Tài liệu đặc điểm của các biểu thức thời gian trong câu tiếng việt

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DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI TRUONG DAI HOC KHOA HOC XA HOI VA NHAN \ AN VIJ THI Hl/dNG THAO THirC THC)I (iIAN D A C D I E M CUA C A C BIEU TRONCi CAU TIEN(i VIET LL AN VAN T H A C SI K H O A H O C NCJL \ AN Chiiyen ngdnh: Ly hian ngon ngu Md so: 5 04 08 Si^it'o'i liiKhii^ dan klnui Jioc IS. N(;rM-:N wnsn ( ON •'"iJNG TAN M'ill 11 \ NOI - :i)05 ''-Cr f ' N T- Uf FN LOI CAM ON Luan van nay dugc hoan thanh duai su giup da nhiet tinh cua Tien sy Nguyen Hong Con. Em xin dugc bay to lai cam on chan thanh va long biet on sau sac tai thay, nguai da triac tiep huong dan va giup da em hoan thanh luan van nay. Em cung xin gui lai cam an chan thanh tai cac thay c6 trong Khoa Ngon ngu hoc, Trirang Dai hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhan van, Dai hoc Quoc gia Ha Noi da tao dicu kien thuan Igi cho viec hoc tap va nghien cuu trong thai gian em hoc tap a Khoa. Toi xin dugc cam an ban be va nhung nguai than yeu trong gia dinh da dgng vien va giup do toi hoan thanh luan van nay. Ha Ngi, thang 8 nam 2005 Tac gia luan van ^vy^ < • « Vu Thj Huong Thao LOI CAM DOAN Toi xin cam doan day la cong trinh nghien cmi cua rieng toi. Cac van dugc trinh bay trong luan van la trung thuc va chua dugc cong bo trong bat ky mot cong trinh nao khac. Ha Ngi, thang 8 nam 2005 Tac gia luan van ^•^w Vu Thj Huong Thao MUC LUC PHANMODAU 1 1. Ly do chgn de tai 1 2. Doi tugng va pham vi nghien cuu 2 3. Mue dich va y nghTa nghien cuu 2 4. Phuang phap nghien cuu va tu lieu nghien cuu 3 5. Bo cue cua luan van 3 Chuong I: CO SO LY LUAN LIEN QUAN DEN DE TAI 1. Ve pham tru thoi gian va y nghla thai gian trong 5 5 ngon ngu' 1.1. Pham tru thai gian 5 1.2 Y nghTa ve thai gian trong ngon ngu 6 2. Ciic bieu thuc thoi gian trong tieng Met 13 2.1 Khai niem bieu thuc thai gian 13 2.2 Cac loai bieu thuc thoi gian trong tieng Viet 13 2.3 Tieu chi nhan dien bieu thuc thai eian 15 Chuong II: DAC DH-M CUA CAC BIEU THUC THOI GIAN 23 CO Y NCiHIA IHOI DIEM I. Khai quat \L' y nghla thoi diem trong ngon ngu 23 1.1. Cac quan niem khac nhau \e tinh thai diem 23 \,2. Khai niem ve diem moc va each djnh vi 25 2. Dae diem ngu' nghTa cua cac bieu thirc thoi gian 28 CO y nghTa thai diem trong cau tieng Viet 2.1. Cac bieu thuc thai diem c6 y nghTa doi lap ve thai 28 2.2. Tinh xae dinh va khong xac djnh ciia cac bieu thuc 34 thai diem 3. Dae diem hinh thiic cua cac bieu thiic thai diem 38 3.1. Cac bieu thuc thai diem la tu 38 3.2. Cac bieu thuc thai diem la danh ngu 40 3.3. Cac bieu thuc thai diem la gioi ngu 45 3.4. Cac bieu thuc thai diem la lien hgp 46 3.5. Cac bieu thuc thai diem la menh de 47 4. Dae diem chue nang ciia cac bieu thuc thai diem 47 4.1. Chuc nang nghTa hoc 48 4.2. Chuc nane ket hoc 51 Chuanii HI: D A C DIEM CUA CAC BIEU THUC GIAN CO & 55 Y NGHIA THOI DOAN 1. khai quat \ e y nghTa thai doan 55 1.1. Cac quan niem khac nhau \'e thoi doan 55 1.2. Khai niem iho'i doan 58 2. Dae diem ngfr nghTa ciia cac bieu thuc thoi gian 59 CO y nghTa thoi doan trong cau tiengX'iet 2.1. Tho'i doan xac dinh \ a khone xac din!i -^v 2.2. Thai doan ngan han va thai doan dai han 61 3. Dae diem hinh thirc cua bieu thirc thai doan 65 3.1. Bieu thuc thai doan la danh ngu 65 3.2. Bieu thuc thai doan la gioi ngiJ 67 3.3. Bieu thuc thai doan la lien hgp 68 4. Dae diem chiic nang cua bieu thiic thai doan 69 4.1. Chuc nang nghTa hoc 69 4.2. Chue nang ket hoc 71 KET LUAN 77 TAI LIEU THAM KHAO 79 NGUONTU LIEU TRICH DAN 82 PHU