Tài liệu Demonstrate understanding of how the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes may be broadly interpreted

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Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Technology Level 3 Resource title: Consumer Goods This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 91616 Demonstrate understanding of how the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes may be broadly interpreted Student and grade boundary specific exemplar The material has been gathered from student material specific to an A or B assessment resource. Date version published by Ministry of Education December 2012 To support internal assessment from 2013 These exemplars represent partial evidence of expected student responses. © Crown 2012 Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: Low Excellence 1. Demonstrating comprehensive understanding of how the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes may be broadly interpreted involves discussing the judgement of a technological outcome’s fitness for purpose in the broadest sense and justifying this in relation to the era of development, and the geographical and social location. The student started by introducing two well-known consumer products that would be discussed in terms of judging their fitness for purpose in its broadest sense and justifying this in relation to the era of development and the geographic and social location (1). Snippets from one of these products are included in this exemplar. The discussion included such things as:  the changing market (2)  the original defining characteristics of jeans and denim (3)  the choice of fabric, dye and style (4)  the early broad perceptions of jeans(5)  the socio-cultural post-war effects (6)  changing importance from function to fashion (7)  the contemporary situation where it can be shown that any tensions between functionality requirements and physical and social compatibility are increasingly having to be addressed and resolved in the evolving product development processes 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). To make this a more secure excellence, the student could have shown more justification in relation to the current social location. © Crown 2012 Student 1: Low Excellence 1 The process of judgement of a modern consumer product as being ‘fit for purpose in its broadest sense’ is a complex one and can best be understood by the consideration of products which have successfully evolved over a significant period of time and number of eras . Two such products are the modern soccer ball and the ubiquitous pair of ‘denim jeans’. The value of making this judgement will be considered in terms of the weightings consumers place on the physical and functional attributes on both the product itself and the social and geographical positioning of specific points in the development process. Considerations can be given to the selection and use of materials, the design, development and manufacturing processes involved and the interaction of people with these aspects and the end product. When we look at the modern soccer ball and pair of jeans we see two products that are firmly embedded in 21st century global culture. When people make a purchase they are invariably quite confident that the product will carry out its intended function. The basic performance attributes are easily identified but how have their weightings altered in the lead-up to present day judgement, and how are they influencing the future evolution of the products? 2 In considering the manufacturing process for the product, in both cases we are looking at a product which has moved from a regional to a global market over a significant period of time. The ‘blue jean’ culture originated in America. The clothing was designed in America, raw materials sourced there and the goods manufactured there. The evolution from a local to a global culture has been an ongoing process of dynamic integration of both physical and functional design elements. 3 In the USA denim material was recognised for its very hard wearing and surprisingly comfortable properties which made it ideally suitable for the manufacture of work clothing. America in the early 1800s was a rapidly developing country with a largely immigrant population moving ever westward. The national workforce was growing and with it the demand for robust durable work clothing. Jacob Davis, a Nevada tailor working to supply workwear to his local mining community developed a new process to make riveted overalls. He realised the potential in the new process but couldn’t afford to patent it so paired up with an immigrant wholesale dry goods merchant in San Francisco. They patented the method and set up a factory in San Francisco to manufacture the new work clothing. The ‘pants’ were originally made in two fabrics - denim and rubber duck. However the advantages of using denim quickly became apparent. 4 Denim is produced from raw cotton and it quickly became the chosen material because of its natural fading characteristics. The clothing was originally designed as workwear for labourers on the farms and in the mines of America’s western states. The denim material was comfortable to wear, softened with age and the blue indigo dye gave it a unique character. Indigo dye doesn’t penetrate the cotton yarn like other dyes but sits on the outside of each thread. The dye molecules chip off over time causing the fabric to fade and wear in a way that seemed to be unique to the wearer’s lifestyle. Because of its fading quality denim was sold in its unwashed and untreated ‘raw’ state - able to be shrunk to a more comfortable fit. Not only were the new ‘overalls’ more durable than other products on the market but when worn over a period of time they had a way of communicating to others the story of the wearer and his work. Initial demand for the denim overalls was driven through patent protection but this expired after 20 years and sales of the clothing continued to expand through improved functionality in the working environment and new ranges were introduced for women and children 5 Before World War II the wearing of the characteristic denim trousers was largely limited to American’s western states – in the eastern states they may have seen them as symbolic of the American West but the broad perception of the clothes was still rural and working class. Any social and environmental issues relating to material use and production processes had minimal impact on product development. 6 The movement of American forces overseas during and after the war saw the denim pants introduced to a wider international audience and the explosion of denim into casual wear began. However, in America adoption of the denim pants as casual wear across age groups did not happen overnight. It was started by a younger more rebellious group and was reflected and promoted in the growing cinema industry by rising young movie stars like Marlon Brando and James Dean. They were seen as represented of a subversive subculture just returned from war and not prepared to act like their parents. These films gained world wide release and promoted what then became ‘denim jeans’ to the teenage market both in USA and overseas. In Europe the blue jeans were widely seen as representing an easier, happier American lifestyle - very different to the postwar austerity they were experiencing. 