Tài liệu Dissertation abstracts development of human resources in tourism in the south central coast and highlands

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INTRODUCTION 1. Necessities of the thesis: Since the World War II, Tourism, on a global scale, has made rapid development and become an important economic sector, which supports developing countries in enhancing their economic development targets, poverty reduction and improvements in living standards. It can be seen that tourism has created millions of direct and indirect job opportunities for relevant industries including transportation, finance and agriculture, etc. As an export industry, tourism has managed to be ranked the 4th after the field of fuels, petrochemicals and automobile production. Over the past years, Vietnam Tourism has made an outstanding development. In 2001, Vietnam only attracted about 2.3 million of international tourists. However, it is estimated that Vietnam will be the destination of 4.5 – 4.6 million of foreign visitors and 28 million of local tourists in 2010. The amount of income from tourism has reached about 80 thousand billion VND. Tourism is considered to be one of the five industries which bring about highest foreign currencies for the country. The South Central Coast includes five coastal provinces (Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan) and there are five provinces in the Highlands (Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong). Such areas play a vital role in the tourism development strategy of Vietnam. In fact, the Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has witnessed a rapid growth for the past years: The number of tourists is on an increase. Particularly, in 2009, the number of visitors accounted for 6.7% of international tourists and 12% of local tourists of the whole country. The income gained from tourism of the region reached 7,500 billion VND with the average growth rate of 26.5% per year during the period 2001 – 2009. The development of tourism has contributed to changing the appearance of the region as well as creating more jobs for local labor and building numerous high-grade resorts. Also, the Tourism sector of the South Central Coast and Highlands could not catch up with the growth rate of the sector. In particular, there are certain weaknesses in major activities, then failing to satisfy the requirements. Moreover, the number of well-qualified staffs constitutes a small percentage, among which the quantity of employees whose major is tourism is still low. A majority of such employees are not good at foreign languages as well as their working skills and professionalism are not efficient at all. Apart from the weaknesses in the quality, there exists a serious lack of tourism employees in the region. In addition, the structure is inappropriate and 1 has not been assessed comprehensively in terms of both the theory and reality. Moreover, there are certain shortcomings in the state management toward the tourism development in the region: The organization is instable due to the merging process; the development has experienced a lack of strategies, planning and schedules; the quality of training and fostering personnel has yet been closely controlled; there is no comprehensive solution and clear orientation for the tourism development, then fulfilling the targets of the sector. On the basis of the above-mentioned evaluations and opinions, in order to enhance the efficiency of the management of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and Highlands till 2020, I decided to choose the “Development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands” as the topic of my thesis which aims at contributing to the resolution of theoretical and practical problems in the management of the development of human resources in tourism in the said region. 2. Purposes of study: On the basis of the theory and practical survey, the Thesis has suggested some solutions to the development of human resources in Tourism so as to meet the requirements on tourism development till 2020 of the provinces in the South Central Coast and Highlands. 3. Tasks of study: - To systematize and develop the concepts and theoretical matters on the training and development of human resources in Tourism, then creating a theoretical basis for the research. - To analyze the current situation of the development of human resources in Tourism including quantity, quality and structure; the training of human resources and the management of manpower development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands. - To suggest some solutions to develop the human resources in Tourism of the said region till 2020. 4. Subjects of study: The thesis focuses on studying the development of human resources in Tourism in the state management system and tourism enterprises in the South Central Coast and Highlands. 5. Scope of study: - In terms of the contents: The thesis has managed to study the theoretical and practical matters on the development of human resources in Tourism so as to offer some solutions. - In terms of the space: The thesis focuses on studying the provinces in the South Central Coast (Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan) and Highlands (Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong) - In terms of time: + The figures used to evaluate the current status of human resources in Tourism in the region are collected from 2001 to 2009. 2 + Orientation and solutions to the development of human resources in Tourism are used for the period 2015 – 2020. 6. Methodology and research methods: The thesis has employed the dialectical materialism and historical materialism . Moreover, the thesis has selected the research methods of Public Administration Management through the systematical approach, analysis and survey, social investigation and expert method. Besides, the thesis also inherits various relevant studies, statistics and documents. 7. Some improvements of the thesis - The thesis is the first deep and comprehensive research on the management of the human resources development in tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands in terms of both the theory and reality. - The thesis has provided a systematic assessment on the management and development of human resources in the Tourism of the said region. The major reasons for numerous problems in the tourism development of the region have also been pointed out. - The thesis has suggested some comprehensive and feasible solutions to the development of human resources in Tourism of the region. 8. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, overview, conclusion and recommendations, references and appendixes, the thesis consists of three chapters as follows: - Chapter I: Thereotical basis and some experience in the development of human resources in Tourism - Chapter II: Current status of the development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands during the period of 2001 – 2009. - Chapter III: Some solutions to the development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION 1. Situation of local research: The studies of local authors on the development of human resources in Tourism can be divided into three major groups as following: - Scientific reports and articles in magazines and newspapers: A considerable number of famous scholars have studied the development of human resources: Prof.Dr. Hoang Van Chau, the Rector of Hanoi Foreign Trade University with the study “Development of high quality human resources for the economic integration – an urgent problem since the crisis”; Vice Prof.Dr Duc Vuong, Rector of the Institute of Science Studies for Talents and Human Resources with the research “Building Vietnam intelligentsia in the period of 3 2011 – 2020” and Mr. Nguyen Trung, a former ambassador in Thailand who is well known with the study “Thoughts of the development of human resources in Vietnam”. - Projects and programs: The project on “Development of Human Resources in Vietnam Tourism” (Code: VNM/B7-301/ IB/97/0234) conducted by Vietnam National Administration of Tourism and European Community with the aim to enhance the standards and quality of human resources in Vietnam Tourism; VIE/031 Project (Improvement in the capabilities of human resources in Tourism and Hotel) funded by the Government of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and conducted between 20th January, 2010 and 31st December, 2012 with the aim to support the development of human resources in Tourism in the key areas. - Textbooks and references: Here are some typical textbooks on the development of human resources in Tourism: “State management of economic and social matters” edited by Dr. Nguyen Hoc Hien, Scienticic and Technical Publisher, Hanoi, 2007; “Management of social human resources” edited by Prof. Dr. Bui Van Nhon, Scienticic and Technical Publisher, Hanoi, 2008 and “Tourism Economics” edited by Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Dinh, Vice Prof. Dr. Tran Thi Minh Hoa – Hanoi, National Economic University, 2008 2. Research situation in foreign countries: It can be seen that the development of human resources in Tourism has experienced a comprehensive and thorough study. Some studies have been translated into Vietnamese and used as the textbooks and references in some tourism schools. For example, “Management of Modern Hotels” (Editor: Luc Boi Minh, Shanghai Publisher, 1996), Research Institute of Tourism Development and National Political Publisher, 1997; “Tourism economics and tourism study” edited by Dong Ngoc Minh and Vuong Loi Dinh, HCM Publishing House, 2000. 3. General evaluation of the research situation and problems to be addressed - In fact, the above-mentioned studies have only provided general understanding of human resources or mentioned some aspects of the development of human resources in general. No study offers a systematic approach to the development of human resources in Tourism in terms of the thereotical basis. - The solutions given by the said studies have stopped at a macro level. A majority of the solutions are recommended for the general development. In other words, it seems to be extremely hard for such solutions to be efficient in the Tourism. - There is no specific and deep study on the development of human resources in Tourism for the South Central Coast and Highlands. 4 On the basis of the local and foreign research situation, the thesis targets to systematize, select and build up certain concepts and theories on the development of human resources in Tourism; Analyze the current situation of the development and management of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands; Suggest some solutions to the development of human resources in Tourism in the said region till 2020. Chapter 1 THEORETICAL BASIS AND SOME EXPERIENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM 1.1. Human resources in Tourism 1.1.1. Human resource Definition: Human resource is a category to describe the potential strengths of residents and the capability of mobilizing them into the production of facilities and spiritual values for the society at the moment as well as in the future. These strengths and capability are demonstrated by the quality, quantity and structure of the population, especially the quality and quantity of the force who can take part in the social production. 1.1.2. Human resources in Tourisms 1.1.2.1. Basic concepts in Tourism The term Tourism is derived from Greek with the meaning the action of movement around a circle. This term is Latinized to be tornus and then tourisme (France), tourism (English), etc. Up to now, there are various view on Tourism, some authors concentrate on explaining the concept Tourism as a movement phenomenon outside their habitual residences; Others concentrate on Tourist and economic field of Tourism. In Vietnam, Tourism Law (2005) specifies: Tourism means activities connected with trips taken by people outside their habitual residences aimed at satisfying their needs for sightseeing, study, leisure or recreation in a certain period of time.(Clause 1 Article 4). Tourism Law also interprets several terms of Tourism as follows: Tourism activity means activities of tourists, organizations and individuals doing tourism business, local communities, agencies, organizations and individuals engaged in tourism related activities; Tourism resources mean natural landscapes, natural elements, historical or cultural relics, works of creative human labor or humanity values which can be utilized to meet tourist needs and constitute a fundamental factor to form tourist resorts, tourist spots, tourist routes or tourist. cities; Tourist product means a combination of necessary services provided in order to meet the needs of tourists during a trip; Tourist service means the provision of services in travel, transportation, accommodation, meals and drinks, entertainment, information, guidance and other services to satisfy the needs of tourists. 