Necessities of the thesis:
Since the World War II, Tourism, on a global scale, has made rapid
development and become an important economic sector, which supports
developing countries in enhancing their economic development targets, poverty
reduction and improvements in living standards. It can be seen that tourism has
created millions of direct and indirect job opportunities for relevant industries
including transportation, finance and agriculture, etc. As an export industry,
tourism has managed to be ranked the 4th after the field of fuels, petrochemicals
and automobile production.
Over the past years, Vietnam Tourism has made an outstanding
development. In 2001, Vietnam only attracted about 2.3 million of international
tourists. However, it is estimated that Vietnam will be the destination of 4.5 –
4.6 million of foreign visitors and 28 million of local tourists in 2010. The
amount of income from tourism has reached about 80 thousand billion VND.
Tourism is considered to be one of the five industries which bring about highest
foreign currencies for the country.
The South Central Coast includes five coastal provinces (Binh Dinh, Phu
Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan) and there are five provinces in
the Highlands (Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong). Such
areas play a vital role in the tourism development strategy of Vietnam. In fact,
the Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has witnessed a rapid
growth for the past years: The number of tourists is on an increase. Particularly,
in 2009, the number of visitors accounted for 6.7% of international tourists and
12% of local tourists of the whole country. The income gained from tourism of
the region reached 7,500 billion VND with the average growth rate of 26.5% per
year during the period 2001 – 2009. The development of tourism has contributed
to changing the appearance of the region as well as creating more jobs for local
labor and building numerous high-grade resorts.
Also, the Tourism sector of the South Central Coast and Highlands could
not catch up with the growth rate of the sector. In particular, there are certain
weaknesses in major activities, then failing to satisfy the requirements.
Moreover, the number of well-qualified staffs constitutes a small percentage,
among which the quantity of employees whose major is tourism is still low. A
majority of such employees are not good at foreign languages as well as their
working skills and professionalism are not efficient at all.
Apart from the weaknesses in the quality, there exists a serious lack of
tourism employees in the region. In addition, the structure is inappropriate and
has not been assessed comprehensively in terms of both the theory and reality.
Moreover, there are certain shortcomings in the state management toward the
tourism development in the region: The organization is instable due to the
merging process; the development has experienced a lack of strategies, planning
and schedules; the quality of training and fostering personnel has yet been
closely controlled; there is no comprehensive solution and clear orientation for
the tourism development, then fulfilling the targets of the sector.
On the basis of the above-mentioned evaluations and opinions, in order to
enhance the efficiency of the management of the tourism development in the
South Central Coast and Highlands till 2020, I decided to choose the
“Development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and
Highlands” as the topic of my thesis which aims at contributing to the
resolution of theoretical and practical problems in the management of the
development of human resources in tourism in the said region.
2. Purposes of study: On the basis of the theory and practical survey, the Thesis
has suggested some solutions to the development of human resources in
Tourism so as to meet the requirements on tourism development till 2020 of the
provinces in the South Central Coast and Highlands.
3. Tasks of study:
- To systematize and develop the concepts and theoretical matters on the
training and development of human resources in Tourism, then creating a
theoretical basis for the research.
- To analyze the current situation of the development of human resources
in Tourism including quantity, quality and structure; the training of human
resources and the management of manpower development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands.
- To suggest some solutions to develop the human resources in Tourism
of the said region till 2020.
4. Subjects of study: The thesis focuses on studying the development of human
resources in Tourism in the state management system and tourism enterprises in
the South Central Coast and Highlands.
5. Scope of study:
- In terms of the contents: The thesis has managed to study the theoretical
and practical matters on the development of human resources in Tourism so as
to offer some solutions.
- In terms of the space: The thesis focuses on studying the provinces in the
South Central Coast (Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh
Thuan) and Highlands (Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong)
- In terms of time:
+ The figures used to evaluate the current status of human resources in
Tourism in the region are collected from 2001 to 2009.
+ Orientation and solutions to the development of human resources in
Tourism are used for the period 2015 – 2020.
6. Methodology and research methods:
The thesis has employed the dialectical materialism and historical
materialism . Moreover, the thesis has selected the research methods of Public
Administration Management through the systematical approach, analysis and
survey, social investigation and expert method. Besides, the thesis also inherits
various relevant studies, statistics and documents.
7. Some improvements of the thesis
- The thesis is the first deep and comprehensive research on the
management of the human resources development in tourism in the South
Central Coast and Highlands in terms of both the theory and reality.
- The thesis has provided a systematic assessment on the management and
development of human resources in the Tourism of the said region. The major
reasons for numerous problems in the tourism development of the region have
also been pointed out.
- The thesis has suggested some comprehensive and feasible solutions to
the development of human resources in Tourism of the region.