7 In 1960s America, the wearing of jeans spread to the middle class - not just for social expression , such as a token of solidarity with protesting college students, but simply because they were affordable, hard wearing and actually felt good. They didn’t have to be washed or ironed and had a body fit that matched far more expensive clothes. Jeans were seen as having a badge of individuality, even if they were store bought off-the rack, and became popular all over the world as a symbol of youth and casualness. The 1970s and 1980s saw the introduction of new and often complex techniques for ‘distressing’ the denim and producing a range of worn looks to the final garments. The ‘designer jean’ craze further increased the possibilities individualisation of garments and the creation of fashion trends to be followed if required by the international consumer….. 8 ...World-wide sale of jeans exploded with consumption in USA alone well above 500 million pairs a year. However, it was not until the end of the century that people started to look critically at the levels of world-wide resource consumption and the production processes used across the industry. Increasing consumer awareness of the environmental and social issues forced many companies look to make corrections to individual aspects of their processes and when even minor changes were made were quick to used strategies such as eco-labelling to promote their environmental stewardship to consumers. 9 Cotton is the basic raw material for the production of denim with the vast quantities required to be grown covering over 2 percent of the world’s available farm land. Traditionally yield was maximised by the use of toxic pesticides to protect against wasteful insects damage and weed growth. Many companies have now moved into ‘organically grown’cotton – strictly regulated growing conditions avoiding traditional use of all kinds of synthetic products. However a focus on the whole product supply chain shows that this can lead to inefficient yield from the available land, a need for more irrigation water and a reduction in the quality of the cotton produced. 10 Other companies make claim to produce ‘natural denim’ which not only comes from organically grown cotton but is dyed blue using natural indigo. However closer examination of the process chain shows that the extraction of natural indigo from the plants requires the use of large amounts of harmful alkali leading to heavy metal absorption into the denim produced. 11 The dying process for denim is hugely demanding in its water use and a new electrochemical dying process although proven effective has yet to be widely adopted because of the cost of investment in new machinery required. Apart from the initial dyeing process additional stonewashing or distressing of the denim is achieved by repeated washing, rinsing and bleaching, and chemical blasting with toxic substances like silica – all harmful to workers and to local wildlife if simply discharged into the water system. World wide, untreated water from laundries and denim plants causes massive water supply issues to the local communities. 12 It seems that the trend towards eco-labelling can often be misleading in terms of determining fitness for purpose in its broadest sense, and that only a total process comparison will give a realistic evaluation of individual best available technology. The emerging acceptance of a ‘cradle-to- cradle’ approach to address widely accepted material sustainability and energy efficiency issues lends itself well to the denim production industry. The durability of denim has always been one of its strongest attributes and views on its re-use as a construction material are quickly gaining traction among consumers, with a growing range of new products now being successfully marketed under this banner … Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: High Merit 2. Demonstrating in-depth understanding of how the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes may be broadly interpreted involves discussing the value of using fitness for purpose in the broadest sense for evaluating existing technological outcomes and guiding the design, development and evaluation of new technological outcomes. The discussion included such things as:  the changing nature of jeans and the widening of the market (1)  the influence of different markets (2, 3)  the influence of consideration to the environmental and social impact (4, 5). To move this to excellence, the student would need to show more discussion of the judgement of jeans fitness for purpose in its broadest sense and justifying this in relation to the era of development and the geographic and social location. © Crown 2012 Student 2: Low Merit 1 … By the start of the 1970’s manufacturers had started to make different styles of jeans to match the 1960s fashions, which included embroidered and painted jeans and even jeans classed as ‘psychedelic - all becoming a huge part of the fashion and culture of the time. The 1980s saw jeans move away from an established utilitarian position and moving into the area of high fashion clothing, with well established fashion designers now moving into the market and putting their own labels on them. This changed the nature of the product and widened the market. New types and styles of jeans were created with the super skinny jeans, acid washes and denim jackets taking the fashion industry by storm. 2 Despite the growing denim jean range available, as the world moved towards the start of the new millennium the popularity of denim jeans with the youth market began to drop away. The youth culture changed and cargo pants, khakis and branded sportswear became the street wear of choice. Denim was still in vogue, but it had to be in different finishes, new cuts, shapes, styles, or in the form of aged, authentic, vintage jeans. People looked for them in street markets, and second-hand stores - not sold off the peg in conventional jeans stores. This trend may have been accelerated by growing negative publicity about the resource wastefulness in the industry, but whatever the reason factories were closing. 3 However, early in the 2000s the jean market picked up again with a growing number of clothing brands entering the market and challenging the traditional domination of the corporate giants like Levi Strauss. Although the latter half of the 2000s has seen a drastic economic downturn, sales of denim jeans have remained strong - characterised by a focus on fit. Women make up the bulk of the denim jean market and women's fit has grown into a science, with jeans styled and made to specifically target a certain body type with basic techniques such as whiskers being used by designers for slenderizing and elongating. It seems that in hard financial times if you can find a pair of jeans that fits you well, it makes you feel good about yourself. And both sexes in all social classes are prepared to pay what is required for that carefully constructed fit. 4 In today’s society jeans are considered appropriate for more occasions and are accepted in a lot more places than in the past with their universal appeal focused on two main qualities - versatility and practicality. However in today’s society it also seems that feeling good about yourself increasingly includes supporting companies showing best practice in social and