LUC TU LIEU KHAO SAT 83 PHANMODAU 1. Ly do chon de tai Khai niem thai gian la mot trong nhu'ng khai niem co ban trong nhan thuc cua con nguai. Thai gian khong chi dugc nhan thuc ve mat \at ly hoc \-a iriet hoc ma con dugc nhan thuc ca ve mat ngon ngu' hoc. Qua ngon ngCr con nguai da de cap den mot he thong cac dom vi thai gian va phan anh nhung hieu biet cua con nguai ve cac thugc tinh cung nhu quy luat khach quan cua thai gian. Trong tieng Viet, van de thai gian da dugc nhieu nha Viet ngu hgc trong \'a ngoai nuac nghien cuu tir nhieu goe dp. Khac vol nhieu ngon ngu khac tren the gioi, tieng Viet hi mot ngon ngCr khong bien hinh, dgng tu khong bien doi hinh thai do do khong c6 cln'rc nang thong bao ve thai gian trong cau. Vi vay, khi dc cap den thoi gian Irong tieng Viet, chung ta khong the khong noi lai nhCmg tu' ngCr c6 nghTa ihoi gian trong cau tieng Viet. NhCmg tu ngu nay c6 chuc nang bieu hicn \'a phan dinh y nghTa cua cac thai, qua khu, hicn tai \'a tucrng lai cung nhu dinh vi cac su kien va hanh dgng tren true thai gian. Nhu da noi o tren, thai gian trong tieng Viet da dugc nghien cuu tu nhieu khia canh khac nhau. Tuy nhien, cho den nay, van chua c6 mot cong trinh nao di sau vao nghien cuu mot each loan dien dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian dac biet la cac bieu thuc thai gian c6 y nghTa thai doan va thai diem. Xuat phat tu ly do do, cung nhu nhu cau can thiet trong viec tim hieu dac diem cua y nghTa thai gian trong cau tieng \aet, chung toi da manh dan chon de tai nghien CLI'U ve: ''Dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Viet'\ De tai nay se tap trung nghien cuu chu \-eu \e dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Viel thong qua hai loai bieu thii'c thai gian ca ban: Cac bieu thirc thai gian bieu thi v nizhia thai doan \'a v n^hTa thai diem. -1 - 2. Doi tu'ong va pham vi nghien ciiu Doi tugng nghien cuu cua luan van la dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Viet, tap trung vao dac diem ciia hai loai bieu thuc thai gian chu yeu la thai doan va thai diem. Cac bieu thuc thai gian c6 y nghTa \e thai the va tan so khong thugc pham vi nghien cuu cua luan van. Di sau tim hieu dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian c6 y nghTa thai diem va thai doan, chung toi se Ian lugt xem xet chung ve cac mat: hinh thuc bieu bien, dac diem y nghTa va chijc nang ngu' phap. 3. Muc dich va y nghla nghien cuu Muc dich cua luan van la di sau nghien cuu cac dac diem ve mat hinh thuc, ngu nghTa va chuc nang cua cac bieu thuc thai gian c6 y nghTa thai diem va thoi doan trong tieng Viel. Cu the luan van se: - Diem \i\\ tinh hinh nghien cuu ve cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Vict cua mot so tac gia. cung nlnr nhu'ng van de dang ban luan lien quan den de tai. Dua tren co' so do chung toi se xac lap mot khung ly thuyet co ban de lien haiih khao sat va phan tich dac diem cua hai loai bieu thiac thai gian hiiii quan. ~ Tren co' so khung ly thuyet do, chung toi se tien hanh nhan dien, mieu ta mot each co he thone; cac dac diem ciia hai loai bieu thii'c thai 2;ian thai diem va thai doan, tien hanh di sau phan tich hinh thuc, y nghTa bieu hien va chuc nang cua chung. Giai quyet dugc nhung van de tren day luan van se co nhiang dong gop iihat diiih \'e mat ly luan \'a thuc tien nhu sau: Ve mat ly luan: Ket qua nghien cii'u cua luan van se gop phan lam sang to them dac diem cua cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Viet, cu the la cac bieu thirc thai gian co y nghla thai diem va thai doan, qua do tim ra nhCrng