8. Structure of the thesis
Besides the introduction, overview, conclusion and recommendations,
references and appendixes, the thesis consists of three chapters as follows:
- Chapter I: Thereotical basis and some experience in the development of
human resources in Tourism
- Chapter II: Current status of the development of human resources in
Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands during the period of 2001 –
- Chapter III: Some solutions to the development of human resources in
Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION
Situation of local research:
The studies of local authors on the development of human resources in
Tourism can be divided into three major groups as following:
- Scientific reports and articles in magazines and newspapers: A
considerable number of famous scholars have studied the development of human
resources: Prof.Dr. Hoang Van Chau, the Rector of Hanoi Foreign Trade
University with the study “Development of high quality human resources for the
economic integration – an urgent problem since the crisis”; Vice Prof.Dr Duc
Vuong, Rector of the Institute of Science Studies for Talents and Human
Resources with the research “Building Vietnam intelligentsia in the period of
2011 – 2020” and Mr. Nguyen Trung, a former ambassador in Thailand who is
well known with the study “Thoughts of the development of human resources in
- Projects and programs: The project on “Development of Human
Resources in Vietnam Tourism” (Code: VNM/B7-301/ IB/97/0234) conducted
by Vietnam National Administration of Tourism and European Community with
the aim to enhance the standards and quality of human resources in Vietnam
Tourism; VIE/031 Project (Improvement in the capabilities of human resources
in Tourism and Hotel) funded by the Government of Grand Duchy of
Luxembourg and conducted between 20th January, 2010 and 31st December,
2012 with the aim to support the development of human resources in Tourism in
the key areas.
- Textbooks and references: Here are some typical textbooks on the
development of human resources in Tourism: “State management of economic
and social matters” edited by Dr. Nguyen Hoc Hien, Scienticic and Technical
Publisher, Hanoi, 2007; “Management of social human resources” edited by
Prof. Dr. Bui Van Nhon, Scienticic and Technical Publisher, Hanoi, 2008 and
“Tourism Economics” edited by Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Dinh, Vice Prof. Dr.
Tran Thi Minh Hoa – Hanoi, National Economic University, 2008
2. Research situation in foreign countries:
It can be seen that the development of human resources in Tourism has
experienced a comprehensive and thorough study. Some studies have been
translated into Vietnamese and used as the textbooks and references in some
tourism schools. For example, “Management of Modern Hotels” (Editor: Luc
Boi Minh, Shanghai Publisher, 1996), Research Institute of Tourism
Development and National Political Publisher, 1997; “Tourism economics and
tourism study” edited by Dong Ngoc Minh and Vuong Loi Dinh, HCM
Publishing House, 2000.
General evaluation of the research situation and problems to be
- In fact, the above-mentioned studies have only provided general
understanding of human resources or mentioned some aspects of the
development of human resources in general. No study offers a systematic
approach to the development of human resources in Tourism in terms of the
- The solutions given by the said studies have stopped at a macro level. A
majority of the solutions are recommended for the general development. In other
words, it seems to be extremely hard for such solutions to be efficient in the
- There is no specific and deep study on the development of human
resources in Tourism for the South Central Coast and Highlands.
On the basis of the local and foreign research situation, the thesis targets
to systematize, select and build up certain concepts and theories on the
development of human resources in Tourism; Analyze the current situation of
the development and management of human resources in Tourism in the South
Central Coast and Highlands; Suggest some solutions to the development of
human resources in Tourism in the said region till 2020.
THEORETICAL BASIS AND SOME EXPERIENCE IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM
1.1. Human resources in Tourism
1.1.1. Human resource
Definition: Human resource is a category to describe the potential
strengths of residents and the capability of mobilizing them into the production
of facilities and spiritual values for the society at the moment as well as in the
future. These strengths and capability are demonstrated by the quality, quantity
and structure of the population, especially the quality and quantity of the force
who can take part in the social production.
1.1.2. Human resources in Tourisms
220.127.116.11. Basic concepts in Tourism
The term Tourism is derived from Greek with the meaning the action of
movement around a circle. This term is Latinized to be tornus and then tourisme
(France), tourism (English), etc. Up to now, there are various view on Tourism,
some authors concentrate on explaining the concept Tourism as a movement
phenomenon outside their habitual residences; Others concentrate on Tourist
and economic field of Tourism.
In Vietnam, Tourism Law (2005) specifies: Tourism means activities connected
with trips taken by people outside their habitual residences aimed at satisfying
their needs for sightseeing, study, leisure or recreation in a certain period of
time.(Clause 1 Article 4).
Tourism Law also interprets several terms of Tourism as follows:
Tourism activity means activities of tourists, organizations and individuals doing
tourism business, local communities, agencies, organizations and individuals
engaged in tourism related activities; Tourism resources mean natural
landscapes, natural elements, historical or cultural relics, works of creative
human labor or humanity values which can be utilized to meet tourist needs and
constitute a fundamental factor to form tourist resorts, tourist spots, tourist
routes or tourist. cities; Tourist product means a combination of necessary
services provided in order to meet the needs of tourists during a trip; Tourist
service means the provision of services in travel, transportation,
accommodation, meals and drinks, entertainment, information, guidance and
other services to satisfy the
needs of tourists.