environmental stewardship. Today’s consumers are becoming more aware of sustainability issues and when making purchases are increasingly looking to products that have been designed and produced with consideration to the environmental and social impact they may have. 5 This is being reflected in modern product design and development with manufacturers of commonly used consumer goods working to become more transparent in their business processes to enable potential consumers to find out more about every stage of their supply chain and judge the sustainability of the product themselves before buying. In this respect traceability tools are becoming increasingly popular - showing each stage of the supply chain and providing honest, factual information about the processes that occur at each of the stages. The initial response to this issue from the retail industry has been a burst of superficial attempts leading to a flood of insincere ‘green’ claims, which have only served to cause general confusion in the market place. For a company to do the job properly requires skilled assistance and willingness to provide the resources required to carry out a ‘cradle to cradle’ analysis properly. Research regarding a life cycle assessment of a pair of Levi’s ® 501 jeans surprisingly found that over half of the impact of climate happens after purchase in the consumer-use phase. However significant effort has since been made by the company to embark on what was a pioneering path to make sustainability an integral part of all its world wide operations. The company has launched its “Care Tag for Our Planet” campaign sharing the data from the lifecycle assessment research carried out and educating consumers about the benefits of cold washing, line drying and donating used clothing to keep it out of landfills. On its website the company states: “Responsibility for sustainability goes far beyond mere regulatory compliance or sound business practices. While we are proud that our environmental policies are some of the most comprehensive in the industry, we aspire to something larger. We have a vision of sustainability that ambitiously aims to restore environmental health to the planet” It is a stance that is impressing a growing market segment and one that, despite the economic implications, other companies across the global consumer product spectrum are starting to follow to protect and grow their market share. ( part of the discussion relating to changing consumer judgement of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense) Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: Low Merit 3. Discussions around the value of using fitness for purpose in the broadest sense for evaluating existing technological outcomes and guiding the design, development and evaluation of new technological outcomes included such things as:  the populisation of the soccer ball and denim jeans (1)  the influences on the evolution of the ball (2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8). There was some discussion of the value of using fitness for purpose in the broadest sense to guide the design, development and evaluation of soccer balls. For example, manufacturing changes were bought about through political pressure. (6) However, more evidence of this type of discussion (for example, sustainability of resources, disposal) would make this a more secure merit. © Crown 2012 Student 3: Low Merit 1 Denim jeans and soccer balls are two consumer products that can be expected to be commonly found in homes in almost every country of the world. The ubiquitous pair of ‘blue jeans’ may have started off as sturdy work gear but is now preferred leisure wear across most cultures and age groups. Soccer as a sport may have had its roots in UK but is now the most popular world wide team sport. When looking to buy either of these two simple products the consumer has a bewildering wealth of choice and the criteria used in the decision making is very much up to the individual circumstances of the purchaser and the purpose of the purchase. 2 By the start of the 20th century the design features of the soccer ball were fixed. Soccer may have been the street sport of the masses in UK but the games of soccer and rugby evolved competitively in the private schools of the wealthy. The two games had many initial commonalities but by the end of the 1800s two national bodies had been formed and the essential differences clarified in the sets of rules for the game that evolved. In both games a ‘ball’ was the central feature. In soccer the ball was controlled by the head and feet of the players whereas in rugby the ball could be picked up and run with. So the differing needs of the players shaped the differing evolution of the ‘balls’ used. The soccer ball was required to passed and kicked accurately along the ground and through the air and also to be light enough to be headed safely by the players. A round ball shape was easier to control and by the start of the 1900s a rubber bladder inflated with air and encased in a leather cover was in standard use. 3 The laws of the game specified the weight and size limits of the balls to be manufactured and used. Although the nature of the game and its laws, including the specifications of the ball to be used have largely remained unchanged the balls in use today bear no resemblance to those used in the early 1900s – new materials have been developed, the construction techniques are vastly different and the surface embellishments have gained in significance. This evolution has occurred due to both advances in materials development and manufacturing techniques but also as a result of the changing social and technological environment in which the game has been played. These changes have not only improved the durability and lifespan of the balls used at all levels of the game but also had a positive influence on the ability of players to control the ball and the viewing enjoyment of spectators. However these changes have also resulted in less desirable social impacts notably in terms of sustainability of resources and working conditions of those involved in the manufacturing processes. 4 …..In terms of the evolution of the design of the ball the current design has overcome many of the problems associated with previous designs. The spherical cover of the soccer ball was traditionally formed by hand stitching flat panels of leather together and inserting the bladder for inflation. This method resulted in balls which were not quite spherical and which could both absorb water in the leather and also allow water to seep in between the stitching. This made heading of the ball in wet conditions and often led to player injury. Good quality manufacturing limited this problem but could not eliminate it entirely. Variations in the quality of the leather used also affected the durability of the ball with some not being able to last through a whole game. Changing from the 18 panel hand stitched leather covers still in use for the FIFA World Cup finals in 1966 to a standard 32 piece hexagonal and heptagonal patterned cover increased the uniformity of the thickness of the casing and ensured that the shape of the ball was more spherical and waterproof coatings and hand stitching minimised the chances of unwanted water absorption. 