activist / ktvst/ noun a person who activist vigorously supports an organisation that works for social or political change ቢ activity / k tvti/ (plural activities) noun 1. the act or fact of being active ć There is a possibility of volcanic activity. 2. something that someone does to pass time pleasantly ć Children are offered various holiday activities – sailing, windsurfing and water-skiing. actor / ktə/ noun a person who acts in the theatre, in films or on TV actress / ktrəs/ noun a woman who acts in the theatre, in films or on TV (NOTE: activity | actor actress Many women prefer to call themselves actors rather than actresses.) ቢ actual / ktʃuəl/ adj real ć It looks actual quite small but the actual height is 5 metres. ć Her actual words were much stronger. ቢ actually / ktʃuəli/ adv really ć It looks quite small, but actually it is over 5 metres high. ć He said he was ill, but actually he wanted to go to the football match. acupuncture / kjυp ŋktʃə/ noun a treatment in which needles are stuck through the skin in order to reduce pain or other aspects of an illness acute /ə kju t/ adj 1. (of serious illness or pain) which starts suddenly and lasts for a short time ć a child with acute bronchitis ć The pain was very acute. Compare chronic 2. able to notice something easily ć Dogs have an acute sense of smell. acute accent /ə kju t ksənt/ noun a mark sloping forwards over a vowel, indicating a change of sound ቤ ad / d / noun an advertisement (informal) ć If you want to sell your car quickly, put an ad in the paper. AD / e di / used before or after a date to show that it is after the birth of Jesus Christ ć Claudius invaded Britain in 43 AD. Full form Anno Domini. Compare BC (NOTE: actually acupuncture acute | acute accent | ad AD Latin for ‘in the year of our Lord’. Sometimes PE (Present Era) or CE (Common Era) is used to avoid referring to Jesus Christ.) adage / dd / noun a traditional stateadage ment about an aspect of everyday life ć According to the old adage, ‘time is a great healer’. Adam’s apple / dəmz p(ə)l/ noun a piece of cartilage that makes a lump in the front of the throat, which can sometimes be seen in men Adam’s apple Intermediate.fm Page 8 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM adapt 8 ቤ adapt /ə d pt/ (adapts, adapting, adapted) verb 1. to change something to be suitable for a new situation [~for] ć She adapt | adapted the story for TV. ć The car has been adapted for disabled drivers. 2. to change your behaviour to fit into a new situation [~to] ć We’ll all have to learn to adapt to the new system. adaptable /ə d ptəb(ə)l/ adj able to change or be changed easily to deal with new situations or uses ቤ adaptation / d p teʃ(ə)n/, adaption noun 1. a change which fits new situations or uses 2. something such as a film or play which has been developed from another ቢ add / d/ (adds, adding, added) verb 1. to make a total of numbers ć If you add all these numbers together it should make fifty. adaptable | adaptation | add (NOTE: Adding is usually shown by the sign + : 10 + 4 = 14.) 2. to join one thing to another [~to] ć Interest is added to the ac- count monthly. ć Put a teabag into the pot and add boiling water. ć By building the annexe, they have added thirty rooms to the hotel. 3. to say or to write something more ć I have nothing to add to what I put in my letter. ć She added that we still owed her some money for work she did last month. add up phrasal verb to make a total ˽ the figures do not add up the total is not correct ȣ not add up (of information) to be confusing or difficult to accept as true ć The story she told the police simply did not add up. add up to phrasal verb to make a total of something added / dd/ adj included as well as what there is already addict / dkt/ noun a person who cannot stop doing something addicted /ə dktd/ adj unable to stop doing something addiction /ə dkʃ(ə)n/ noun the fact or state of being unable to stop doing something addictive /ə dktv/ adj which people can become addicted to ቢ addition /ə dʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. someone or something added to something else [~to] ć the latest addition to the family ć He showed us the recent additions to his collection of paintings. 2. the act of adding figures to make a total ć You don’t need a calculator to do a simple addition. ȣ in addition as well ȣ in addition to as well as ć There are twelve registered letters to be sent in addition to this parcel. added addict addicted | addiction | addictive | addition | ባ additional / ə dʃ(ə)nəl/ adj included additional | as well as what there is already additive / dtv/ noun a substance which is added to something, especially to food to preserve it or to alter the taste or colour ቢ address /ə dres/ noun 1. a set of details of the number of a house, the name of a street and the town where someone lives or works ć What is the doctor’s address? ć Our address is: 1 Cambridge Road, Teddington, Middlesex. 