1.1.2.2. The Human resource of Tourism 5 - Definition: The Human resources of Tourism mean the labor forces participated in the tourism development process, including the direct and in direct labor. Direct labor is the person who works in the state management systems related to tourism, the tourism agencies and the tourism business agencies; indirect labor is the person works in sectors, process related to tourism such as culture, customs, traffic, commerce, public environment, post communication, residence community, etc. In the scope of this thesis, it is mentioned the direct labor of Tourism. - Roles and characteristics of the Human resource of Tourism: The Human resources of Tourism are clarified into 3 types with different roles: the state managed labor group on Tourism, the tourism functioned labor group and the business group. The business group is the populous group with the characteristics as follows: + Young age structure, female labor rate is higher than male labor rate: Due to the typical feature in the need of active, young and strong labor; many fields related to tourist service require the charm, caution and skill of female. + Inequality in Quality and Structure: There is the uneven allocation according to territory and tourism profession, originated from the prominent resource orientation of Tourism. + The great change in quantity based on the season in a year: Due to the seasonal feature of tourism, the tourism activities are concentrated in a certain time of a year (high peak reason). The labor force working directly in tourism businesses is clarified into 4 basic groups with the different roles and features in tourism activities: + The general function management labor: including the leader of the economic ground (general directors, directors, deputy directors or equivalent positions). This labor group is in charge of looking for latent, using skillful people, organizing and managing the work smoothly for effective business purpose. + The labor group managed according to economic profession: including employees in functional departments (finance - accounting, materials and equipment, synthetic, human resource management, etc). The main duties of employees in this department is to organize business accounting, the management business system, labor and make plan for scale and growth of business development. + The labor group ensuring the business condition of enterprises: The guard, environment hygiene, electricity and water staff, good supply, workers in business, tourism business. + The direct labor in service for tourist: These are direct employees engaged in the tourism business, direct service delivery and service to travelers. This working group is very large, from many different fields and requires professional skill. 1.2. Human resource Development in Tourism 6 1.2.1. Definition: Human resource Development in Tourism is the overall forms, methods, policies and measures for improvement, enhancing the quality of human resources for tourism industry (intellectual, physical and psychological qualities – social fields) to increase the quatity human resources for tourism and restructure the tourism industry to meet the requirements of economic and social development in each development period. 1.2.2. The elements influencing the human resource development in Tourism: - Level of economic development and tourism development: the economic development provides the physical base to address issues of human resource. The development of tourism decides the quantity, quality and trend of development of tourism human resources. - The Quality of education: The quality of education directly affects the human resource development. - The macro social economic policies of the government: The macro social economic policies of the government such as education and training policies, recruitment policy, employment, labor wages, social insurance, labor protection, etc have a direct impact to human resources through macroregulation tools. -The outside elements: The globalization, the development of science and technology, especially the information technology and communication. 1.3. The state management towards human resource in tourism 1.3.1. The development policy for human resource in tourism The basic policies for human resource development in tourism include: Policy on the management of tourism development (regulation of professional standards of travel, specialized training programs), policies on education, training and travel (Regulations on tourism training institutions, programs training, teacher standards and regimes with teachers and students, school fees), and policies to attract the employers (defined mode of employment, regulating relations and working conditions); specific policies (policies to develop human resources of state management areas) and policy development of scientific human resources - technology, policy development group of entrepreneurs. 1.3.2. The content state management on development for human resource in tourism The main contents of state management on development for human resource in tourism include: - Building the strategy for human resource development in Tourism: The strategy for human resource development in Tourism is the ground for making plans, development programs of Tourism across the nation; The strategy for human resource development in Tourism, the development plans, programs in each localities, regions. - Building and issuing the legal normative document, creating the legal corridor for development for human resource in tourism: The legal tools and macro policies affect the manufacturing relations, labor relations, and 7 management to adjust, orientate for human resource development in comply with the development target. - Building and issuing the policies on recruitment in Tourism: This content is the foundation for the tourism organizations, businesses to evaluate and select the tourism labor to ensure the rights and obligations of employees and employers. - Building and completing the policy system of development for human resource in tourism: To build and complete the education policy, tourism education, labor attraction and recruitment. To promulgate and guide on implementation of the policy for insuring the sack of the employees in Tourism. To promulgate the regulation on labor attraction, recruitment and treatment for human resource in Tourism. - Broadening the cooperation relations, speed up the cooperation of human resource in tourism among different areas: Cooperation on human resource is one of the best methods to solve the inconsistence and difference of Tourism human resource, this process could change styles, habits, discipline and renew the evaluation criteria of quality of Tourism human resource, create quality level among regions and nation. - Completing the organization engine, providing guidance on implementation and issue of development strategy of human resource in Tourism: To enhance the state management effectiveness on Tourism from the central to localities, supplementing the forces, enhancing quality of management staff. 