5 In the second half of the 20th century the invention of television and the increasing television coverage of soccer games had a growing impact on the design of the soccer ball. The coverage was initially only in black and white which caused some problems for viewers in following the ball on the screen. A pattern of black and white panels was introduced onto balls to overcome this issue. At this point the balls in use were clearly technically much superior to those used in earlier years. With global colour television coverage increasing and a regular schedule of international competition the game was becoming ever more popular in all corners of the world. This rapidly increased the numbers playing and watching the game and vastly increased the global market for soccer balls. 6 Manufacture of soccer balls had been a traditional mixture of machine production of the component parts followed by hand assembly of the final product. Factories made the latex rubber bladders, stamped out the hexagonal and heptagonal layered cover material and produced the thread to be used to tie the panels together. The materials requiring assembly to produce the finished ball were then packaged up and sent off to contract assemblers. In the mid 1990s international attention turned to where this process was being carried out. It was widely known that over 80 percent of soccer balls were manufactured in one country – Pakistan. Stitching of the panels is a laborious and time consuming process and what was not commonly known was that the stitching was routinely carried out not under modern working conditions but in remote villages where the work was usually done by children. The negative publicity put pressure on the larger manufacturers to make changes to guarantee that their balls were not manufactured in this way and this pressure was reinforced by many prominent soccer players who refused to endorse products unless this guarantee could be given. This practice has proved difficult to eliminate and some work went into developing manufacturing technology to eliminate hand stitching of balls. By the turn of the new century automatic stitching machines were available and the ability to produce low quality balls for the mass market was an option for the bigger commercial suppliers. 7 The 2006 FIFA World Cup Finals introduced a revolutionary new design of ball to the international soccer community. It was constructed with only 14 outer panels which were bonded together rather than hand sewn to ensure absolutely no water could get inside the casing so the performance of the ball would not change in the wet. The 14 panels were pre-curved before being bonded together – totally different from the previous balls with the 32 flat panels being stitched and stretched into a spherical shape. This led to the claim that it was the roundest soccer ball yet produced 8 The Jabulani ball manufactured for the 2010 World Cup finals was a modification to this ball consisting of only 8 thermally bonded, three-dimensional panels. Although the surface of the ball was textured with grooves to improve its aerodynamics with considerable research input, it received extensive criticism from players and coaches who claimed that the path of the ball through the air was unpredictable. Although ethical manufacturing procedures and material sustainability is a major consideration in choice of ball it seems that in the world of competitive soccer the search for the perfect soccer ball continues .... Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: High Achieved 4. To demonstrate understanding of how the fitness for purpose of technological outcomes can be broadly interpreted, the student explained why the judgement of a soccer balls (technological outcome) fitness for purpose may differ depending on the geographical and/or social setting, and may change over time. (2, 4) To achieve this standard, the student also explained the implications of fitness for purpose in the broadest sense for the design and development of technological outcomes. (1,3) To achieve at merit, the student would need to show more discussion of the value of using fitness for purpose in the broadest sense in evaluating existing technological outcomes and guiding the design and development of new technological outcomes. © Crown 2012 Student 4: High Achieved 1 …..Up to the 1966 FIFAWorld Cup finals balls tended to retain the natural colour of the leather but although this was perfectly suitable for spectators at the games, those watching on black and white television screens often had difficulty in following the movement of the ball. This problem was solved four years later by the use of a high contrast black and white design ball – the Adidas Telstar – in the next World Cup finals. This ball was chosen specifically so that the rapidly increasing television audience could clearly see the ball and proved so successful that even the direction of spin on the ball could clearly be seen on television screens. The cover structure of this ball was also radically different as it featured a pentagons-on-hexagons pattern of 32 panels forming not a perfect sphere, but an icosohedron structure. 2 This design would remain standard for many years. In 1986 the issue of water absorption was addressed in the use of the Azteca ball for the World Cup finals in Mexico. In the Azteca design the leather panels were replaced by a synthetic material for the first time to stop any absorption of water. It was still possible for some water to penetrate through the stitching but the high quality hand stitching process reduced this possibility. 3 The ball used in the USA 1994 World Cup may have looked very similar to the one used in the finals four years before but it was subtly different. An unusually dull and defensive 1990 tournament had resulted in fewer goals than could usually be expected. There was a fear that any repeat would turn off spectators, particularly those new to the game who would be looking to follow the television coverage. The manufacturers responded by changing the structure of the layered cover to incorporate new materials and a polystyrene foam shell. The ball was designed to be lighter, softer and more responsive and despite mixed reviews from the players the organisers were pleased with the entertainment value provided to spectators. 4 For the 2006 World Cup tournament the 32 panel heptagonal and hexagonal stitched coating was replaced with a design featuring only 14 panels. Not only were there fewer panels but they were processed to be pre-curved rather than flat as in previous balls and bonded together rather than sewn. The replacement of the stitching with new watertight bonds admitted no water to the inside, so the performance of the ball did not change in the rain. And because the panels were curved before being bonded together, as opposed to flat material stretched into the shape of a sphere, the designers claimed it to be the roundest soccer ball ever…. Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: Low Achieved 5. To demonstrate understanding of how two global consumer goods can be broadly interpreted, the student explained such things as:  what is meant by ‘fitness for purpose’ and ‘fitness for purpose in the broadest sense’ (1, 2)  the interrelationship between both the development of the soccer ball and the game itself (3-7)  the effect of the material used (8)  design changes influenced by social patterns and weather conditions (9, 10)  manufacturing changes bought about through political pressure (11)  materials and manufacturing of contemporary balls (12)  how considerations will vary depending on the user group (13)  the early developments in the denim jean industry (14-16)  the choice of fabric, dye and style (17)  evolving modifications (18)  the effect of WW2 on design changes (19, 20)  societal perceptions (21, 22)  changing importance from function to fashion (23)  regulatory requirements (or not) (24). To make this a more secure achieved, the explanation of changes in the evolution of both products should be broader. © Crown 2012 Student 5: Low Achieved 1 Consumer goods are purchased for very definite reasons and can be deemed ‘fit for purpose’ if they demonstrate the key physical and functional attributes expected of them over the life expectancy of the product. This report explores the judgement of fitness for purpose of two very different types of product – soccer balls and denim jeans – in ‘the broadest sense’. Exploring ‘fitness for purpose in its broadest sense’ involves consideration of not just the performance of the product itself, but also of wider issues such as how it was developed and manufactured, how it is used, and issues related to how it is eventually disposed of once its useful lifespan is considered to be over. 2 Soccer is often referred to as the ‘beautiful game’, played in every corner of the world and by all social classes. The FIFA World Cup final is the most watched single event in sport and you’ll find the ubiquitous soccer ball in every sports shop. The soccer ball looks incredibly simple – its spherical, light enough to carry comfortably and easy to kick. Fitness for purpose is in its simplest sense is determined by how well it stays in shape and allows the users to kick it about. 3 Although the game of soccer has developed rapidly over the last hundred and fifty years it has its roots deep in human history. Soccer balls have historically been made of many types of readily available materials, ranging from human heads to animal bladders, but it wasn’t until the nineteenth century that the balls began to resemble those that are in use today. 4 In ancient times pigs were a common source of food and pig-bladder soccer balls were quite common in all social classes. When inflated, these ‘balls’ were very resilient but were also very light so the nature of the game would have been very different to the game we play now. The ‘stuffed leather ball’ was found to give a more satisfying experience for those playing and this opened up the development of the game and the design of the ball used. However leather was an expensive material so the early use of leather balls was restricted the wealthier groups in society. 5 The ‘vulcanization’ process patented by Thomas Goodyear in USA had a big influence on the development of soccer in the Americas with balls made of vulcanized rubber better able to withstand pressure and avoid deformity. So these balls became commonly available from the middle of the 1800s. About the same time the inflatable rubber bladder came onto the scene to be used in conjunction with the leather covering. The leather balls were harder, more easily controlled and more durable, although not as elastic as the rubber balls used in the Americas. However one of the biggest problems with all the soccer balls of that period was that they were highly irregular in shape and size, which made them less controllable. 6 Although soccer was a game played in the streets of all English villages and towns throughout the eighteenth century, in the nineteenth century it became recognised as an upper-class sport , played at British public schools and colleges. However individual schools had their own rules and to gain some form of standardisation the English Football Association was founded - and in 1863 the newly formed association met to hammer out the laws of the game. No description of the ball was offered in the first set of rules, but when the rules were revised in 1872 it was agreed that the ball must be spherical with a circumference of 27 to 28 inches" (68.6 cm to 71.1 cm). 7 With the game firmly established as the number one sport in Britain, worldwide spread of soccer came with the expansion of the British empire and the movement of British tradesmen and labourers overseas to work on major infrastructure projects such as national railway development. The need for a single body to oversee the game became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures and the international body, FIFA, was founded in 1904, and as the world moved into the 20th century the game of soccer was clearly established as the number one global sport. 8 During the 1900s footballs were made out of inflatable rubber bladders and leather casings. The tanned leather outer covers were mostly made up of eighteen individual sections stitched together to form six panels of three strips each and when the rubber bladder was inflated the ball formed a rather imperfect sphere - an excellent mix for bouncing and kicking, but often problematic for the players when heading the ball. The problem was not with the lacing and stitching but mainly the result of the leather coating absorbing water during the game. The official size and weight of the ball, first fixed in 1872, was changed slightly in 1937 when the official weight was increased from 13-15 oz to 14-16 oz, but water absorption caused a considerable increase in weight and head and neck injuries were common among regular players. Another problem with those early footballs was a manufacturing issue with wide variation in thickness and in quality of the leather used meaning that their durability could often be a problem during games and limited the re-use potential. 9 This was the situation up until the 1966 FIFA World Cup where it was found that the natural colour of the leather ball featured in the global television coverage was often difficult for viewers to follow. This problem was solved four years later by the use of a high contrast black and white design ball – the Adidas Telstar – in the next World Cup finals. 10 The Adidas Azteca ball was developed specifically for use in the 1986 World Cup finals. Although it was no different to other balls in size and weight its design was radically different The cover structure featuring a pentagons-on-hexagons pattern of 32 panels would remain part of the design of balls used all over the world for many years until the 2006 World Cup tournament where it was replaced with a design featuring only 14 curved panels, bonded together rather than sewn. 11 Not only was the ball claimed to perform better but its manufacturing process was dramatically different. Up to this point high quality covers had been made by stitching together the hexagonal and heptagonal panels made from synthetic leather. Holes were pre -drilled in the panels ready to be hand-stitched using polyester thread. The hand stitching and final assembly of the balls was carried out by contract stitchers outside the main manufacturing facility. Hand stitching is a laborious process but it gives a much more efficient jointing of the panels than the alternative machine stitching process. However to cut assembly costs this stitching process was often carried out overseas and by the late 1990s reports of use of bonded child labour to produce branded soccer balls for the world market in countries such as Pakistan began to filter through to consumers in the western world. Pressure was put on these large sporting goods manufacturers with most agreeing to participate in a monitoring program sponsored by the International labour Organisation with the aim of eliminating child labour from the soccer ball industry in Pakistan. 