18.104.22.168. The Human resource of Tourism
- Definition: The Human resources of Tourism mean the labor forces
participated in the tourism development process, including the direct and in
direct labor. Direct labor is the person who works in the state management
systems related to tourism, the tourism agencies and the tourism business
agencies; indirect labor is the person works in sectors, process related to tourism
such as culture, customs, traffic, commerce, public environment, post
communication, residence community, etc. In the scope of this thesis, it is
mentioned the direct labor of Tourism.
- Roles and characteristics of the Human resource of Tourism: The
Human resources of Tourism are clarified into 3 types with different roles: the
state managed labor group on Tourism, the tourism functioned labor group and
the business group.
The business group is the populous group with the characteristics as
+ Young age structure, female labor rate is higher than male labor rate:
Due to the typical feature in the need of active, young and strong labor; many
fields related to tourist service require the charm, caution and skill of female.
+ Inequality in Quality and Structure: There is the uneven allocation
according to territory and tourism profession, originated from the prominent
resource orientation of Tourism.
+ The great change in quantity based on the season in a year: Due to the
seasonal feature of tourism, the tourism activities are concentrated in a certain
time of a year (high peak reason).
The labor force working directly in tourism businesses is clarified into 4
basic groups with the different roles and features in tourism activities:
+ The general function management labor: including the leader of the
economic ground (general directors, directors, deputy directors or equivalent
positions). This labor group is in charge of looking for latent, using skillful
people, organizing and managing the work smoothly for effective business
+ The labor group managed according to economic profession: including
employees in functional departments (finance - accounting, materials and
equipment, synthetic, human resource management, etc). The main duties of
employees in this department is to organize business accounting, the
management business system, labor and make plan for scale and growth of
+ The labor group ensuring the business condition of enterprises: The
guard, environment hygiene, electricity and water staff, good supply, workers in
business, tourism business.
+ The direct labor in service for tourist: These are direct employees
engaged in the tourism business, direct service delivery and service to travelers.
This working group is very large, from many different fields and requires
1.2. Human resource Development in Tourism
1.2.1. Definition: Human resource Development in Tourism is the overall
forms, methods, policies and measures for improvement, enhancing the quality
of human resources for tourism industry (intellectual, physical and
psychological qualities – social fields) to increase the quatity human resources
for tourism and restructure the tourism industry to meet the requirements of
economic and social development in each development period.
1.2.2. The elements influencing the human resource development in Tourism:
- Level of economic development and tourism development: the economic
development provides the physical base to address issues of human resource.
The development of tourism decides the quantity, quality and trend of
development of tourism human resources.
- The Quality of education: The quality of education directly affects the
human resource development.
- The macro social economic policies of the government: The macro
social economic policies of the government such as education and training
policies, recruitment policy, employment, labor wages, social insurance, labor
protection, etc have a direct impact to human resources through macroregulation tools.
-The outside elements: The globalization, the development of science and
technology, especially the information technology and communication.
1.3. The state management towards human resource in tourism
1.3.1. The development policy for human resource in tourism
The basic policies for human resource development in tourism include:
Policy on the management of tourism development (regulation of professional
standards of travel, specialized training programs), policies on education,
training and travel (Regulations on tourism training institutions, programs
training, teacher standards and regimes with teachers and students, school fees),
and policies to attract the employers (defined mode of employment, regulating
relations and working conditions); specific policies (policies to develop human
resources of state management areas) and policy development of scientific
human resources - technology, policy development group of entrepreneurs.
1.3.2. The content state management on development for human resource in
The main contents of state management on development for human resource in
- Building the strategy for human resource development in Tourism: The
strategy for human resource development in Tourism is the ground for making
plans, development programs of Tourism across the nation; The strategy for
human resource development in Tourism, the development plans, programs in
each localities, regions.
- Building and issuing the legal normative document, creating the legal
corridor for development for human resource in tourism: The legal tools and
macro policies affect the manufacturing relations, labor relations, and
management to adjust, orientate for human resource development in comply
with the development target.
- Building and issuing the policies on recruitment in Tourism: This
content is the foundation for the tourism organizations, businesses to evaluate
and select the tourism labor to ensure the rights and obligations of employees
- Building and completing the policy system of development for human
resource in tourism: To build and complete the education policy, tourism
education, labor attraction and recruitment. To promulgate and guide on
implementation of the policy for insuring the sack of the employees in Tourism.
To promulgate the regulation on labor attraction, recruitment and treatment for
human resource in Tourism.
- Broadening the cooperation relations, speed up the cooperation of
human resource in tourism among different areas: Cooperation on human
resource is one of the best methods to solve the inconsistence and difference of
Tourism human resource, this process could change styles, habits, discipline
and renew the evaluation criteria of quality of Tourism human resource, create
quality level among regions and nation.