1.3.3.The state management towards the human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam at present: 1.3.3.1. The state management towards the human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam at present. - In the central, the state management agencies include: Ministry of Education and Training managed on Tourism education and training, Ministry of Labors, War Invalids and Social Affairs managed on labor and employment training; Ministry of Culture, Information and Sports managed on Tourism fields. The Central State plays the orientation role and creating the resources, conditions for the social human resource in general and human resource in Tourism in general. - In the localities: The People’s Committee of province or city under central authority with the specialized agencies are: Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Department of Education and Training, Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, Department of the Interior, the People’s Committee of districts, Office of Education and Training. Local government plays an important role for human resource development, through to detail the guidelines and policies to develop human resources of the State into specific regulations for development human resources in the local tourism industry in line with actual conditions. 8 - Grass-roots Level: is the body functioned management and development of human resources of each organization or unit activities in the tourism sector (usually the Administrative organization,human resource organizations). Grassroots level have an impact on human resource development of the tourism industry per unit of tourist business and therefore, have a role to impact the overall development of tourism human resources. - Partner systems: are the education units and research agencies for the development of tourism human resources. The partner system plays the important role in the quality of tourism human resources. - The experts, teachers, lecturers: is the force in charge of providing consultant service, experience, brain, teaching and training, directly affect the improvement process of quality of trainee. The experts, teachers, and lecturers also system plays the important role in the quality of tourism human resources. 1.3.3.2. The content of human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam at present. In order to gain the tourism human resource meeting the development requirements at present, the content of development of the tourism human resource is conducted as follows: - The human resources Census in the national tourism industry, to participate and contribute to the completion of service functions, to improve quality and effectiveness of management agencies and the tourism sector's business units; - To issue the standard function system for Tourism in order to support tourism education activities; - To build, train and implement the education process, to foster the labor ability of Tourism; to build the education frame, to enhance profession, foreign language for tourism human resource. - To develop and promulgate policies, measures to complete and enhance the quality of human resources, increase the number and structural adjustment human resource of tourism industry to meet the development requirements. 1.4. Experience of some nations in the human resource development in Tourism. 1.4.1. Thailand: Government of Thailand always put the human resource development in the top in the national targets. The tourism plan concentrates on the tasks including solving the tourism education problems originated from the duties of Thailand Tourism. Human resource policy on tourism development to meet the industrialization process in Thailand is made by the main programs: (a) To promote education and technical vocational training in tourism industry; (b) To make emphasis on practical skills training, tourism, (c) To encourage internal training (training in the tourism business), (d) The program of foreign aid in human resources development in tourism. 9 The development programs for tourism resource development are conducted with the cooperation of government and private sectors. 1.4.2. Japan: the human resource development was conducted from easy one to difficult one, from simple to complex, from basic training to the application and a continuous performance and consistent with the group of workers. The process of human development the tourism industry includes a system of three forms of public education, corporate training and self training. Organization and management system developed in Japanese human resource are held throughout the country at both national and local levels (provinces). Human resource development system in Japanese firms have the basic characteristics: (a) On spot training is the main form and made during the working life of employees through mentoring and direction of senior and skilled workers for lower-skilled people; (b) Content of informal on spot training is very large, long-term by nature and made gradually with different phases and systematic feature; (c) On spot training is widely applied in large companies and at a smaller scale for small and medium companies; (d) On spot training is supported with special training. 1.4.3. Germany: the investment of education in Germany is very high, accounting for 5-6% of national income. The person with vocational orientation starts training from the grade of 9 or 10 of popular system. Vocational training period is often 3 years. At this age, there is 75% of population choosing the vocational training, among of them 3/4 is in the training system at schools and factories (so called Dual System), 1/4 studies at the simple vocational training schools. Besides vocational training, job training and complementary skills are widely held by a diverse school system, operating on market principles. Enterprises, associations as well as private and state units and equal competition in meeting the vocational needs of society. Besides vocational training, Germany pays more attention in practical engineer training model as for tourism training.Germany has the advanced skill training system. It is the element which creates flexible and high quality responding ability to the economic development. 