dac diem khac nhau giua hai loai bieu thuc cung nhu nhung dac diem tuo'ng dong Liiua chunii . Ve mat thuc tien: vai nhung ket qua thu dugc luan van se gop phan dang ke vao viec day tieng Viet cho nguai Viet va cho nguai nuac ngoai. Ket qua nghien cuu cua luan van cung huu ich doi vai viec bien soan tir dien, sach giao khoa trong nha truong gop phan day manh va phat huy viec giij gin su trong sang ciia tieng Viet trong thai dai hien nay. 4. Phuong phap nghien ciiu va tu' lieu Trong luan van nay, ngoai hai phuang phap nghien cuu chung la qui nap va dien dich chiing toi con su dung mot so phuang phap nghien ciju khac nhu: phuang phap mieu ta, phuang phap thong ke, phuang phap phan tich cau true, phuo'ng phap phan tich chuc nang... Nguon tu lieu cua luan van chii yeu dugc trich tu cac bao, tap chi, truyen ngan... So lugng tu lieu bao gom 780 cau, trong do bao gom 425 cau co chua cac bieu thuc thai diem va 355 cau co chua cac bieu thij"c thai doan. Ngoai ra, chung toi cung su dung mot so cau tu lieu lay tu cac cong trinh nghien cuu ciia mot so tac gia khac hay tu thuc te cupc song. Cac cau nay deu bieu hien y nghTa thai diem \'a thai doan \'a dugc phan tich a ca hai mat dinh tinh va dinh luo'ng nham phuc vu cho \'icc nghien cuu. 5. Bo cue eiia luan van Ngoai cac phan mo' dau \'a ket luan. luan van bao gom ba chuong voi nhfmg noi dung chinh nhir sau: C^hiroiig 1: Co so' ly luan co lien quan den de tai lYong chu'O'ng na\ chung toi da tap trimg chu yeu \'ao \'iec trinh bay nhung quan diem, khai niem. ly thu\'ct co lien quan den \'an de thai gian trong cau ticuL: \'ie[. dong thoi xac dnih khai niem thoi gian noi chung \'a thoi diC'm \'a thoi doan noi ricng. Thong qua nhung c]uan diem \'a nhCrng ea so ly t!va\ct do chung ioi phan tich \a de xuat cac lieu chi nhan dien hai loiw bieu thuc tlio'i gian CO \ mzhia thoi diem \a co \ ni:hia ihoi do.m. Chuoni: 11: Dac diem cua bieu thuc thai iiian co v niihTa thai die m 0 chuang nay, chijng toi tien hanh khao sat cac dac diem \e hinh thuc, y nghTa va chij'c nang cua cac bieu thuc thai gian co y nghTa thai diem trong cau tieng Viet, qua do dua ra mot so nhan xet \'e cac bieu thuc nay Chuo'ng 111: Dac diem cua bieu thij'c thai gian co y nghTa thai doan Trong chuong nay, chung toi di sau phan tich dac diem \'e hinh thuc, v nghTa va chuc nang cua cac bieu thuc thai gian co y nghTa thai doan trong cau tieng Viet. Dua tren su phan tich do chung toi se dua ra mot so nhan xet \'e cac bieu thuc co y nghTa thai doan trong cau tieng Viet. Ngoai ra luan \'an con co muc luc, danh muc tai lieu tham khao, tai lieu trich dan, va phu luc tu Heu khao sat. 4- Chuong I CO s o LY LUAN LIEN QUAN DEN DE TAI 1. Ve pham tru thoi gian va y nghla thoi gian trong ngon ngu LL Pham tru ihoi gian Khai niem ve thai gian la mot trong nhung khai niem co' ban trong nhan thuc cua con nguai. Thai gian dugc nhan thijc ve mat vat ly hgc, tam ly hgc, triet hgc va ngon ngu'. Tu lau con nguai da noi den mot he thong thai gian cua ngon ngu" va phan anh nhung hieu biet ciia con nguai ve thai gian vai nhu'ng thugc tinh va quy luat ciia no. Trong triet hoc cua chu nghTa duy vat, quan niem ve thai gian dugc Lenin dira ra da gop phan khang dinh them ve tinh hien thuc khach quan cua khong gian \a thai gian. Dinh nghTa do dugc phat bieu nhu sau: ^^Vi chu nghTa duy vat thira nhan su ton tai cua vat chat chuyen dong khong phu ihuoc vao y thuc cua clning ta thi cung phai tlura nhan tinh hien thu'c khach quan cua khong gian \'a thai gian....Trong the gioi khach quan khong co gi khac ton tai ngoai vat chat chuN'en dong