- Completing the organization engine, providing guidance on
implementation and issue of development strategy of human resource in
Tourism: To enhance the state management effectiveness on Tourism from the
central to localities, supplementing the forces, enhancing quality of management
1.3.3.The state management towards the human resource development of
Tourism in Vietnam at present:
22.214.171.124. The state management towards the human resource development of
Tourism in Vietnam at present.
- In the central, the state management agencies include: Ministry of
Education and Training managed on Tourism education and training, Ministry
of Labors, War Invalids and Social Affairs managed on labor and employment
training; Ministry of Culture, Information and Sports managed on Tourism
fields. The Central State plays the orientation role and creating the resources,
conditions for the social human resource in general and human resource in
Tourism in general.
- In the localities: The People’s Committee of province or city under
central authority with the specialized agencies are: Department of Culture,
Sports and Tourism, Department of Education and Training, Department of
Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, Department of the Interior, the People’s
Committee of districts, Office of Education and Training. Local government
plays an important role for human resource development, through to detail the
guidelines and policies to develop human resources of the State into specific
regulations for development human resources in the local tourism industry in
line with actual conditions.
- Grass-roots Level: is the body functioned management and development
of human resources of each organization or unit activities in the tourism sector
(usually the Administrative organization,human resource organizations).
Grassroots level have an impact on human resource development of the tourism
industry per unit of tourist business and therefore, have a role to impact the
overall development of tourism human resources.
- Partner systems: are the education units and research agencies for the
development of tourism human resources. The partner system plays the
important role in the quality of tourism human resources.
- The experts, teachers, lecturers: is the force in charge of providing
consultant service, experience, brain, teaching and training, directly affect the
improvement process of quality of trainee. The experts, teachers, and lecturers
also system plays the important role in the quality of tourism human resources.
126.96.36.199. The content of human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam at
In order to gain the tourism human resource meeting the development
requirements at present, the content of development of the tourism human
resource is conducted as follows:
- The human resources Census in the national tourism industry, to
participate and contribute to the completion of service functions, to improve
quality and effectiveness of management agencies and the tourism sector's
- To issue the standard function system for Tourism in order to support
tourism education activities;
- To build, train and implement the education process, to foster the labor
ability of Tourism; to build the education frame, to enhance profession, foreign
language for tourism human resource.
- To develop and promulgate policies, measures to complete and enhance
the quality of human resources, increase the number and structural adjustment
human resource of tourism industry to meet the development requirements.
1.4. Experience of some nations in the human resource development in
1.4.1. Thailand: Government of Thailand always put the human resource
development in the top in the national targets. The tourism plan concentrates on
the tasks including solving the tourism education problems originated from the
duties of Thailand Tourism.
Human resource policy on tourism development to meet the
industrialization process in Thailand is made by the main programs: (a) To
promote education and technical vocational training in tourism industry; (b) To
make emphasis on practical skills training, tourism, (c) To encourage internal
training (training in the tourism business), (d) The program of foreign aid in
human resources development in tourism.
The development programs for tourism resource development are
conducted with the cooperation of government and private sectors.
1.4.2. Japan: the human resource development was conducted from easy one to
difficult one, from simple to complex, from basic training to the application and
a continuous performance and consistent with the group of workers. The process
of human development the tourism industry includes a system of three forms of
public education, corporate training and self training. Organization and
management system developed in Japanese human resource are held throughout
the country at both national and local levels (provinces).
Human resource development system in Japanese firms have the basic
characteristics: (a) On spot training is the main form and made during the
working life of employees through mentoring and direction of senior and skilled
workers for lower-skilled people; (b) Content of informal on spot training is
very large, long-term by nature and made gradually with different phases and
systematic feature; (c) On spot training is widely applied in large companies and
at a smaller scale for small and medium companies; (d) On spot training is
supported with special training.
1.4.3. Germany: the investment of education in Germany is very high,
accounting for 5-6% of national income.
The person with vocational orientation starts training from the grade of 9
or 10 of popular system. Vocational training period is often 3 years. At this age,
there is 75% of population choosing the vocational training, among of them 3/4
is in the training system at schools and factories (so called Dual System), 1/4
studies at the simple vocational training schools.
Besides vocational training, job training and complementary skills are
widely held by a diverse school system, operating on market principles.
Enterprises, associations as well as private and state units and equal competition
in meeting the vocational needs of society.
Besides vocational training, Germany pays more attention in practical
engineer training model as for tourism training.Germany has the advanced skill
training system. It is the element which creates flexible and high quality
responding ability to the economic development.
1.4.4. Some lessons for human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam
and South central coastal and central highland regions.
- The first lesson is to enhance state management to tourism human
resource development: It is necessary to strengthen state management on
tourism human resource development through tools such as building and
promulgation of policy development, building strategy, tourism development
plans and human resource development plans of tourism. The state should take
initiative in building training systems and legal systems of tourism education,
vocational training law, labor law, etc.