1.4.4. Some lessons for human resource development of Tourism in Vietnam and South central coastal and central highland regions. - The first lesson is to enhance state management to tourism human resource development: It is necessary to strengthen state management on tourism human resource development through tools such as building and promulgation of policy development, building strategy, tourism development plans and human resource development plans of tourism. The state should take initiative in building training systems and legal systems of tourism education, vocational training law, labor law, etc. The second lesson is to bring in to full play the roles of stakeholders in human resource development of Tourism: to bring in to full play the roles of all level of localities; through the mechanisms for greater decentralization for local 10 government to encourage tourism businesses and the private sectors to participate in training tourism; to promote the role of professional associations; to strengthen the relations among the provinces and the regions and among stakeholders related to training and fostering tourism human resource such as State, training units, businesses. The third lesson is to determine vocational training, shifting to specialized training, enhancing practical skills; training in line with social demands: A strong shift from universal training to specialized training, to pay attention on practical skills, training demand must be in line with labor market demand. As for tourism training, 2 models which are effectively applied and brought high efficiency are dual training of Germany and on spot factory training of Japan. 11 CHAPTER 2 CURRENT SITUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST AND HIGHLANDS DURING THE PERIOD OF 2001 - 2009 2.1. Overview of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and Highlands 2.1.1. Overview of natural and socio-economic conditions of South Central Coast and Highlands 2.1.1.1. South Central Coast: There are five provinces in this region including Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan with the total area to be 27,486.2 km2. Such provinces own many geological and infrastructure advantages. The marine industry is considered as its biggest strength including marine resources, local and international sea transport as well as deep-water ports. The region is populous with plentiful labor. In particular, the provinces in the South Central Coast own various tourism resources and beautiful beaches and bays. Furthermore, it is sunny and warm through the year with diversed marine ecosystems and numerous hot springs. 2.1.1.2. Highlands: The Highlands is located in the SouthWest of Vietnam with five provinces including Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong. The Highlands is 54,640 km2 in area with 3,140 thousand ha of forest. Its wood reserve reaches 238.9 million m3, accounting for 31.9% of the forest area and 36.3% of the national forest reserve. The Highlands is the owner of various vegetations, minerals and large tourism potentials. In terms of ethnic groups, there are two different parts including native people and latter residents. The group of native people is distributed according to the languages including Mon Khome (Ba Na, Xo Dang, Co Ho, Mnong, Gie Trieng, Ma, Brau, Ro Mam and Hre) and Malyo-Polinedia (Gia Rai, E De, Chu Ru and Ra Glai). 2.1.2. Tourism resources 2.1.2.1. South Central Coast: This region is well known for its marine tourism resources. There are a great number of beautiful beaches which are not only famous in Vietnam but also in Van Phong, Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, Ninh Chu, Ca Na, Phan Thiet- Mui Ne. The purity of sea water and the smoothness of sand beaches together with warm climate around the year have created the most favorable conditions for developing marine tourism activities with unique products. 2.1.2.2. Highlands: The dipterocarp forests, the ecosystem of high moutains and the system of lakes and waterfalls including Ealy, Bien Ho, Suoi Vang and Gia Long are regarded as the valuable tourism resources to develop green tourism activities. Moreover, the region owns various and interesting native cultural values including the “Highlands Gong Space” which is acknowledged to be an intangible cutural heritage by UNESCO. 12 2.1.2.3. Position of the South Central Coast and Highlands in the strategy of tourism development: It can be seen that the South Central Coast and Highlands play a highly important role to the strategy of tourism development in Vietnam. Such regions are recognized to be the most active in the country in the coming time. 2.1.3.Overview of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and Highlands during the period of 2001 - 2009 2.1.3.1. Tourists - International tourists: The number of international tourists to the South Central Coast and Highlands has witnessed a constant increase from more than 308 thousand in 2001 to 550 thousand in 2005 and 918.5 thousand in 2009. In 2001, the number of foreign visitors to these regions accounted for 5.92% of the total quantity of the country. However, this figure rose to 6.69% in 2009. - Local tourists: In 2001, the South Central Coast and Highlands picked up 2.05 million of local visitors. However, this figure reached 7.827 million of tourists, 3.8 times higher than that of 2001, making an annual growth to be 18.23%. In addition, the proporation of local tourism in comparison with the whole country has experienced a rapid growth from 9.52% in 2001 to 11.23% in 2009. 2.1.3.2. Revenue from tourism: Tourism revenue of the South Central Coast and Highlands increased from 1,135 billion VND in 2001 to 7,496 billion VND in 2009, making an average growth rate to be 26.6%/year for the period of 2001 – 2009. However, the proportion of tourism revenue in comparison with the whole country is assessed to be limited: 8.33% in 2009. 