va vat chat khong the chuyen dgng a dau khac ngoai khong gian va thai gian'' [Dan theo 20, 19]. Quan diem ciia chu nghTa duy vat do Lenin dua ra tren day dugc hieu rang: thai gian ton tai khach quan va con nguai hoan toan co the nhan thii'c dugc thai gian va the hien su nhan thii'c do vao trong ngon ngia ciia minh, nhumg su kien dirge dien ra trong hien thuc ciia khong gian va thai gian. Do vay, thai gian cung nhu khong gian. la hinh thuc ton tai ciia \-at chat. Vat chat co the ton tai a danii iTnh hay donii \*a thai sian cun^ vav. Khi ton tai a dang tTnh thi thai eian bieu hien a y nghTa thoi \'a y nghTa thai diem. Khi ton tai a dang dgng thi thai gian bieu hien y nghTa thai doan va y nghTa \'e tan so. Vi du: (1) Mai toi sc^ di Hai Plioiig. (y nghTa \'e thai) (2) T/iang sau tao vai anh Huynli to chuc may nho den nlic! (y nghTa thai diem) - :> - (Tac phani moi, so 1 1/1998, tr 12) (3) Tie nam 2001 den nay, cong /)• may .V.\K Yen Bai da co nhieu co gang trong quan ly dieu hanh. (y nghTa thai doan) (Bao nhan dan, so 17846, tr 2) (4) Thinh thodn^ toi cung gap anh ay. (y nghTa tan so) Noi each khac, thai gian co cac thupc tinh ve chat va lugng ciia no. Cac thupe tinh do dugc boc 16 tap trung truoc het o' bon pham trii ngu' nghTa: tan so, thai doan, thai diem va thai. Trong thuc tien, thai gian dugc coi nhu la iiiot dai lugng dugc phan chia, dugc hinh thanh cac do'n vi de do luang, do do co khai nieni ve tan so va thai doan. Cac khai niem nay dugc do luong bang nhu'ng don vi nhat dinh (cac khoang thai gian). Mat khac, thai gian lai dugc hinh dung nhu la mot chuoi van dgng lien tuc theo mot true ma tren do chiing ta co the danh dfiu de ghi nha cac su kien thuc tc, do vay co khai niem ve thai diem (cac moc thai gian). Ngoai ra, thai gian con dugc coi nhu la mot su van dgng co chieii huong xac dinh, va trong quan he voi su ton tai cua ban than minh, con nguai co nhu cau sap xep no vao mot khu vuc Ion, tu do ma co khai niem ve thai (cac mien thai gian). Nhu way. thai doan, thai diem tan so va thai la bon noi dung chinh cua khai niem chung ve thai gian da duo"c nhan thirc. L2. Y nghTa ve thai gian trong ngon ngCv L2. L Y nghTa thai gian trong cac ngon ngu An A u Trong cac ngon ngu An Au, co mot sir khac biet dien hinh ve each thuc danh dau cac kieu y nghTa thai gian (thai, thai diem, thai doan va tan so). Trong khi y nghTa ve thai dua tren sir doi lap qua khii', hien tai va tuang lai dugc ngu phap hoa mot each kha triet de, qua pham trii thai (tense) - mot pham tru ngu" phap gan lien \'ai dang thuc ciia dong tu thi cac y nghTa thai diem, thai doan \ a tan so lai chii yeu dugc bieu hien bang cac phuang tien tu \'ung (tu) \a cu phap (ngu, menh de....). -6- Lay tieng Anh lam vi du minh hoa: trong tieng Anh cac y nghTa doi lap \ e thai dugc bieu hien bang dang thuc cua dgng tu huu dinh dong vai tro la \ i ngCr cua cau. Theo do, tiiy thugc vao viec cau bieu hien mot su tinh dien ra trong qua khu, hien tai, hay tuong lai ma dong tu se dugc diing a mot dang thuc tuong ung. Vi du: (5) a. She worked in Hanoi. b. She works in Hanoi. c. She will work in Hanoi. I'inh thong nhat giu'a cac y nghTa doi lap ve thai va cac bieu hien tuong irng cua chung the hien kha deu dan a tat ca cac dong tu vi ngu", la co' so cho vice xac lap sir ton tai ciia pham trii ''thai'' vai tu each la mot pham trii ngCr phap ciia tieng Anh. Khac \'6i pham trii ve thai, cac y nghTa thai dieiii, thai doan va tan so tronu tieni; Anh khonii, duo'c bieu hien ban" dan" thuc cua donu tir ma bang cac do'n vi tir vung nhu:yesterday, three days, at fu'ght, evry day...