The second lesson is to bring in to full play the roles of stakeholders in
human resource development of Tourism: to bring in to full play the roles of all
level of localities; through the mechanisms for greater decentralization for local
government to encourage tourism businesses and the private sectors to
participate in training tourism; to promote the role of professional associations;
to strengthen the relations among the provinces and the regions and among
stakeholders related to training and fostering tourism human resource such as
State, training units, businesses.
The third lesson is to determine vocational training, shifting to
specialized training, enhancing practical skills; training in line with social
demands: A strong shift from universal training to specialized training, to pay
attention on practical skills, training demand must be in line with labor market
demand. As for tourism training, 2 models which are effectively applied and
brought high efficiency are dual training of Germany and on spot factory
training of Japan.
CURRENT SITUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN
TOURISM IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST AND HIGHLANDS DURING
THE PERIOD OF 2001 - 2009
2.1. Overview of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and
2.1.1. Overview of natural and socio-economic conditions of South Central
Coast and Highlands
188.8.131.52. South Central Coast: There are five provinces in this region including
Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan with the total
area to be 27,486.2 km2. Such provinces own many geological and infrastructure
advantages. The marine industry is considered as its biggest strength including
marine resources, local and international sea transport as well as deep-water
ports. The region is populous with plentiful labor. In particular, the provinces in
the South Central Coast own various tourism resources and beautiful beaches
and bays. Furthermore, it is sunny and warm through the year with diversed
marine ecosystems and numerous hot springs.
184.108.40.206. Highlands: The Highlands is located in the SouthWest of Vietnam with
five provinces including Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam
Dong. The Highlands is 54,640 km2 in area with 3,140 thousand ha of forest. Its
wood reserve reaches 238.9 million m3, accounting for 31.9% of the forest area
and 36.3% of the national forest reserve.
The Highlands is the owner of various vegetations, minerals and large
tourism potentials. In terms of ethnic groups, there are two different parts
including native people and latter residents. The group of native people is
distributed according to the languages including Mon Khome (Ba Na, Xo Dang,
Co Ho, Mnong, Gie Trieng, Ma, Brau, Ro Mam and Hre) and Malyo-Polinedia
(Gia Rai, E De, Chu Ru and Ra Glai).
2.1.2. Tourism resources
220.127.116.11. South Central Coast: This region is well known for its marine tourism
resources. There are a great number of beautiful beaches which are not only
famous in Vietnam but also in Van Phong, Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, Ninh Chu, Ca
Na, Phan Thiet- Mui Ne. The purity of sea water and the smoothness of sand
beaches together with warm climate around the year have created the most
favorable conditions for developing marine tourism activities with unique
18.104.22.168. Highlands: The dipterocarp forests, the ecosystem of high moutains and
the system of lakes and waterfalls including Ealy, Bien Ho, Suoi Vang and Gia
Long are regarded as the valuable tourism resources to develop green tourism
activities. Moreover, the region owns various and interesting native cultural
values including the “Highlands Gong Space” which is acknowledged to be an
intangible cutural heritage by UNESCO.
22.214.171.124. Position of the South Central Coast and Highlands in the strategy of
tourism development: It can be seen that the South Central Coast and Highlands
play a highly important role to the strategy of tourism development in Vietnam.
Such regions are recognized to be the most active in the country in the coming
2.1.3.Overview of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and
Highlands during the period of 2001 - 2009
- International tourists: The number of international tourists to the South
Central Coast and Highlands has witnessed a constant increase from more than
308 thousand in 2001 to 550 thousand in 2005 and 918.5 thousand in 2009. In
2001, the number of foreign visitors to these regions accounted for 5.92% of the
total quantity of the country. However, this figure rose to 6.69% in 2009.
- Local tourists: In 2001, the South Central Coast and Highlands picked
up 2.05 million of local visitors. However, this figure reached 7.827 million of
tourists, 3.8 times higher than that of 2001, making an annual growth to be
18.23%. In addition, the proporation of local tourism in comparison with the
whole country has experienced a rapid growth from 9.52% in 2001 to 11.23% in
126.96.36.199. Revenue from tourism: Tourism revenue of the South Central Coast and
Highlands increased from 1,135 billion VND in 2001 to 7,496 billion VND in
2009, making an average growth rate to be 26.6%/year for the period of 2001 –
2009. However, the proportion of tourism revenue in comparison with the
whole country is assessed to be limited: 8.33% in 2009.
188.8.131.52. Investment in tourism:
- Technical infrastructure and facilities in tourism: In 2001, there were
merely 757 accommodation establishments with 12,269 rooms in total.
However, this figure had reached 1,463 accommodation establishments with
29,508 rooms by 2009. the number of big hotels, especially three or five star
hotels made a considerable increase with various services, high quality as well
as well-qualified and professional employees.
