Tài liệu Contrastive analysis on english and vietnames proverbs referring to parts of the human body

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1 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English Acknowledgements The thesis could not have been completed without the devoted help of many people during the time of my doing it. Firstly, I would like to express my deep thank to my supervisor Lª §×nh Th¶o (M.A) who helped me devotedly and thoughtfully to finish this thesis. Secondly, I am grateful to my teachers from the Department of Foreign Languages, especially the former Dean NguyÔn Xu©n B×nh (M.A) who gave us chance to do the work. Thirdly, I am also indebted to my dear teacher Chrisstaples and my dear friends who helped me a lot. Student: NguyÔn §×nh Lu Class: 40A2 English Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 2 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English Index Pages Acknowledgments 1 Index 2 Part A. Introduction 1. Rationale for choosing the subject ................................... 4 2. Aims of the study..................................................... …….... 5 3. Objects of the study .......................................................... 5 4. Methods of the study ....................................................... 6 5. Scope of the study .......................................................... 6 6. Design of the study ........................................................ 6 Part B. Content Chapter 1. Background.... .................................................................. 1. Where do proverbs from? ............................................. 7 1.1.Where do English proverbs from?............................ 7 1.2. Where do Vietnamese proverbs from?.................... 8 2. The position of proverbs lexicology .................................... 10 Graduation thesis the human body 7 come come come in - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 3 2.1. Word structure and formation ........................................ 10 2.2. Semantics........................................................................ .. 10 2.3. Etymology........................................................................ . 10 2.4. Lexicography.................................................................... . 10 2.5. Phraseology. .................................................................... . 10 3. Proverbs, idioms, quotations, clichÐs and sayings................. 10 3.1. Proverbs.......................................................................... .. 11 3.2. Idioms............................................................................. .. 11 3.3. Quotations......................................................................... 11 3.4. ClichÐs............................................................................ ... 11 4. Distinction between proverbs and idioms................................. 12 4.1. Idioms................................................................................ 12 4.1.1What is an idiom?................................................ ……… 12 4.1.2. Kinds of idioms.................................................. ……... 13 4.2. Proverbs............................................................................ 13 Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 4 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English …….. Table 16 4.2.1 What is a proverb?............................................... 14 1. Table of distinction between proverbs and idioms............ 4.2.2. Kinds of proverbs..................................................... 16 5. Distinction between English proverbs and Vietnamese proverbs 16 6. How proverbs can be interpreted............................................... 19 Chapter 2. English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body 21 1. The position of proverbs referring to part of the human body 21 2. Parts of the human body.............................................................. 21 3. The classification of parts of the human body according to position 22 3.1. The direction from top to bottom..................................... . 22 3.2. The direction from the front to the back..........................… 25 3.3. The direction from the outside to the inside........................ 25 Table 2. List of English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body 27 Chapter 3. A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body.....................................………………………… 35 1. A contrastive analysis................................................................. 35 2. The similarities............................................................................ 36 2.1.Using the same parts of the human body to express an idea 36 Table 3.Table of similar proverbs that refer to parts of the human body ……… 37 Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 5 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 2.2 The same parts of the human body may be used for different purposes according to their functions ..............................