2.1.3.3. Investment in tourism: - Technical infrastructure and facilities in tourism: In 2001, there were merely 757 accommodation establishments with 12,269 rooms in total. However, this figure had reached 1,463 accommodation establishments with 29,508 rooms by 2009. the number of big hotels, especially three or five star hotels made a considerable increase with various services, high quality as well as well-qualified and professional employees. - Development of tourism areas: Some famous tourism areas have been established. These areas become more and more attractive to local and foreign visitors including Hon Ngoc Viet (Khanh Hoa), Vung Ro (Phu Yen), Phan Thiet – Mui Ne (Binh Thuan), etc. - Investment in tourism: During the period of 2006 – 2010, the regions have received a great deal of investment in tourism infrastructure by the State with the total fund of 1,177 billion VND, contributing to the creation of more jobs and the enhancement of economic restructure. The current status of the tourism development in the South Central Coast and Highlands can be generally evaluated as follows: - Achievements: The Tourism has rapidly developed during the past few years and created numerous jobs as well as contributed to raising the local 13 budgets and the economic restructure and changing the appearance of urban and rural areas. - Shortcomings: The development; however, is still instable and brings many upside factors. - Causes: The development is not in accordance with the planning and strategy. Moreover, the quality of human resources can not satisfy requirements. 2.2. Current status of the development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 2.2.1. Current status of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 2.2.1.1. Quantity: By June, 2009, the South Central Coast and Highlands had owned 73,889 laborers working in tourism, in which there were 24,548 direct laborers and 49,341 indirect employees. The South Central Coast possesses more advantages thanks to 16,768 direct laborers and 33,705 indirect employees. 2.2.1.2. Quality of human resources: The rate of laborers who have yet graduated from a high school is relatively high, accounting for 19.95% of the total number. In addition, the proportion of employees whose major is tourism is still low. In fact, the number of employees in tourism who experience no training makes up of more than 70%. Meanwhile, the staffs who are at beginner, intermediate or college levels are not sufficient enough. 2.2.1.3 Structure of human resources: Female employees make up of a higher rate than males. In particular, female employees account for 55.6% while the rate of male ones is only 44.40% of the total number of laborers working in tourism. There is no information system for the labor market in the tourism so as to make accurate and objective evaluations and analysis of the current status of the quality of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands. The author has made a survey in all provinces within the study scope. Such an investigation has been applied for both management staffs and direct workers. The survey has collected the results as follows: - Management staffs: + Gender: Male managers account for a major part (South Central Coast: 58%; Highlands: 69%). In terms of the age: A majority of managers are at 40 – 50 years old (South Central Coast: 65.42%; Highlands: 53.83%). Especially, the number of management staffs who are more than 50 years old is relatively high (South Central Coast: 24.69%; Highlands: 13.95%). On the contrary, the number of managers under 30 years old is limited (South Central Coast: 9.87%; Highlands: 13.95%). It is obvious that the rejuvenation is being a question to the force of management staffs in tourism. . 14 + Economic sectors: Most enterprises in the South Central Coast are stateowned companies, joint stock companies and private companies while limited companies, joint stock companies and private companies are widely known in the Highlands. + Qualification: * In South Central Coast: A majority of management staffs in tourism own a university degree and only about one third is trained about tourism (equal to 35.80%). However, there is no staff with a master degee. These managers have taken part in beginner classes of political theories (33.33%) whereas there is almost training class in the state management. The foreign language is English at Level A and B (48.14%). Up to 25.92% of management staffs have reached Level C and over. A majority of managers are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics (65.43%) and only 10% has reached Level C and over. * In Highlands: Most of the management staffs in tourism own a univerity degree, 1/3 of whom are trained about tourism (30.23%). However, there is no staff with a master degee. These managers have taken part in intermediate classes of political theories (37.20%) whereas there is almost training class in the state management. The foreign language is English, mainly at Level A and B (51.16%). Very few management staffs have reached Level C and over (4.65%). A majority of managers are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics (53.48%) and only 5% has reached Level C and over. The demands for training and fostering human resources in the South Central Coast mainly focuses on the management of general business (leadership skills, making strategies and business plans; negotiation for signing contracts; making production and operation schedules, etc), accounting for up to 43.20% followed by foreign languages (34.56% although most of the managers, to some extent, are qualified); personnel management (34.56%). For short-term classes, the demands are reserved mainly for hotel management (44.44%) and restaurant management (24.69%). - Employees in tourism companies: + In terms of gender and age: It can be seen that the number of male employees is smaller than that of females (South Central Coast: 42.08%; Highlands: 27.62% - this trend seems to be opposite to the structure of management staffs). With regard to the age, most employees are at the age of 30 – 40 (South Central Coast: 40.19%; Highlands: 60.46%0. Especially, the number of employees at the age of around 50 years old is not substantial (South Central Coast: 1.65%; Highlands: 6.66%). + In terms of economic sectors: The employees who took part in the survey are the member of state-owned tourism companies, limited companies, joint stock companies, private companies and FDI companies, especially joint stock companies and state-owned companies in the South Central Coast and joint stock and limited enterprises in the Highlands. + In terms of qualification: 15 * In terms of qualification: 39.95% of the employees own a university degree, half