- Development of tourism areas: Some famous tourism areas have been
established. These areas become more and more attractive to local and foreign
visitors including Hon Ngoc Viet (Khanh Hoa), Vung Ro (Phu Yen), Phan Thiet
– Mui Ne (Binh Thuan), etc.
- Investment in tourism: During the period of 2006 – 2010, the regions
have received a great deal of investment in tourism infrastructure by the State
with the total fund of 1,177 billion VND, contributing to the creation of more
jobs and the enhancement of economic restructure.
The current status of the tourism development in the South Central Coast
and Highlands can be generally evaluated as follows:
- Achievements: The Tourism has rapidly developed during the past few
years and created numerous jobs as well as contributed to raising the local
budgets and the economic restructure and changing the appearance of urban and
- Shortcomings: The development; however, is still instable and brings
many upside factors.
- Causes: The development is not in accordance with the planning and
strategy. Moreover, the quality of human resources can not satisfy requirements.
2.2. Current status of the development of human resources in Tourism in
the South Central Coast and Highlands
2.2.1. Current status of human resources in Tourism in the South Central
Coast and Highlands
By June, 2009, the South Central Coast and Highlands had owned 73,889
laborers working in tourism, in which there were 24,548 direct laborers and
49,341 indirect employees. The South Central Coast possesses more advantages
thanks to 16,768 direct laborers and 33,705 indirect employees.
184.108.40.206. Quality of human resources:
The rate of laborers who have yet graduated from a high school is
relatively high, accounting for 19.95% of the total number. In addition, the
proportion of employees whose major is tourism is still low.
In fact, the number of employees in tourism who experience no training
makes up of more than 70%. Meanwhile, the staffs who are at beginner,
intermediate or college levels are not sufficient enough.
220.127.116.11 Structure of human resources:
Female employees make up of a higher rate than males. In particular,
female employees account for 55.6% while the rate of male ones is only 44.40%
of the total number of laborers working in tourism.
There is no information system for the labor market in the tourism so as to
make accurate and objective evaluations and analysis of the current status of the
quality of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and
Highlands. The author has made a survey in all provinces within the study
scope. Such an investigation has been applied for both management staffs and
direct workers. The survey has collected the results as follows:
- Management staffs:
+ Gender: Male managers account for a major part (South Central Coast:
58%; Highlands: 69%). In terms of the age: A majority of managers are at 40 –
50 years old (South Central Coast: 65.42%; Highlands: 53.83%).
Especially, the number of management staffs who are more than 50 years
old is relatively high (South Central Coast: 24.69%; Highlands: 13.95%). On the
contrary, the number of managers under 30 years old is limited (South Central
Coast: 9.87%; Highlands: 13.95%). It is obvious that the rejuvenation is being a
question to the force of management staffs in tourism.
+ Economic sectors: Most enterprises in the South Central Coast are stateowned companies, joint stock companies and private companies while limited
companies, joint stock companies and private companies are widely known in the
* In South Central Coast: A majority of management staffs in tourism
own a university degree and only about one third is trained about tourism (equal
to 35.80%). However, there is no staff with a master degee. These managers
have taken part in beginner classes of political theories (33.33%) whereas there
is almost training class in the state management. The foreign language is English
at Level A and B (48.14%). Up to 25.92% of management staffs have reached
Level C and over. A majority of managers are provided with a A/B qualification
in informatics (65.43%) and only 10% has reached Level C and over.
* In Highlands: Most of the management staffs in tourism own a univerity
degree, 1/3 of whom are trained about tourism (30.23%). However, there is no
staff with a master degee. These managers have taken part in intermediate
classes of political theories (37.20%) whereas there is almost training class in
the state management. The foreign language is English, mainly at Level A and B
(51.16%). Very few management staffs have reached Level C and over (4.65%).
A majority of managers are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics
(53.48%) and only 5% has reached Level C and over.
The demands for training and fostering human resources in the South
Central Coast mainly focuses on the management of general business
(leadership skills, making strategies and business plans; negotiation for signing
contracts; making production and operation schedules, etc), accounting for up to
43.20% followed by foreign languages (34.56% although most of the managers,
to some extent, are qualified); personnel management (34.56%). For short-term
classes, the demands are reserved mainly for hotel management (44.44%) and
restaurant management (24.69%).
- Employees in tourism companies:
+ In terms of gender and age: It can be seen that the number of male
employees is smaller than that of females (South Central Coast: 42.08%;
Highlands: 27.62% - this trend seems to be opposite to the structure of
management staffs). With regard to the age, most employees are at the age of 30
– 40 (South Central Coast: 40.19%; Highlands: 60.46%0. Especially, the
number of employees at the age of around 50 years old is not substantial (South
Central Coast: 1.65%; Highlands: 6.66%).