\i\ (6) a. She came here tomorrow, now,... hoac do'n vi cii phap: du: yesterday. b. 17/ stay there until next Monday. c. It takes me three hours to get there. Trong nhung vi du tren, cac y nghTa thai diem va thai doan dugc bieu hien bang cac do'n vi tir vung hoac cu phap. Cac bieu thuc co y nghTa thai gian nay co hinh thuc va y nghTa doc lap chu khong phu thugc hoan toan vao dong tir vj ngu' nhu cac dang thiic bieu hien y nghTa ve thai ciia cac dgng tii hu'u dinh. 7.2.2. Y nghTa thai gian trong tieng Viet Nhu da noi a tren, a cac ngon ngir chau Au co su phan biet ve each thii'c bieu thi y nghTa thai voi cac kieu y nghTa thai diem, thai doan va tan so trong khi y nghTa thai chii yeu dugc bieu hien bang hinh thai ciia dgng tir (co nghTa la dgng tir thay doi hinh thai de danh dau cac thai khac nhau) thi cac nghTa thcVi diem, thai doan va tan so lai dugc bieu hien bang cac bieu thuc doc lap co y -7 nghTa thai gian: do co the la cac dan vi tir vung (tu, ngir co djnh) cung co the do la cac dan vi cii phap (ngir, lien hgp hoac menh de) co nghTa thai gian. Khac vai cac ngon ngir chau Au, trong tieng Viet tat ca cac loai y nghTa thai gian hCru quan {thai, thai diem, thai doan, tan so ) deu dugc bieu hien bang cac bieu thirc thai gian doc lap. Cac bieu thuc thai gian nay hoac ton tai nhu cac don vi tu vung {hom qua, horn nay, bay gia,...) hoac dugc tao thanh tu do trong lai noi nhu la cac ngu* (vdo mua xiidn, vao thang ba,...) lien hgp {ngdy 5 thang 3 nam 2003...) hoac menh de. Vi du: (7) Hom qua, thay ra tinh Hd noi, vao hdu cu cu Nguyen, thay ngdi day dong hoc tro, nhan thay co xin truac ong cu, se cho con ra thinh nghiep. (Truyen ngan - Nguyen Cong Hoan, tr 6) (8) Nhung bong hoa ggo do rue thuang na vdo thang ba. (9) 9 gia sang ngdy 25 thang 3 nam 2003 cuoc hop bat dau. Day chinh la van de ggi ma cho nhieu nha Viet ngii' hoc di sau vao tim hieu va nghien ciru y nghTa thai gian trong cau tieng Viet. De cap den khai niem thoi gian trong cau tieng Viet, mot trong cac van de thu hilt sir chii y ciia nhieu nha nghien cuu tir truac den nay la pham trii thcji. NgCr phap truyen thong tieng Viet (Tran Trgng Kim, Biii Ky, Nguyen Lan), do anh hiro'ng cua tieng Phap thirong coi: dcX dang, se\k ba chi to danh dau y nghTa "tluTi" trong ticMig Viet. Tu\' nhien, theo Cao Xuan Hao [3] kho co the coi cac tir nay nhu la bang chung cho su ton tai cua pham trii thai trong tieng Viet, bo'i \'i: - Khong CO sir tiro'ng irng giCra y nghTa cua da, dang, se \6i cac y nghTa doi lap \c thoi la qua khii. hien tai \a tirong lai. Cu the: ^'dci" co the dien dat y nghla hicn tai [lie nc)\' toi da_hai muai tuoi) hoac tuo'ng lai {A;^^c7V uiai du_ la chu nlhit roi): da/ig cung eo the bieu hien y nghla qua khir (Horn qua toi dtuig ngu thi iUih ay tlcni. - Khi bieu hicn cac sir tinh xa\' ra trong ijua khir, hicn tai htuic tircvng kn. cac can tieng \'ict khong nhat ihiet phai su dung ccic chi to tren da\. \ i du: (10) Iloiu qua u'u vJ /;//.) luc nam gii/. * Horn qua toi da ve nha luc nam gia. (11 )a. Ngdy moi anh ve que a? - Vang, ngdy mai toi ve que. b. Ngdy mai anh s£ ve que a? - * Vang, ngdy mai toi se_ ve que. Ben canh y nghTa ve thai, nhieu nha nghien ciina cQng da di sau xem xet dac diem ciia cac bieu thiie thai gian trong cau tieng Viet, ma cu the la hai loai bieu thuc thai gian co y nghTa thai diem va thai doan thong qua viec nghien cuu cac chuc nang cii phap cua chung nhu trang tir, trang ngir, bo ngia thai gian v.v... Tuy nhien, trong qua trinh nghien cuu, tham khao tai lieu chiing toi nhan thay CO su khac nhau ve quan diem