2. the set of letters, symbols and numbers that identify someone’s email account í verb (addresses, addressing, addressed) 1. to write details such as someone’s name, street and town on a letter or parcel ć That letter is addressed to me – don’t open it! 2. to speak or write to someone ć Please address your questions to the information office. ć Teachers are not normally addressed as ‘Sir’ here. 3. to make a formal speech to a group ć The chairman addressed the meeting. address book /ə dres bυk/ noun a notebook or computer file in which you can record people’s names, home addresses, telephone numbers and email addresses ቤ adequate / dkwət/ adj 1. enough for a purpose ć We don’t have adequate supplies for the whole journey. ć His salary alone is barely adequate to support his family. 2. only just satisfactory adhere /əd hə/ (adheres, adhering, adhered) verb to attach physically to something (formal) adhere to verb to keep to a rule, agreement or promise adhesive / əd hi sv/ adj able to stick to things í noun a substance which sticks things together ad hoc / d hɒk/ adj arranged for a specific case ć an ad hoc decision ć We order the books on an ad hoc basis. í adv as necessary, without planning in advance ć I did it ad hoc. adj, adj. abbr adjective adjacent /ə d es(ə)nt/ adj very close to or almost touching something [~to] ć My office is in an adjacent building. ć Our house is adjacent to the park. adjectival / d k tav(ə)l/ adj used like an adjective ቢ adjective / d ktv/ noun a word which describes a noun ć In the phrase ‘a big black cloud’, ‘big’ and ‘black’ are both adjectives. additive address | address book | adequate adhere | adhesive | ad hoc adj adjacent | adjectival | adjective Intermediate.fm Page 9 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 9 adjoin /ə d ɔn/ (adjoins, adjoining, adadjoin | joined) verb to be close to or touching something adore admirer /əd maərə/ noun a person who admirer | loves someone or is attracted by someone admiring /əd maərŋ/ adj showing that you admire someone or something ቤ admission /əd mʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act or fact of being allowed to go into a place ć Admission to the exhibition is free on Sundays. ć My friend was refused admission to the restaurant because he was not wearing a tie. 2. a statement saying that something bad is true ć Her admission that she had taken the money led to her arrest. ȣ no admission no one can enter admission fee /əd mʃ(ə)n fi / noun an amount of money paid to go into a place such as a museum ቢ admit /əd mt/ (admits, admitting, admitted) verb to allow someone to go into a place ć Children are admitted free, but adults have to pay. ć This ticket admits three people. ˽ to admit (to) doing something to say that you have done something wrong ć They admitted stealing the car. admittance /əd mt(ə)ns/ noun permission for someone to go into a place (formal ) admittedly /əd mtdli/ adv admitting that something is true adolescence / də les(ə)ns / noun a period between childhood and adulthood, between the ages of 12 and 18 adolescent / də les(ə)nt/ noun a young person between the ages of 12 and 18 ባ adopt /ə dɒpt/ (adopts, adopting, adopted) verb 1. to take someone legally as a son or daughter ć They have adopted a little boy. 2. to decide to start using something ć We need to adopt a more flexible approach. adopted / ə dɒptd/ adj taken legally as someone’s son or daughter ቤ adoption /ə dɒpʃən/ noun 1. the legal taking of someone as a son or daughter 2. the process of starting to do or have something [~of] ć the adoption of a new company name and logo adoptive /ə dɒptv/ adj having adopted a child as a son or daughter ć my adoptive parents adorable /ə dɔ rəb(ə)l/ adj attractive and appealing adoration / də reʃ(ə)n/ noun admiration or love adore /ə dɔ / (adores, adoring, adored) verb to like someone or something very much admiring | adjourn /ə d n / (adjourns, adjourning, adjourned) verb to stop something such as a meeting or court proceedings in order to continue at a later time or date adjourn | (NOTE: + adjournment n) adjudicate /ə d u dket/ (adjudicates, adjudicating, adjudicated) verb 1. to give adjudicate | an official decision in a legal matter or a disagreement 2. to act as a judge in a competition (NOTE: + adjudicator n) ቤ adjust /ə d st/ (adjusts, adjusting, adjusted) verb to make a slight change to something ć I need to adjust this belt a bit. ˽ to adjust to something to become used to something ć How are you adjusting to being a parent? adjustable /ə d stəb(ə)l/ adj which can be adjusted ቤ adjustment /ə d stmənt/ noun a slight change to make something work well ad-lib / d lb/ (ad-libs, ad-libbing, adlibbed) verb to speak without a prepared set of words admin / dmn/ noun 1. the work of administration 2. staff dealing with administration (NOTE: singular or plural verb) administer /əd mnstə/ (administers, administering, administered) verb 1. to manage or organise something 2. to give someone a drug or medical treatment