+ In terms of economic sectors: The employees who took part in the
survey are the member of state-owned tourism companies, limited companies,
joint stock companies, private companies and FDI companies, especially joint
stock companies and state-owned companies in the South Central Coast and
joint stock and limited enterprises in the Highlands.
+ In terms of qualification:
* In terms of qualification: 39.95% of the employees own a university
degree, half of whom are trained in tourism (47.99%). Moreover, there are
numerous laborers who only graduated from high schools (38.77%) and no
employee who owns a master degree.
The foreign language is English, mainly at Level A and B (59.80%). Very
few employees reach Level C (11.50%) and over (16.90%). Several employees
who know many foreign languages gather in Khanh Hoa province. Apart from
English, some foreign languages can be found including French, Chinese,
Japanese and Russian. A majority of employees are provided with a A/B
qualification in informatics (49.64%) and only 7% has reached Level C and
* In Highlands: Most of the employees graduated from high schools
(46.66%) and about a half were trained in tourism (43.8%). However, there still
exist some workers whose qualification is under high school (0.95%) and no
employee with a master degree. With regard to foreign languages, a majority of
employees get Level A/B in English (55.23%). Very few employees reach Level
C (0.95%). In particular, some employees know two languages (only one). Most
of of employees are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics (41.90%)
and only 7% has reached Level C and over.
2.2.2. Current situation of training and fostering human resources in
In the South Central Coast and Highlands, there are six tourism
universities and five colleges with an average number of 3,250 students per year.
Moreover, the regions have established nine vocational schools, three colleges
and two universities with the total number of 3,560 students. In general, the
facilities in these schools are incomprehensive and out of date. In addition, the
schools have witnessed a shortage of teaching and learning facilities.
Moreover, there exists an inconsistency in the training programs and
textbooks. In other words, there is no minimum standard for the contents of
tourism training programs for each level and speciality. As a result, graduates
find hard to determine their skills or management capability.
The number of teachers and lecturers has witnessed a small increase.
Actually, the teachers who are well qualified on tourism account for a small
proportion. Furthermore, their deep understanding of tourism is mainly gained
from fostering classes or by self-study. Teaching methods are demonstrated
2.2.3. State management of human resource development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands
18.104.22.168. State management system in the developement of tourism human
Prior to 2007, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism as a state
management agency had been in close cooperation with the Ministry of Internal
Affairs, Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of Labor – Invalids and
Social Affairs (General Department of Vocational Training) to fulfill the state
management of the development of human resources in tourism throughout the
country. There are one Department of Tourism (Binh Thuan Province), two
Department of Tourism and Commerce (Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong) and seven
Department of Commerce and Tourism in the rest provinces.
Since 2007, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism has cooperated
with the Department of Physical Training and Sports and the Ministry of
Culture and Information to establish the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
under the Decree No. 185/2007/ND-CP dated 25th December, 2007. On that
base, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Vietnam becomes the body
which is responsible of taking the state management of tourism at Central level.
The Departments of Culture and Information, Departments of Physical Training
and Sports and Departments of Tourism (or Division of Tourism Management
under the Department of Tourism and Commerce) also merged into the
Departments of Culture, Sports and Tourism. In the South Central Coast and
Highlands, there are ten Departments of Culture, Sports and Tourism which act
as competent agencies to instruct the People’s Committee of the provinces to
implement the state management of tourism and human resource development in
22.214.171.124. Current status of state management on the development of human
resources in Tourism
- Building strategies for the development of human resources in Tourism:
In fact, the provinces have not established the strategies for the development of
human resources in Tourism yet.
- Building and promulgating legal documents and frameworks for the
development of human resources in Tourism: The system of legal documents on
managing the development of human resources in Tourism is mainly based on
the legal provisions promulgated by the Central ministries and industries.
- System of policies for the development of human resources in Tourism:
Actually, the provinces have applied the policies promulgated by the Central
agencies rather than theirs.
- State management of training and fosteringhuman resources in Tourism:
There has been a cooperation between numerous agencies in tourism training;
however, the Departments of tourism management only play a minor role.
2.3. General evaluation of the current status of human resources in
Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands
2.3.1. Advantages and reasons
126.96.36.199. Advantages: The human resources in Tourism in the South Central
Coast and Highlands have witnessed a growth in both the quality and quantity.
To some extent, such a growth has met the demands of tourism companies and
requirements of the sector. The training work has been strengthened in terms of
the scale, quality and capability. Moreover, the state management of human
resource development in Tourism has also made certain improvements.
188.8.131.52. Reasons: The tourism has witnessed a rapid growth and attracted a great
number of laborers with relatively high requirements on qualification and
professionality. In addition, the training work has drawn more attention, then
meeting social demands. Particularly, the state management of human resource
development in Tourism has also been improved.