……………………… 38 2.3. Both English proverbs and Vietnamese ones hold a rhyme 40 2.4.There are two parts of the human body in one proverb ........ 40 Table 4. Table of proverbs 42 that contains two parts of the human body............. 3. The differences............................................................................. 43 3.1. The different cultures_ the conditions of nature and society 43 3.2. Using different parts of the human body to express the same ideas 44 Table 5. Different parts of the human body are used for the same ideas between English and Vietnamese proverbs................................................................................................. 45 Chapter 4. The meanings of English proverbs referring to parts of the human body and their Vietnamese equivalents:...................................................….…. 46 1. Meaning................................................................................. ..... 46 2. The meanings of English proverbs referring to parts of the human body and their Vietnamese equivalents............................. ……………….. 48 3. Rhetorical figures of speech in proverbs referring to parts of the human body....................................................................................… 50 3.1. Hyperbole in the proverbs referring to parts of the human body 50 3.2. Metonymy in the proverbs referring to parts of the human body 51 Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 6 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English body 3.3. Metaphor in proverbs referring to parts of the human 51 3.4. Personification in proverbs referring to parts of the human body 52 Table 6. The meanings of English proverbs referring to parts of the human body and their Vietnamese quivalents........................................................................................... 53 Chapter 5. Some suggestions for learning and teaching English proverbs 59 1. Methodology.................................................................................. ..... 59 2. What is the role of proverbs in learning and education?......... 60 3. Some suggestions for teaching English proverbs................…. 62 3.1.Teaching English proverbs through stories..................... ….. 62 3.2. Stages for teaching an English proverb in general............... 64 Part C. Conclusion.............................................................. 66 References............................................................................. ...…... 67 Appendices............................................................................. ......... 68  Exercises for practice ........................................................ 68  Keys................................................................................ ......... 68 PART A. INTRODUCTION I. Rationale for choosing the subject Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 7 When studying a nation's language, everyone wants to apprehend it thoroughly and master it well. To reach this aim, students are not allowed to skip the nation ‘s proverbs. On the contrary, they must inherit them with a thorough study; because in the social contact, a proverb used in a proper moment and place will have great effects on the collocutors' understanding. We often read the phrase “Language is a living thing” – as we have known that language is the address of the culture, learning a language is, in fact, learning the culture of that country. Ph¹m Quang S¸n wrote in Nam ng¹n chÝnh cÈm “C¸c níc ë trªn mÆt ®Þa cÇu nµy, níc nµo cã phong tôc cña níc Êy, th× níc nµo còng cã thÇn hån cña níc Êy, ng«n ng÷ tøc lµ thÇn hån trong mét níc ph¸t hiÖn ra ngoµi, "Tr«ng mÆt mµ b¾t h×nh dong", "Ngêi lµm sao chiªm bao lµm vËy", cho nªn muèn biÕt thÇn hån trong mét níc th× ph¶i xÐt phong tôc trong mét níc; muèn biÕt phong tôc trong mét níc th× ph¶i xÐt ng«n ng÷ trong mét níc”. (Vietnamese proverbs - Chu Xu©n Diªn, Social Science Publishing House, 1918, page3). This means that languages play an important part in the people’s life. Meanwhile, proverbs are the generalized product of language or proverb as a popular phenomenon of the language plays an important role in the spiritual life of the community because they reflect a vivid picture of the nation’s customs and cultural traditions. “Nothing ever becomes real till Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 8 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English it is experienced, even a proverb is no proverb to you till your life has illustrated it” (John Keats <1795 – 1821>) or “A proverb is one man’s wit and all men’s wisdom” (Lord John Russell). Every language has its own system of proverbs. During the process of learning English proverbs, we find various types of English proverbs, especially English proverbs referring to parts of the human body. It takes precedent in English proverbs as well as in Vietnamese ones, that interests me very much and urges me to choose the subject “A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body” with a hope that this study will contribute a small part to the teaching and learning of English proverbs. Especially to those who want to study deeply this subject "English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body". II. Aims of the study  To describe English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body.  