cung nhu each tiep can doi tugng, phuang phap nghien ciru va muc do bao quat doi tugng ciia cac tac gia doi voi nhung nhan dinh va danh gia ve y nghTa thai gian trong tieng Viet. Duai day chiing toi se trinh bay long quan nhung ly giai ciia mot so tac gia ve cac bieu thirc co y nghTa thai gian trong tieng Viet. Mpl so nha nghien ciru nhin nhan van de thai gian tir goc do ngCr nghTa nhir Phan Khoi, Dao Than, Cao Xuan Hao va Nguyen Due Dan v.v. Cac tac gia na\' coi thai gian nhu la mot pham trii ciia ngu nghTa va xac dinh \ai tro cua cac dan \'\ tir \'imi^ trone \iec dinh vi thai 2,ian. Theo [Mian Khoi [31, 94], thai gian trong tieng Viet dugc bieu hien nho cac do'n \'i tir \"irng. Ong cho rang nhCrng dom \'i tir vimg bieu hien y nghTa thai gian la cac "p/id tu clu thiri gian'' nhu: }ulm ngoai, }idm fiav. h(5m qua. ngdy /Jh/i.-.. \ a phan biet chung \'0'i cac pho tir dac biet nhu: da. dcuig. se...Qu'dn diem cua Phan Khoi da the hien sir man thuan \'e \'iec danh gia \'ai tro cua cac phiro'ng tien ngon ngu tren trong \ ice dinh \i sir kien ti'cn true thai gian. Ong nhan dinh rang, nhung "/)ho fir chi thoi gian" ke ticn clu eo tac dung "hieu dien cdi xac cua thV con: iid. ilang. se mo'i bieu hien cai hon cua thi. lam nni hat cai \ n^jhla \ii"ng chac cua qua khir. hien tai \'a \'i lai [31. "^^2]. Tu\' nhien, ting cung k;i cho rang: ^'dd" khong han chi qua kliir. ^'dang^ khoiig han chi hicn tai '.'a '\sJ' khonLi han chi vi lai" [31, 94. 95]. Dieu nay cho tha\- ngay ban than ong cung khong chac chan ve \'ai tro cua cac pho tii" dac biet: da. dang, se. Con Dao Than, thi cho rang viec phan tich va mieu ta nghTa tii' \'ung cua cac til' CO nghTa thai gian se giiip chiing ta hieu sau han ve each nhan thu'c, chia cat va do dem thai gian cimg vdi viec dien dat cac quan he thai gian trong tieng Viet [8, 45]. Ban ve van de thai gian trong cau tieng Viet, Cao Xuan Hao [3] nhan dinh rana: ticmi Viet khone bieu hien v n^liTa '7/?/" khi khon^ can dinh vi su kien trong thai gian. Ong cung cho biet them, trong tieng Viet khi nao can thiet phai dinh vi su tinh tronu thai sian ma neon canh khone cho biet ve su dinh vi av thi tieng Viet diing cac phuo'ng tien tir vung ma ong goi la ^'khung de " de bieu thi y nghTa thoi gian va dat o' dau cau. Ong cung noi them ve vai tro ciia ba chi to thai gian da. dcnig, se deu co the diing de noi ve bat cu' thai gian nao trong ciiu va khang dinh trong ba chir khong co chu nao chi 'V/?/". Ba chi to da, dang vd se duo'c one eoi la cac \'i tir tinh thai bieu thi the vd thuc ciia dong tir. Nguyen Dire Dan [24] dac biet quan tam den cac phuang tien ngon ngir khac nhau trong tieng \'iet co tac dung bieu thi y nghTa thai gian nhu cac tir, cac ket can cii phap. Ong goi cac do'n vi tir vung co y nghTa thai gian la ''(rang tii, trgng ngu'" thai gian, do la nhCrng tii' nhu: tudn truoe, thang sau, ngdy mai, dao no, luc nay, hoi do, khi do... [24, 8]. Vi du: (1-) A.7?/ do toi con nho qua, con khoe lam, tucrng nhu mua gio phai le hnJi khi thay toi. (Truyen ngan chgn Igc, tr 3) Cung nghien eu'u ve y nghTa thai gian trong cau tieng Viet nhung tac gia Diep Quang Ban [5] da nhin va ly giai thai gian tu goc do ngir nghTa, ngu phap cua tir. Dira \ao quan he y nghTa giira cac dom \'i tir vung co net nghTa vt§ thai gian na>' \ai nong cot cau trong cau don tieng Viet, ong dua ra ket luan nhu sau: nhung do'n \i tir \'ung co nghTa thai gian do chinh la nhirng ho ngCi chi thai gian (thai doan ha>' thai diem) dien ra su kien va hanh dong. Khac \'ai cac nha nghien cuu tren, trong ^'Nghien cuu ve ngu phap tieng