of whom are trained in tourism (47.99%). Moreover, there are numerous laborers who only graduated from high schools (38.77%) and no employee who owns a master degree. The foreign language is English, mainly at Level A and B (59.80%). Very few employees reach Level C (11.50%) and over (16.90%). Several employees who know many foreign languages gather in Khanh Hoa province. Apart from English, some foreign languages can be found including French, Chinese, Japanese and Russian. A majority of employees are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics (49.64%) and only 7% has reached Level C and over. * In Highlands: Most of the employees graduated from high schools (46.66%) and about a half were trained in tourism (43.8%). However, there still exist some workers whose qualification is under high school (0.95%) and no employee with a master degree. With regard to foreign languages, a majority of employees get Level A/B in English (55.23%). Very few employees reach Level C (0.95%). In particular, some employees know two languages (only one). Most of of employees are provided with a A/B qualification in informatics (41.90%) and only 7% has reached Level C and over. 2.2.2. Current situation of training and fostering human resources in Tourism: In the South Central Coast and Highlands, there are six tourism universities and five colleges with an average number of 3,250 students per year. Moreover, the regions have established nine vocational schools, three colleges and two universities with the total number of 3,560 students. In general, the facilities in these schools are incomprehensive and out of date. In addition, the schools have witnessed a shortage of teaching and learning facilities. Moreover, there exists an inconsistency in the training programs and textbooks. In other words, there is no minimum standard for the contents of tourism training programs for each level and speciality. As a result, graduates find hard to determine their skills or management capability. The number of teachers and lecturers has witnessed a small increase. Actually, the teachers who are well qualified on tourism account for a small proportion. Furthermore, their deep understanding of tourism is mainly gained from fostering classes or by self-study. Teaching methods are demonstrated through presentation. 2.2.3. State management of human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 2.2.3.1. State management system in the developement of tourism human resources: Prior to 2007, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism as a state management agency had been in close cooperation with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of Labor – Invalids and Social Affairs (General Department of Vocational Training) to fulfill the state 16 management of the development of human resources in tourism throughout the country. There are one Department of Tourism (Binh Thuan Province), two Department of Tourism and Commerce (Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong) and seven Department of Commerce and Tourism in the rest provinces. Since 2007, Vietnam National Administration of Tourism has cooperated with the Department of Physical Training and Sports and the Ministry of Culture and Information to establish the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism under the Decree No. 185/2007/ND-CP dated 25th December, 2007. On that base, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Vietnam becomes the body which is responsible of taking the state management of tourism at Central level. The Departments of Culture and Information, Departments of Physical Training and Sports and Departments of Tourism (or Division of Tourism Management under the Department of Tourism and Commerce) also merged into the Departments of Culture, Sports and Tourism. In the South Central Coast and Highlands, there are ten Departments of Culture, Sports and Tourism which act as competent agencies to instruct the People’s Committee of the provinces to implement the state management of tourism and human resource development in tourism. 2.2.3.2. Current status of state management on the development of human resources in Tourism - Building strategies for the development of human resources in Tourism: In fact, the provinces have not established the strategies for the development of human resources in Tourism yet. - Building and promulgating legal documents and frameworks for the development of human resources in Tourism: The system of legal documents on managing the development of human resources in Tourism is mainly based on the legal provisions promulgated by the Central ministries and industries. - System of policies for the development of human resources in Tourism: Actually, the provinces have applied the policies promulgated by the Central agencies rather than theirs. - State management of training and fosteringhuman resources in Tourism: There has been a cooperation between numerous agencies in tourism training; however, the Departments of tourism management only play a minor role. 2.3. General evaluation of the current status of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 2.3.1. Advantages and reasons 2.3.1.1. Advantages: The human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands have witnessed a growth in both the quality and quantity. To some extent, such a growth has met the demands of tourism companies and requirements of the sector. The training work has been strengthened in terms of the scale, quality and capability. Moreover, the state management of human resource development in Tourism has also made certain improvements. 2.3.1.2. Reasons: The tourism has witnessed a rapid growth and attracted a great number of laborers with relatively high requirements on qualification and 17 professionality. In addition, the training work has drawn more attention, then meeting social demands. Particularly, the state management of human resource development in Tourism has also been improved. 2.3.2. Disadvantages and reasons: 2.3.2.1.Disadvantages: Despite certain improvements, the human resources in Tourism have failed to satisfy increasing demands for stability and rapidity of the sector. Moreover, the distribution of human resources seems to be unequal and instable. The training work has faced numerous shortcomings. Obviously, the demands for training and fostering human resources in Tourism are huge; however, the system of training establishments has yet met social requirements. There exists a distance between the knowledge equipped by training establishments and the requirements of tourism companies. In addition, despite drawing more attention, the state management has faced various shortcomings and inaquadecy. A database system of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands is not available to build a firm unit which is in charge of managing and developing human resources. 