12 The Adidas Jabulani ball developed for the most recent FIFA World Cup in South Africa in 2010 is not hand stitched, but machine constructed from eight spherically moulded panels and has a textured surface specifically intended to improve the aerodynamics of the ball. It was the result of a rigorous scientific testing and trialling process but still received extensive criticism from players and coaches, before and during the World Cup, who claimed that the movement of the ball through the air was unpredictable. However individualism was achieved with each match ball being customised with the names of the competing teams and decorated with colours and symbolism reflecting the culture of the host nation. 13 The judgement of fitness for purpose of the most modern balls continues to reflect an ongoing balance of subjective and objective attributes valued by the international playing community. Meeting regulatory specifications relating to size and weight is the first essential for selection for professional use and then bounce, movement across the ground and through the air and durability receive close attention. For leisure and non competition use factors such as style and economic value may be the most important considerations and judgement may also reflect broader considerations such as the environmental impact caused by material choices and manufacturing processes adopted. 14 Similar considerations will come into play in the design, manufacture, consumer selection and use of clothing items such as the now ubiquitous pair of ‘blue jeans’, which had their origin in early Europe 15 The Italian city of Genoa was famous for its production of a cotton corduroy called ‘Jean’ - a material was used to produce the durable work trousers used by the Genoese sailors who travelled all over Europe. In the French city of Nimes, local weavers tried to replicate this fabric but couldn’t quite get it exactly right, but they did develop their own variation – another twill fabric that became known as ‘Denim’. The fitness for purpose of the work trousers used by the sailors was judged on both comfort and the hard wearing capability of the fabric and through natural trade and emigration patterns eventually led to the growing denim jeans industry in expanding 19 th century USA . 16 In the mid 1800s a tailor called Jacob Davis partnered with a San Francisco storekeeper Levi Strauss to patent and sell hard wearing working clothing reinforced with rivets. This design change targeted the points of particular stress in the tailored fabric and made the clothing more suitable for use in the harsh working environment in the western states. The partners found that denim was the most suitable material to use and sourced the material not from Italy but from an American textile manufacturer on the East coast of USA. 17 Denim was chosen because of its rugged wearing characteristics – it’s a cotton twill textile manufactured by passing the weft thread under two or more warp threads. Natural indigo dye was used to produce the characteristic blue colour of the denim and it was found that costs could be reduced by only dyeing the warp threads. Because of the warp-faced twill weaving, only one side shows the blue colouration with the inside remaining white - giving blue denim fabric its unique fading characteristics. The east coast market for their hard wearing, loose fitting ‘waist overalls’ became a national one, increasing rapidly as the number of factories steadily grew across the country. 18 As the popularity of this work clothing grew, patent protection ensured that only minor design changes needed to be incorporated - largely to improve functionality for the user. Once the rivet patent moved into the public domain the denim clothing market opened up to other manufacturers with designs for women and children being added to the expanding product range and modifications naturally evolving to address both identified functionality issues and changing fashion trends. 19 Demand stalled for a period during the great depression of the 1930s and during the 1940s raw material shortages due to the World War II conflict affected the production of many ‘non-essential’ consumer products . This necessitated design changes in many basic production processes in order to free up key materials for use in military- related production. Working clothes such as the Levi Strauss ‘waist overall’ were among the products affected in USA, and design changes to save fabric, stitching and metal fastening were made to address government enforced restrictions. 20 During the war and in the years immediately following, the USA produced blue jeans were introduced to Europe by the American armed forces. Denim trousers became less associated with basic work wear and were increasingly seen as the preferred leisure wear of prosperous post-war Americans. Demand for the product quickly became truly international. 21 Moving into the 1950s the denim trousers became popular with a younger post-war generation that stood out by their rebellious nature – challenging accepted societal norms and questioning the status quo. This non-conformity was featured in many cinema films, notably Rebel without a Cause, starring James Dean. This exposure produced a significant public backlash with many seeing the wearing of blue denim trousers as a challenge to authority and not acceptable for everyday non-blue collar work wear or leisurewear. 22 During the 1960s the balance tipped and the standard pair of blue jeans became widely acceptable, and normal daywear for teenagers of that generation. All reference to working clothing in product marketing and promotion ended and the ubiquitous denim trousers became known simply as blue jeans. With rapid adoption of television globally, TV advertising became a premier marketing tool and the flood of jeans into the international market began. 23 The 1970s saw a dramatic international swing with the advent of the personalising of jeans. The functionality of the clothing became less of a consideration with individual attitude becoming evident in what became the ‘decorated denim’ craze which had its origins on the west coast of USA. In the early 1980s the stone washing technique was introduced into the denim industry heralding another change in the fitness for purpose of blue jeans and bringing denim to an even larger and more versatile market. The 1980’s was a decade when personal expression found another medium with the ‘designer jean’ craze. Here the jeans became so highly personalised they became an individual fashion statement and were acceptable wear at even the most exclusive events. 