Viet'' (tap 2), Ngii\'en Kim Than [27] phan biet mot each kha rach roi \'e (rang 0 ngil' thoi gian va ho ngfr thiri han Theo ong. trang ngu' thai gian thuang bieu thi thai diem cu the \'a hay dii'ng dau cau, nhung cung co the tha\' doi \ i tri xuong giua cau hoac cuoi cau. Vi du: (13) Horn nay, toi di Thanh pho Ho Chi Minh. (14) Toi di Thanh pho Ho Chi Minh hom nay. Vi du (13) tren cho thay trang ngir thai gian, chi thai diem, dung dau cau; cung CO the thay doi vi tri xuong cuoi cau nhu o vi du (14). Tuy nhien, neu chung ta xet nhu'ng trang ngu' thai gian nay trong mot y nghTa thai gian khac (y nghTa thai doan) thi bo ngu chi thai doan bieu thi thai ban se phu thugc \'ao \'i tri va chi CO mot vi tri co dinh sau \'i tir. Vi du: (15) Toi dai han nam phut, (bo ngir thai han) (16) Chieu hom fun\ cac trung doi tiep tuc dao cong sir. (trang ngCr thai han) (Dan theo Nguyen Kim Than, 20) Nhung nhan xet tren day ciia Nguyen Kim Than cho thay: tiiy theo y nghTa bieu hien ciia don vi tij' vung la thai diem hay thai doan cung nhu tiiy theo \i tri cua no trong cau ma phan biet trang ngu thai gian hay bo ngir thcri han. Chuiig quan diem \'ai NgUNcn Kim Than, Hoang Trong Phien cung co khi cho rang trang ngu chi thai gian co tac dung chi pham vi thai gian, chi thai diem cu the hay chi thai gian thuang le cua su viec xay ra trong cau va tra lai cho cau hoi: luc ndo'?[\5, 127]. Trong ^^Giao trinh \ e Viet ngu' hgc" [tap 1], tac gia Hoang Tue cho rang: nhCrng dom vi tu" vung bieu thi y nghTa thai gian la nhirng "trgng tie chi thai gian'\ Ong da chi ra nhirng dan vj tu vung c6 y nghTa thai gian la pho tir {hom nay, ngdy mai...) hoac cac tir to danh tii' {haigia...). Tat ca nhirng pho tir hay tii' l6 danh tir ma ong de cap deu bieu thi y nghTa \ e thai gian trong tieng Viet. Dac biet ong cung chi ra mot so truong hgp ma \i tri cua cac tir to danh tir bieu thi thai lugng se quyet dinh chiing co nghTa thai diem hay nghTa thai doan [17, 369]. Vi du: (11) Hai gia chung ta Idm viec (thai diem). (1 8) Chung ta lam viec hai gia (thcri doan). Mot cong trinh nghien cii'u khac cua tac gia Du Nggc Ngan [6, 13] cung de cap den cac tii' c6 y nghTa thai gian khai quat trong tieng Viet. Trong cong trinh ciia minh, Du Ngoc Ngan da phan tich \'a chia cac pham trii thai gian thanh hai loai theo dac diem ngu' nghTa, ngu- phap: * Loai A: gom cac tii" chi thai gian khai quat nhu: khi, luc. hoi. dao. thua. do, thai.. .Nhu'ng tii' chi thai gian ke tren nghTa thai gian ma chiing chira dung co the la mot diem hay mot doan thai gian co do dai khong xac dinh, kliong dugc lap lai theo mot chu trinh nhat dinh. * Loai B\ gom cac tir chi thai gian xac dinh: Chi thoi doan xac dinh nhu: the} ky, lu'un. thang, tudn le, figdy gid, phut, sang, Irua - Chi dinh thcri gian nhu: nay. nay, kia. do. day. hay gid. bao gid Nhom tir nay co Uic dung xac dinh thai gian xa hay gan so \'ai thai diem cua ngubi noi. - Chi tinh thai [ha\ gian da, ticng: viia. mai, dang, sap. ,vc~,.. .NhCrng tir vung nhom nay dugc xac dinh trong quan he x'oi chu the noi, kem thai do ciia nguai phat ngon. - Bao gom cac tij- co net nghTa thai gian nhung khong bieu thi trang thai hay tinh chat ciia su \"at nhu; chd\ dai, nhanh. chdm, sam, muon, gid, tre, ddi, ngan,... Tuy nhien, nghien eii'u ciia cac tac gia co thien huang nghieng ve tir vung ngu nghTa ho"n la ngu phap. Nhin lai ket qua nghien cuu ciia cac tac gia truac, chimg toi nhan thay: da so tac gia tap trung tim hieu y nghTa thai gian trong tieng Viet qua y nghTa ciia tir ma it quan tam den y nghTa thai gian ciia nhumg do'n vi cii phap