2.3.2. Disadvantages and reasons:
184.108.40.206.Disadvantages: Despite certain improvements, the human resources in
Tourism have failed to satisfy increasing demands for stability and rapidity of
the sector. Moreover, the distribution of human resources seems to be unequal
and instable. The training work has faced numerous shortcomings. Obviously,
the demands for training and fostering human resources in Tourism are huge;
however, the system of training establishments has yet met social requirements.
There exists a distance between the knowledge equipped by training
establishments and the requirements of tourism companies. In addition, despite
drawing more attention, the state management has faced various shortcomings
and inaquadecy. A database system of human resources in Tourism in the South
Central Coast and Highlands is not available to build a firm unit which is in
charge of managing and developing human resources.
220.127.116.11. Reasons: Actually, the Tourism in the South Central Coast and
Highlands has developed so rapidly, which results in the fact that the
development of human resources in this sector can not catch up with such a
growth. The training work has failed to satisfy social demands. Moreover, the
state management of human resource development in Tourism has still faced
certain problems and shortcomings.
SOME SOLUTIONS TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN
TOURISM IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST AND HIGHLANDS
3.1. Background and orientation of human resource development in
Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands till 2020.
3.1.1. Background of the human resource development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands :
18.104.22.168. Advantages and development opportunities
- International background: In spite of the global crisis, Tourism is still
regarded as the economic sector with rapid and stable development in the
coming time. According to the forecast of UNWTO, the total spending of
international tourists will double and reach 1,600 billion USD by 2020. Tourism
is always considered to be a key economic sector which helps developing
countries to fulfill their targets in poverty reduction and improvement in living
- Local background: It can be seen that Vietnam has a stable political
system and security. Moreover, our country is evaluated to be one of the safest
and most friendly destinations in Asia. The law system has been gradually
completed. In addition, the policies on reform, opening and integration together
with the participation in regional and global economic organizations have
facilitated external economic relationships including tourism.
- In the South Central Coast and Highlands : Obviously, the provinces in
the South Central Coast and Highlands own sufficient resources for the socioeconomic and tourism development. Moreover, their economy has witnessed a
stable growth. In particular, the improvements in infrastructure including road
traffic, water transport, stations and airports have created the most favorable
conditions for the development of tourism.
Especially, the Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has
drawn regular attention and support from various authorities at all levels.
22.214.171.124. Difficulties and challenges to the development of tourism
- Tourism is one of the industries which are easily affected by the factors
including epidemics and economic – political instabilities, international
terrorism and tourism resources.
- In fact, many severe weather conditions and climate including floods
and droughts, etc also put negative impacts on tourism activities.
- The demands for tourism development is relative huge, the capability of
meeting such requirements ; however, is still limited. The provinces in the
region find hard to self-balance capital sources for the development of tourism
- The biggest challenge is that the human resources in Tourism has failed
to meet the demands for development.
3.1.2. Orientation of human resource development in Tourism in the South
Central Coast and Highlands
- The South Central Coast develops its tourism on taking full use of
potentials and advantages of marine resources. Tourism activities which are
capable of meeting various demands with longer time for tourists have been
drawn the first priority. Such activities depend on the development of tourism
programs, which helps to create a close relationship between the regional marine
ecology and the system of mountains, forests and highlands as well as cultural
features of Cham and the Highlands. Nha Trang and Phan Thiet are regarded as
the most well-known tourism centres of this region.
- The provinces in the Highlands have strengthened the tourism
development by taking full use of their potentials and advantages of mountain
and forest resources, waterfalls, lakes, etc as well as the traditions of the ethnic
groups of the region in close combination with the provinces in the South
Central Coast. Ban Me Thuot and Da Lat are considered to be as the tourism
centres of the region.
3.2. Basic orientations of human resource development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands
3.2.1. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges to the
development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and
- Strengths: These regions own various human resources and a structure
of young labor. Moreover, the economy develops on the orientation of raising
the volume of the service sector. There have been numerous improvements in
the system of training establishments. In particular, the policies are being
completed and the state management, to some extent, has been improved.
- Weaknesses: There exist numerous shortcomings in the awareness of the
position and role of Tourism and human resources. Appropriate strategies and
policies on the development of human resources in Tourism are not available.
- Opportunities: Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has
developed strongly, creating huge demands for human resources. In addition,
more attention has been reserved for Tourism..
- Challenges: The regions witness a lack of specific policies and
orientations as well as the force of management staffs. Moreover, the facilities
and quality of the training system are still limited/
3.2.2 Attitudes toward the human resource development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands
The development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central
Coast and Highlands has good quality and meets requirements on the quality and
quantity. Furthermore, the professional structure and training levels seem to be
appropriate. The forms and quality of training work have been diversified and
enhanced. The human resources in Tourism should be fostered upon social
3.2.3. Objectives of human resource development in Tourism in the
South Central Coast and Highlands
126.96.36.199.General objectives: It is oriented that the development of human
resources will witness a sufficiency in the quantity and equality in the
professional structure amd training level, then meeting the requirements on