24 By the end of the 20th century the world-wide ready made garment sector was booming – particularly in 3rd world countries where regulatory requirements were less stringent. The spread of the denim culture brought with it a trend of fast changing fashions and a real ability to ensure fitness for purpose for the consumer. However there was an underlying acceptance of the industry of one that was naturally resource intensive. This acceptance, and the significance of undesirable industry standard production issues only became fully apparent when life cycle analysis techniques were applied to the complete ‘cradle to grave’ lifespan of the product. At this point the value of use of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense became a consideration. Widely documented issues with pesticide use in the production of cotton, water use during the production process, carbon emissionsin production and transportation and working conditions in place in largely third world supplier companies have now led to recent reconsideration of how the final judgement of fitness for purpose should be made by the consumer. An increasing number of companies are seeing ecorelevant marketing of their denim products as giving them a competitive advantage in what is a highly competitive market place. Product labelling as ‘natural jeans’ is an attempt by some companies to direct the consumer towards ecological and ethical concerns and the use of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense. Exemplar for internal assessment resource Technology 3.9A for Achievement Standard 91616 Grade Boundary: High Not Achieved 6. The student gave explanations of such things as:  what is meant by ‘fitness for purpose’ and ‘fitness for purpose in the broadest sense’ (1, 2)  the interrelationship between both the development of the soccer ball and the game itself (3-7)  the effect of the material used ( 8)  design changes influenced by social patterns and weather conditions (9, 10)  manufacturing of contemporary balls (11)  how considerations will vary depending on the user group (12)  the early developments in the denim jean industry (14-16)  evolving modifications (17)  the effect of WW2 on design changes (18, 19)  societal perceptions (20, 21)  changing importance from function to fashion (22)  regulatory requirements (or not) (23). Although the report considers both ‘fitness for purpose’ and ‘fitness for purpose in its broadest sense’ in the evolution of two global consumer products, the explanation of changes made over time in the evolution of both products should more sufficiently address issues relating to fitness for purpose in its broadest sense. © Crown 2012 Student 6: High Not Achieved 1 Consumer goods are purchased for very definite reasons and can be deemed ‘fit for purpose’ if they demonstrate the key physical and functional attributes expected of them over the life expectancy of the product. This report explores the judgement of fitness for purpose of two very different types of product – soccer balls and denim jeans – in ‘the broadest sense’. 2 Soccer is often referred to as the ‘beautiful game’, played in every corner of the world and by all social classes. The FIFA World Cup final is the most watched single event in sport and you’ll find the ubiquitous soccer ball in every sports shop. The soccer ball looks incredibly simple – its spherical, light enough to carry comfortably and easy to kick. Fitness for purpose is in its simplest sense is determined by how well it stays in shape and allows the users to kick it about. 3 Although the game of soccer has developed rapidly over the last hundred and fifty years it has its roots deep in human history. Soccer balls have historically been made of many types of readily available materials, ranging from human heads to animal bladders. 4 In ancient times pigs were a common source of food and pig-bladder soccer balls were quite common in all social classes. When inflated, these ‘balls’ were very resilient but were also very light so the nature of the game would have been very different to the game we play now. The ‘stuffed leather ball’ was found to give a more satisfying experience for those playing and this opened up the development of the game and the design of the ball used. However leather was an expensive material so the early use of leather balls was restricted the wealthier groups in society. 5 The ‘vulcanization’ process patented by Thomas Goodyear in USA had a big influence on the development of soccer in the Americas with balls made of vulcanized rubber better able to withstand pressure and avoid deformity. So these balls became commonly available from the middle of the 1800s. About the same time the inflatable rubber bladder came onto the scene to be used in conjunction with the leather covering. The leather balls were harder, more easily controlled and more durable, although not as elastic as the rubber balls used in the Americas. However one of the biggest problems with all the soccer balls of that period was that they were highly irregular in shape and size, which made them less controllable. 6 In the nineteenth century soccer became recognised as an upper-class sport, played at British public schools and colleges. However individual schools had their own rules and to gain some form of standardisation the English Football Association was founded - and in 1863 the newly formed association met to hammer out the laws of the game. No description of the ball was offered in the first set of rules, but when the rules were revised in 1872 it was agreed that the ball must be spherical with a circumference of 68.6 cm to 71.1 cm. 7 With the game firmly established as the number one sport in Britain, worldwide spread of soccer came with the expansion of the British empire and the movement of skilled British workers on major construction projects such as national railway development. The need for a single body to oversee the game became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures and the international body, FIFA, was founded in 1904. As the world moved into the 20th century the game of soccer was clearly established as the number one global sport. 8 During the 1900s footballs were made out of inflatable rubber bladders and leather casings. The tanned leather outer covers were mostly made up of eighteen individual sections stitched together to form six panels of three strips each and when the rubber bladder was inflated the ball formed a rather imperfect sphere - an excellent mix for bouncing and kicking, but often problematic for the players when heading the ball. The problem was not with the lacing and stitching but mainly the result of the leather coating absorbing water during the game. The official size and weight of the ball, first fixed in 1872, was changed slightly in 1937 when the official weight was increased from 13-15 oz to 14-16 oz, but water absorption caused a considerable increase in weight and head and neck injuries were common among regular players. Another problem with those early footballs was a manufacturing issue with wide variation in thickness and in quality of the leather used meaning that their durability could often be a problem during games and limited the re-use potential. 9 This was the situation up until the 1966 FIFA World Cup where it was found that the natural colour of the leather ball featured in the global television coverage was often difficult for viewers to follow. This problem was solved by the use of a high contrast black and white design ball in the following 1970 World Cup. The cover structure of this new ball featuring a pentagons-on-hexagons pattern of 32 panels would remain part of the design of balls used all over the world for many years. 