nhu ngCr ha\' menh de cria hai loai bieu thuc thai gian: thai diem \'a thai doan. Do vay, luan \an se di vao mieu ta dac diem ciia bieu thuc thai gian xet trong moi quan he \ai ngir nghTa \a chirc nang cii phap ciia chiing trong cau tiene Viet. - 12 2. Cac bieu thiic thoi gian trong tieng Viet 2.L Khai niem hieu thirc thiri gian Chiine toi quan niem bieu thii'c thai eian la nhuns dan \'i tir vuns (tir) hav ngir phap (ngu-, lien hgp, menh de) co chuc nang bieu thi y nghTa thai diem ha\thai doan (khoang thai gian xay ra ciia mot hanh dong, su kien), va giCr \ai tro la mot thanh to cii phap trong cau true cau. 2,2. Cac logi hieu thiic thai gian trong tieng Viet Dua tren tu lieu khao sat cung nhu tir ket qua nghien cii'u ciia cac nha Viet ngu hgc, chiing toi thay co the tam chia ra cac bieu thuc thai gian trong cau tieng Vict thanh bon loai sau day: - Bieu thuc thai gian co y nghTa thai the; - Bieu thirc thai gian co y nghTa thai diem; - Bieu thuc thcri gian co y nghTa thai doan; - Bieu thu'c thai gian co y nghTa tan so. 2.2.1. Bieu thirc thai the Trong tieng Viet y nghTa thai the duo'c danh dau chu yeu bang 3 chi to ngu' phap nhu: da, dang, se. Nhirng chi to nay khong bi bat bugc phai dien dat khi khong can thiet. Khi nao can thiet phai dinh vj su tinh trong thai gian ma ngon canh khong cho biet \e sir dinh vi ay tieng Viet dimg cac phuang tien tir vung nhu ngciy mai, hom qua.v.v de dien dat. Vi du: (19) a. Bao_giaanh (se) di Sdi Gon ? (Bieu thuc thai the) b. N^ciy mai toi di Sdi Gon. Vi du (19)a. cho chimg ta thay, ngoai y nghTa thai diem con co y nghTa thoi the ciia cau bieu hien boi dai tir phiem chi chi thai gian ''bao gia.'' dugc danh dau qua chi to ''se *'c6 bieu thi thai gian tuang lai. Nhirng a vi du (19jb. chiing ta thay khong co su xuat hien yeu to thai the ''se'' ciia sir kien ma thay cho su dien dat y nghTa thai gian tuong lai ay bang phuang tien tir \ m g ''ngay mai" J - dung dau cau ma theo Cao Xuan Hao thi no giir vi tri nhu mot khung de co nhiem vu dinh vi thai gian xay ra su kien. Va khi yeu to thai gian dugc dinh vi bai khung de thi khong can phai dung chi to thai gian "se" ma cau van co nghTa thai gian [3] Tren day chiing toi mai chi diem qua ve y nghTa ciia bieu thuc thai gian CO y nghTa thai the trong cau tieng Viet. Day la mot de tai rat rgng doi hoi phai CO su nghien cuu cong phu, nhung do han che ciia luan van nen chiing toi xin dung van de nay a day va di vao phan chinh cua luan van la neu y nghTa hai bieu thire thai diem va thai doan. 2.2.2. Bieu thirc thai diem Bieu thirc thai diem bieu thi moc thoi gian xay ra su kien va hanh dong tren true thai gian dugc the hien qua cac tir, ngu c6 net nghTa thai gian nhu: hom qua, hom nay, nam 1997... Trong cau bieu thirc thai diem tra lai cho cac ciiu hoi ve thai gian: bao gia? khi nao? Ve hinh thuc cau tao nhirng bieu thirc nay co the la dai tir, danh tir, danh ngCr, gioi ngu, menh de, lien hop. Vi du: (20) Horn qua ngu co ret khong? ( 2 1 ) Nam 1998 toi tot nghiep Dai hoc. 2-2,3. Bii'u thirc thai doan Cac bieu thirc iha\ doan dien dat khoang thai gian ma sir kien trai qua tren triic tluVi gian. diro'c bieu hien bang cac don \i tir nhu: ba gid. hai ngdy. ba dem. ban tudn.y.y. Cac bieu thirc thoi doan thuang tra lai cho ciiu hoi bao Idu'l may ngdy^ may gid'' Chimg cung co cau tao la cac danh ngu, giai ngu, cac lien hgp \ a menh dc. \'i du: ( 2 2 ) Ba nd/Ji nira no li)t nghiep dcu hoc fidng Idm tlidnh phu Ho Ch: ( 2 3 ) Trow^ hai }\'nu do. u.)i da tap trung hoc tot nu'jn anh van. Muih.
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