adjust | adjustable | adjustment | ad-lib admin administer | (formal) ባ administration /əd mn streʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the act of organising something administration | | such as a company or office ć Hospital administration must be improved. ć Who’s in charge of administration here? 2. a particular government ć the Bush Administration ቤ administrative /əd mnstrətv/ adj referring to administration ቤ administrator /əd mnstretə/ noun a person who runs an organisation admirable / dm(ə)rəb(ə)l/ adj which must be approved of and praised admiral / dm(ə)rəl/ noun a high-ranking officer in a country’s navy admiration / dmə reʃ(ə)n/ noun respect for someone or something ቤ admire /əd maə / (admires, admiring, admired) verb to consider someone or something with approval ć He was admired for his skill as a violinist. ć We admired the view from the balcony. administrative | administrator | admirable admiral admiration | admire | admission | admission fee | admit | admittance | admittedly | adolescence | adolescent | adopt | adopted | adoption | adoptive | adorable | adoration | adore | Intermediate.fm Page 10 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM adoring 10 adoring /ə dɔ rŋ/ adj who or which adoring | adores /ə dɔ n/ (adorns, adorning, adorned) verb to decorate something with ornaments (formal ) adrenalin /ə drenəln/ noun a hormone adorn adorn | adrenalin | that speeds up the heartbeat and raises the blood pressure when a person or animal is experiencing surprise, shock, fear or excitement adrift /ə drft/ adv floating on the water but not being guided by anyone ADSL / e di es el/ abbr asymmetrical digital subscriber line adulation / djυ leʃ(ə)n/ noun excessive praise ባ adult / d lt / noun a fully-grown person í adj 1. fully grown ć an adult tiger 2. relating to a mature person or people ć adult fiction adultery /ə d lt(ə)ri/ noun sexual intercourse with someone who is not your husband or wife adulthood / d lthυd/ noun the period when someone is an adult adv, adv. abbr 1. adverb 2. adverbial ባ advance /əd vɑ ns/ verb (advances, advancing, advanced) to move forward ć The police slowly advanced across the square. í noun 1. a movement forwards ć The police have made some advances in their fight against crime. ć The team made an advance into their opponents’ half. 2. money paid as a loan or as a part of a payment to be made later í adj done before something happens ć She made an advance payment of £3000. ȣ in advance earlier than the time something happens ć You must phone in advance to make an appointment. ć They asked us to pay £200 in advance. ቤ advanced /əd vɑ nst/ adj studied at a higher level ć He’s studying advanced mathematics. ć She’s studying for an advanced degree. advances /əd vɑ nsz/ plural noun attempts to be friendly with someone ቢ advantage /əd vɑ ntd / noun something which will help you to be successful ć Being able to drive a car is an advantage. ć Knowledge of two foreign languages is an advantage in this job. ć She has several advantages over the other job candidates. ȣ to take advantage of something to profit from something ć They took advantage of the cheap fares on offer. ȣ to take advantage of someone to get something unfairly from someone ȣ to (good or best) adrift | ADSL adulation | adult adultery | adulthood adv advance | advanced | advances | advantage | advantage in a way that helps someone or something appear especially good ć She used her knowledge of Italian to good advantage. advantageous / dvən ted əs/ adj likely to help or make something successful advent / dvent/ noun the introduction or appearance of something new adventure /əd ventʃə/ noun a new, exciting and dangerous experience ć I must tell you about our adventures in the desert. adventurous /əd ventʃ(ə)rəs / adj 1. happy to do something risky 2. exciting and full of adventure ባ adverb / dv b/ noun a word which applies to a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a whole sentence ć In the sentence ‘He walked slowly, because the snow was very thick.’ both ‘slowly’ and ‘very’ are adverbs. adverbial / d v biəl/ adj used like an adverb adversary / dvəs(ə)ri/ (plural adversaries) noun the person you are fighting or opposed to adverse / dv s/ adj (of conditions) unpleasant and unwanted ć an adverse reaction ć adverse effects adversity /əd v sti/ noun difficult times, when you have to face all sorts of problems ቤ advert / dv t/ noun same as adveradvantageous | advent adventure | adventurous | adverb adverbial | adversary adverse adversity | advert tisement advertise / dvətaz/ (advertises, adadvertise vertising, advertised) verb to make sure that people know that something is for sale, or that something is going to happen [~for] ć Did you see that the restaurant is advertising cheap meals on Sundays? ć The company is advertising for secretaries. ć I saw this watch advertised in the paper. ቤ advertisement /əd v tsmənt/ noun an announcement which tries to make sure that people