To make a contrastive analysis on proverbs referring to parts of the human body. We try to find out the similarities and differences between them and the distinction between English culture and Vietnamese one in these proverbs. Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 9  To try to offer some suggestions for teaching proverbs at schools and offer some possible types of exercises to improve the learning of English proverbs.  To improve English vocabulary through learning proverbs referring to parts of the human body.  To help learners of English thoroughly apprehend their nation’s folklore as well as their mother tongue’s rich ability of expression.  To enable the learners to express their thoughts and feeling in English exactly, flowingly, meaningly, and figuratively. III. Objects of the study  Proverbs  English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body  Meanings of English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body IV. Methods of the study  Statistic method  Contrastive and comparative method  Analysis and systematic method  Obtaining advice from experts V. Scope of the study Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 10  Due to the time limitation, we only focus on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body VI. Design of the study Part A. Introduction 1. Rationale for choosing the subject 2. Aims of the study 3. Objects of the study 4. Methods of the study 5. Scope of the study 6. Design of the study Part B. Content Chapter 1. Background Chapter 2. English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body Chapter 3. A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of the human body Chapter 4. The meanings of English proverbs referring to parts of the human body and their Vietnamese equivalents Chapter 5. Some suggestions for learning and teaching English proverbs  Exercises for practice  Keys Part C. Conclusion References Appendices Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 11 PART B. CONTENT Chapter 1 Background 1. Where do Proverbs come from? 1.1. Where do English proverbs come from? Proverbs come from two primary sources: the common and the wise. These two sources are not really distinct. Something common and popular has often been documented by the wise, and something written by the wise has often been liked and freely used by the common. The latter is the case where quotations graduate to proverbs. Proverbs have largely originated from the traditional and collective wisdom of mankind. By way of examples, Little strokes fell great oaks have obviously come from the common experience of woodcutters in olden times. A stitch in time saves nine has evidently come from the experience of housewives in mending clothes. Many English proverbs owe their origin to the Bible, e.g: A soft answer turneth away wrath. In addition to the Bible, several proverbs are believed to have their origin in the works of William Shakespeare. It is difficult to be certain whether these proverbs were truly Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 12 invented by Shakespeare or they were already in existence before or around his time. Some examples follow. Brevity is the soul of wit (from Hamlet) A rose by any other name would smell as sweet (from Romeo and Juliet) Famous literary works have contributed to a lot of proverbs as illustrated below. A little learning is a dangerous thing (from Essay on Criticism by Alexander Pope) A thing of beauty is a joy forever (from the poem Endymion by John Keats) Other proverbs are attributed to particular individuals; presumably wise and learned ones, e.g., “they also serve who only stand and wait” appears as the last line in John Milton's sonnet on his blindness. Some English proverbs have their origin in other languages like French, Latin and Spanish. The English versions may have developed in parallel, or been borrowed from other languages. For instance, “he gives twice who gives quickly” is a translation of “bis dat qui cito dat” (Latin). When the proverbs have not been translated and are even today more popular in their original form, they can be readily recognized to have been borrowed from another language. Here are some examples. Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 13 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English Caveat emptor (Latin) is more popular than Let the buyer beware. In vino veritas (Latin) is more popular than In wine, there is truth. 1. 