2.3.2.2. Reasons: Actually, the Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has developed so rapidly, which results in the fact that the development of human resources in this sector can not catch up with such a growth. The training work has failed to satisfy social demands. Moreover, the state management of human resource development in Tourism has still faced certain problems and shortcomings. 18 Chapter 3. SOME SOLUTIONS TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST AND HIGHLANDS 3.1. Background and orientation of human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands till 2020. 3.1.1. Background of the human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands : 3.1.1.1. Advantages and development opportunities - International background: In spite of the global crisis, Tourism is still regarded as the economic sector with rapid and stable development in the coming time. According to the forecast of UNWTO, the total spending of international tourists will double and reach 1,600 billion USD by 2020. Tourism is always considered to be a key economic sector which helps developing countries to fulfill their targets in poverty reduction and improvement in living standards. - Local background: It can be seen that Vietnam has a stable political system and security. Moreover, our country is evaluated to be one of the safest and most friendly destinations in Asia. The law system has been gradually completed. In addition, the policies on reform, opening and integration together with the participation in regional and global economic organizations have facilitated external economic relationships including tourism. - In the South Central Coast and Highlands : Obviously, the provinces in the South Central Coast and Highlands own sufficient resources for the socioeconomic and tourism development. Moreover, their economy has witnessed a stable growth. In particular, the improvements in infrastructure including road traffic, water transport, stations and airports have created the most favorable conditions for the development of tourism. Especially, the Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has drawn regular attention and support from various authorities at all levels. 3.1.1.2. Difficulties and challenges to the development of tourism - Tourism is one of the industries which are easily affected by the factors including epidemics and economic – political instabilities, international terrorism and tourism resources. - In fact, many severe weather conditions and climate including floods and droughts, etc also put negative impacts on tourism activities. - The demands for tourism development is relative huge, the capability of meeting such requirements ; however, is still limited. The provinces in the region find hard to self-balance capital sources for the development of tourism infrastructure. - The biggest challenge is that the human resources in Tourism has failed to meet the demands for development. 3.1.2. Orientation of human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands - The South Central Coast develops its tourism on taking full use of potentials and advantages of marine resources. Tourism activities which are 19 capable of meeting various demands with longer time for tourists have been drawn the first priority. Such activities depend on the development of tourism programs, which helps to create a close relationship between the regional marine ecology and the system of mountains, forests and highlands as well as cultural features of Cham and the Highlands. Nha Trang and Phan Thiet are regarded as the most well-known tourism centres of this region. - The provinces in the Highlands have strengthened the tourism development by taking full use of their potentials and advantages of mountain and forest resources, waterfalls, lakes, etc as well as the traditions of the ethnic groups of the region in close combination with the provinces in the South Central Coast. Ban Me Thuot and Da Lat are considered to be as the tourism centres of the region. 3.2. Basic orientations of human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 3.2.1. Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges to the development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands : - Strengths: These regions own various human resources and a structure of young labor. Moreover, the economy develops on the orientation of raising the volume of the service sector. There have been numerous improvements in the system of training establishments. In particular, the policies are being completed and the state management, to some extent, has been improved. - Weaknesses: There exist numerous shortcomings in the awareness of the position and role of Tourism and human resources. Appropriate strategies and policies on the development of human resources in Tourism are not available. - Opportunities: Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has developed strongly, creating huge demands for human resources. In addition, more attention has been reserved for Tourism.. - Challenges: The regions witness a lack of specific policies and orientations as well as the force of management staffs. Moreover, the facilities and quality of the training system are still limited/ 3.2.2 Attitudes toward the human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands The development of human resources in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands has good quality and meets requirements on the quality and quantity. Furthermore, the professional structure and training levels seem to be appropriate. The forms and quality of training work have been diversified and enhanced. The human resources in Tourism should be fostered upon social demands. 3.2.3. Objectives of human resource development in Tourism in the South Central Coast and Highlands 3.2.3.1.General objectives: It is oriented that the development of human resources will witness a sufficiency in the quantity and equality in the professional structure amd training level, then meeting the requirements on 20
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