know that something is for sale, or that something is going to happen ቢ advertising / dvətazŋ/ noun the act of making sure that people know that something is for sale, or that something is going to happen ć The company has increased the amount of money it spends on advertising. ć They spent millions on the advertising campaign. ቢ advice /əd vas/ noun an opinion that someone gives you about what you should do ć He went to the bank manager for advice on how to pay his debts. ć They would not listen to the doctor’s advice. ć My advertisement | advertising advice | Intermediate.fm Page 11 Monday, August 23, 2004 5:36 PM 11 grandfather gave me a very useful piece of advice. ć His mother’s advice was to stay in bed. (NOTE: no plural: use some advice or, for one item, a piece of advice) advisable /əd vazəb(ə)l/ adj which is advisable | recommended ቢ advise /əd vaz/ (advises, advising, advised) verb 1. to suggest to someone what they should do ć He advised her to save some of the money. 2. to suggest that something should not be done [~against] ć He advised against buying the house. 3. to tell someone officially that something has happened [~that] (formal) ć They advised us that the sale of the house had been completed. ቤ adviser /əd vazə/, advisor noun someone who helps people to make decisions about what to do advisory /əd vaz(ə)ri/ adj giving advice advocacy / dvəkəsi/ noun strong support for a cause or policy advocate1 / dvəkət/ noun 1. a person who strongly supports someone or something 2. a lawyer in a Scottish court advocate2 / dvəket/ (advocates, advocating, advocated) verb to say that something is a good thing aerial / eəriəl / noun a piece of equipment for receiving radio or TV signals aerobic /eə rəυbk/ adj using or needing oxygen aerobics /eə rəυbks/ noun active exercises which aim to increase the amount of oxygen taken into the body (NOTE: takes a advise | adviser | advisory | advocacy advocate advocate aerial aerobic | aerobics | singular verb) affirmative (NOTE: takes a singular verb. The usual US spelling is esthetics.) affable / fəb(ə)l/ adj pleasant and easy affable to talk to ቢ affair /ə feə/ noun 1. something which affair | is relevant to one person or group of people only ć That’s his affair – it’s nothing to do with me. ć It’s an affair for the police. ć His business affairs were very complicated. 2. a sexual relationship with someone who is not your husband or wife ć He’s having an affair with his boss’s wife. 3. an event ć The party is just a family affair. 4. an event or situation that shocks people ć The whole sorry affair was on the front page of the newspapers for days. í plural noun affairs situations or activities relating to public or private life ˽ the state of affairs the general situation ቢ affect /ə fekt/ (affects, affecting, affected) verb to have an influence on someone or something ć The new regulations have affected our business. ć Train services have been seriously affected by the strike. affectation / fek teʃ(ə)n/ noun something which someone says or does in a way that does not seem natural or sincere affected /ə fektd/ adj not natural or sincere affection /ə fekʃ(ə)n/ noun a feeling of liking someone, especially a friend [~for] ć ’ ć They had no affection for their former home. ć She always spoke of him with great affection. affectionate /ə fekʃənət/ adj showing love affidavit / f devt/ noun a written statement which is signed and sworn before a solicitor affiliate /ə fliet/ (affiliates, affiliating, affiliated) verb to connect something or someone to a larger group affiliated /ə flietd/ adj connected to or with another as an affiliate affiliation /ə fli eʃ(ə)n/ noun the act or fact of being affiliated affinity /ə fnti/ noun the fact of being similar in character affirm /ə f m/ (affirms, affirming, affirmed) verb to state publicly that something is true affirmation / fə meʃ(ə)n/ noun a statement that something is true affirmative /ə f mətv/ noun a word or statement meaning ‘yes’ affect | affectation | affected | affection | affectionate aerodynamic / eərəυda n mk / adj aerodynamic | referring to the movement of objects through the air aerodynamics / eərəυda n mks/ noun the science of the movement of objects through the air (NOTE: takes a singular aerodynamics | verb) aeronautical / eərə nɔ tk(ə)l/ adj reaeronautical | ferring to the flying of aircraft ቤ aeroplane / eərəplen / noun a vehicle which flies in the air, carrying passengers or goods aerosol / eərəsɒl/ noun tiny particles of a chemical in the air aerospace / eərəυspes/ noun earth’s atmosphere and space beyond it aesthetic /i s θetk/ adj pleasant, from an artistic point of view (NOTE: The usual aeroplane aerosol aerospace aesthetic | US spelling is esthetic.) aesthetics /i s θetks/ noun the science aesthetics | of and study of beauty, especially in art | affidavit | affiliate | affiliated | affiliation | | affinity | affirm | affirmation | affirmative |
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