2. Where do Vietnamese proverbs come from? Proverbs are an oral tradition that the Vietnamese people have conserved for four thousand years of their history. They are often used as popular expression to criticize society and to describe the daily hardships of the peasants. As Vietnam is a farming country, one finds in most of the proverbs a great deal of the peasant s’ life. It is dominated by factors beyond the control of the peasants; floods, droughts, typhoons, etc. Their existence is the continual struggle. Like English proverbs, Vietnamese proverbs also come from two sources: the common and the wise. Usually proverbs are created naturally through the peasants ‘ life. They are transferred from generation to generation by the oral way. Some proverbs were written by intellectuals, writers, poets, and famous men. Because of particular reasons, proverbs were widely propogated in the community, examples: “ngµy vui ng¾n ch¼ng tµy gang”; “c¶nh nµo c¶nh ch¼ng ®eo sÇu, ngêi buån c¶nh cã vui ®©u bao giê”; “cã tµi mµ cËy chi tµi, ch÷ tµi liÒn víi ch÷ tai mét vÇn” … They are in the KiÒu story by NguyÔn Du, are widely used as proverbs or “«n cò biÕt míi”(«n cè nhi tri th©n); “tai ho¹ tõ miÖng g©y ra, bÖnh tËt Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 14 tõ miÖng ríc vµo” (Ho¹ do khÈu xuÊt, bÖnh do khÈu nhËp). The first one is of Khæng Tö and the second is of Phã HuyÒn (Chinese author) (Vietnamese proverbs -Chu Xu©n Diªn, Social Science Publishing House 1975, page 55). Proverbs are of intellectuals, writers or famous men. They came to the community by Confucian scholars, Confucianism came to Vietnam during the Chinese domination and then the Le dynasty it became official idealogical system of Vietnamese feudalism. Some proverbs are borrowed from other countries like China, “hä hµng xa kh«ng b»ng l¸ng giÒng ë gÇn” (viÔn th©n bÊt nh cËn l©n), French “mÌo ®i råi chuét nh¶y móa” (le chat parti les souris dansent), a Russian proverb “mÌo v¾ng nhµ chuét tù do”, a German proverb, “phÇn ®Çu xu«i th× phÇn sau lät”(Frisch be gonnen, halb gennonen) Some proverbs are collected from other ethnic groups. In the country such as the proverbs of Mêng people “con g¸i lµ tr¸i bßn”; “mét n¨m lµm nhµ, ba n¨m tr¶ nî; “chã cËy nhµ, gµ cËy gÇn cïm”… Th¸i people have proverbs “gÇn löa r¸t mÆt, gÇn s«ng s¹ch m×nh”; “gÇn quan th× khæ, gÇn nåi th× nhä” …these proverbs are also equivalent of Viet people‘s ones. Therefore the sources of Vietnamese proverbs are very various. Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 15 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 2. The position of proverbs in lexicology Lexicology is the study of words that are considered as a branch of linguistics. Lexicology can be said to consist of five essential branches: 2.1. Word structure and formation: It investigates all the problems concerning the structure of the word and the way it is formed. 2.2. Semantics: It focuses on the meaning of the word, chiefly the lexical meaning because the grammatical meaning is studied in the grammar. It discusses types of meaning, the change and the development of meaning, the grouping of words and so on. 2.3. Etymology: It refers to the history and the origin of words. Etymologists divide the English vocabulary into main layers: native words and borrowings (borrowed words). 2.4. Lexicography: It studies the problem related to dictionary compiling. They are the problem of the types of dictionary, the selection of words for each type, the arrangement of words and so on. 2.5. Phraseology: It goes into set (fixed) expressions, which are reproduced in speech as ready - made units. There may be standardized word phrases to very long sayings. In English, there are such set expressions as: “good heavens”; “diamond cut diamond”; “no pains no gains”; “as strong as a horse”; “two heads are better than one” so phraseology Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 16 consists of idioms, quotations, clichÐs, sayings and proverbs. Like a picture, a proverb is worth a thousand words. 3. Proverbs, idioms, quotations, clichÐs, and sayings Very often there arises the problem of distinction between proverbs, idioms, sayings ... A perfect solution is hardly possible since there are many borderlines (cases) between them but in general, we can put them in separate groups as follows: 3.1. Proverbs: A proverb is a short saying expressing popular wisdom, a truth, or a moral lesson in concise and imaginary way. He laughs best who laughs last. Two heads are better than one. Proverbs are also set expressions because their lexical components are constant and stable. Their meaning are usually figurative and they are ready- made units as well. Proverbs, therefore, must be studied together with other set expressions. 3.2. Idioms: Idioms are difficult to define accurately. They are also set expressions; short sayings usually characterized by the fact that their meanings cannot easily be deduced from their components.  Examples: Kick the bucket. Let the cat out of the bag. Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 17 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English Break your leg! 3.3. Quotations: Quotations are also set expressions coming from literature and gradually become part and parcel of the languages. This means that many people using them may not know or may forget that they are quoting. In English, most familiar are from Shakespeare; Pope, etc.  Examples: Give everyman thy ear but few thy voice To err is man Fools rush in where angels fear to tread 3.4. Clichés: ClichÐs are quotations or sayings that are so frequently used that they have become hackneyed and stable. As they are constantly and mechanically repeated, they have lost their expressiveness and are therefore better avoided:  Examples: Stand shoulder to shoulder with... Pave the way to a bright new world. Having dealt with the terms above it can be noted,“sayings, expressions or phraseological units are general terms 4. Distinction between proverbs and idioms 4.1. Idioms 4.1.1. What is an idiom? Language follows the rules but an idiom is one of the interesting things that are anomalies of language, mavericks of Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 18 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English the linguistic world. The very word idiom comes from the Greek idios - “one's own, peculiar, strange”. Idioms therefore we break the normal rules. According to the definition of Vietnamese Dictionary (Linguistics Institute - Da Nang Publishing House- 1977) " Thµnh ng÷ lµ tËp hîp nh÷ng tõ cè ®Þnh quen dïng mµ nghÜa cña nã thêng kh«ng thÓ gi¶i thÝch ®îc mét c¸ch ®¬n gi¶n b»ng nghÜa cña c¸c tõ t¹o nªn nã"(An idiom is a set expression whose meaning is often impossible to deduce from its components).  Examples: Mét n¾ng hai s¬ng. R¸n sµnh ra mì. §©m ba chÎ cñ. “An idiom, as Johnathan Crowther (1995) defines, is a phrase whose meaning is difficult or sometimes impossible to guess by looking at the individual word it contains” ( Advanced Learners’ Dictionary). Or an idiom can be defined as a number of words which when taken together, have a different meaning from the individual meaning of each word. Idioms, like proverbs, are common sayings. However, they usually do not make sense at first sight and do not offer any advice: “to blow one's own trumpet”, which means, to praise oneself or boast... Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of 19 NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English So that idioms are fixed expressions that are commonly used. They are not complete sentences but words - An idiom is equal to a phrase. Idioms do not give comments, experience, a moral lesson, advice that make idioms aesthetic not educated, that is the reason why an idiom does not become a literary work idioms belong to the language. An example of a Vietnamese idiom “mÆt hoa da phÊn” it only indicates the aesthetic- beauty of a woman not a comment or advice or criticism, even though an idiom can be ornate and flowery (aesthetic function); so idioms do not bring about the full understanding about life and any lesson of the people's relationship in the society (function of education and function of comprehension). 4.1.2. Kinds of idioms Idioms take many different forms or structures. An idiom can have a regular structure, an irregular or even a grammatically incorrect structure. The clarity of meaning is not dependent on the grammatical correctness. A few examples will illustrate this: 4.1.1.1. Irregular form, clear meaning as in "give someone to understand"; "do someone proud"; "do the dirty on someone". 4.1.1.2. Regular form, unclear meaning as in "have a bee in one' bonnet"; "cut no ice"; "bring the house down". Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of NguyÔn §×nh Lu. 40A2 - English 20 4.1.1.3. Irregular form, unclear meaning as in "be at large"; "go great guns"; "be at daggers drawn". We find, in fact, that most idioms belong to the second group where the form is regular but the meaning unclear. 4.2. Proverbs 4.2.1. What is a proverb? People from all parts of the world use proverbs and sayings to transmit their wisdom, knowledge, experience and feelings. Like a picture, a proverb is worth a thousand words. According to Vietnamese Dictionary (Linguistic Institute Da Nang Publishing House, 1977) "tôc ng÷ lµ c©u ng¾n gän, thêng cã vÇn ®iÖu, ®óc kÕt tri thøc, kinh nghiÒn sèng vµ ®¹o ®øc thùc tiÔn cu¶ c¸ nh©n"(A proverb is a short saying that often holds a rhyme and offers practical knowledge, life experience or a moral lesson).  Examples: §ãi cho s¹ch r¸ch cho th¬m. Mét giät m¸u ®µo h¬n ao níc l·. Thõa ngêi nhµ míi ra ngêi ngoµi. According to John Simpson - Proverbs - Oxford University Press “A proverb is a traditional saying which offers advice or presents, a moral in a short and pity manner". “Proverbs are concise statements expressing deep thoughts, practical knowledge, and experience - based judgements, covering all aspects of life and bearing Graduation thesis the human body - A contrastive analysis on English and Vietnamese proverbs referring to parts of
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