10 This structure was replaced in the 2006 tournament with a design featuring only 14 curved panels, bonded together rather than sewn. The replacement of the stitching with new watertight bonds admitted no water to the inside, so the performance of the ball did not change in the rain. And because the panels were curved before being bonded together, as opposed to flat material stretched into the shape of a sphere, the designers claimed it to be the roundest soccer ball ever. 11 The Adidas Jabulani ball developed for the most recent FIFA World Cup in South Africa in 2010 is not hand stitched, but machine constructed from eight spherically moulded panels and has a textured surface specifically intended to improve the aerodynamics of the ball. It was the result of a rigorous scientific testing and trialling process but still received extensive criticism from players and coaches, before and during the World Cup, who claimed that the movement of the ball through the air was unpredictable. However individualism was achieved with each match ball being customised with the names of the competing teams and decorated with colours and symbolism reflecting the culture of the host nation. 12 The judgement of fitness for purpose of the most modern balls continues to reflect an ongoing balance of subjective and objective attributes valued by the international playing community. Meeting regulatory specifications relating to size and weight is the first essential for selection for professional use and then bounce, movement across the ground and through the air and durability receive close attention. For leisure and non competition use factors such as style and economic value may be the most important considerations and judgement may also reflect broader considerations such as the environmental impact caused by material choices and manufacturing processes adopted. 13 Similar considerations will come into play in consideration of the design, manufacture, consumer selection and use of clothing items such as the now ubiquitous pair of ‘blue jeans’. 14 The Italian city of Genoa was famous for its production of a cotton corduroy called ‘Jean’ - a material was used to produce the durable work trousers used by the Genoese sailors who travelled all over Europe. In the French city of Nimes, local weavers tried to replicate this fabric but couldn’t quite get it exactly right, but they did develop their own variation – another twill fabric that became known as ‘Denim’. The fitness for purpose of the work trousers used by the sailors was judged on both comfort and the hard wearing capability of the fabric and eventually led to the growing denim jeans industry in expanding 19th century USA. 15 In the mid 1800s a tailor called Jacob Davis partnered with a San Francisco storekeeper Levi Strauss to patent and sell hard wearing working clothing reinforced with rivets. This design change targeted the points of particular stress in the tailored fabric and made the clothing more suitable for use in the harsh working environment in the western states. 16 Denim was chosen because of its rugged wearing characteristics – it’s a cotton twill textile manufactured by passing the weft thread under two or more warp threads. Natural indigo dye was used to produce the characteristic blue colour of the denim and it was found that costs could be reduced by only dyeing the warp threads. Because of the warp-faced twill weaving, only one side shows the blue colouration with the inside remaining white - giving blue denim fabric its unique fading characteristics. 17 As the popularity of this work clothing grew, patent protection ensured that only minor design changes needed to be incorporated - largely to improve functionality for the user. Once the rivet patent moved into the public domain the denim clothing market opened up to other manufacturers with designs for women and children being added to the expanding product range. 18 Demand stalled for a period during the great depression of the 1930s and during the 1940s raw material shortages due to the World War II conflict affected the production of many ‘non-essential’ consumer products including the ‘waist overall’ manufactured by the Levi Strauss company. 19 During the war and in the years immediately following, the USA produced blue jeans were introduced to Europe by the American armed forces. Denim trousers became less associated with basic work wear and in USA were increasingly seen as the preferred leisure wear of prosperous postwar Americans. 20 Moving into the 1950s the denim trousers became popular with a younger post-war generation that stood out by their rebellious nature – challenging accepted societal norms and questioning the status quo. This non-conformity was featured in many cinema films, notably Rebel without a Cause, starring James Dean. This exposure produced a significant public backlash with many of the older generations seeing the wearing of blue denim trousers as a challenge to authority and not acceptable for everyday non-blue collar work wear or leisurewear. 21 During the 1960s the balance tipped and the standard pair of blue jeans became widely acceptable, and normal daywear for teenagers of that generation. All reference to working clothing in product marketing and promotion ended and the ubiquitous denim trousers became known simply as blue jeans. With rapid adoption of television globally, TV advertising became a premier marketing tool and the flood of jeans into the international market began. 22 The 1970s saw a dramatic international swing with the advent of the personalising of jeans. The functionality of the clothing became less of a consideration with individual attitude becoming evident in what became the ‘decorated denim’ craze which had its origins on the west coast of USA. In the early 1980s the stone washing technique was introduced into the denim industry heralding another change in the fitness for purpose of blue jeans and bringing denim to an even larger and more versatile market. The 1980’s was a decade when personal expression found another medium with the ‘designer jean’ craze. Here the jeans became so highly personalised they became an individual fashion statement and were acceptable wear at even the most exclusive events. 23 By the end of the 20th century the world-wide ready made garment sector was booming – particularly in 3rd world countries where regulatory requirements on manufacturers were less stringent. The spread of the denim culture brought with it a trend of fast changing fashions and a real ability to ensure fitness for purpose for the consumer. However there was an underlying acceptance of the industry of one that was naturally resource intensive. This acceptance, and the significance of undesirable industry standard production issues, only became fully apparent when life cycle analysis techniques were applied to the complete ‘cradle to grave’ lifespan of the product. At this point the value of use of fitness for purpose in its broadest sense became a consideration. Widely documented issues with pesticide use in the production of cotton, water use during the production process, carbon emissions in production and transportation and working conditions in place in largely third world supplier companies have now led to recent reconsideration of how the final judgement of fitness for purpose should be made by the consumer.
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