Tài liệu Claire shaeffer's fabric sewing guide

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Claire Shaeffer’s S EWING Claire Shaeffer’s Fabric Sewing Guide is your one-stop sewing resource. • • • • • Fiber Content Fabric Structure Fabric Types Interfacing and Linings Sewing Techniques This new full-color edition contains everything you need to know, and will surely be a reference you will review again and again. In addition to an extensive glossary with answers to the most common sewing questions, this must-have guide includes easy-to-read charts for needle sizes and thread and stabilizer types. Join a world of crafters at www.mycraftivity.com. Connect. Create. Explore. Z0933 US $39.99 (CAN) $43.99 )3".      )3".    8 FABRIC SEWING GUIDE 2nd Edition 2nd Edition EAN  FABRIC SEWING GUIDE Internationally respected author, lecturer, college instructor and columnist, Claire Shaeffer has completely revised her classic standard on fabric. Th is encyclopedic guide to the selection, wear, care, and sewing of all fabrics has been updated to include comprehensive information on: CLAIRE SHAEFFER’S          Z0933_Shaeffer_cov.indd 1 7/24/08 5:14:13 PM CLAIRE SHAEFFER’S FABRIC SEWING GUIDE Krause Publications Cincinnati, OH 45236 www.mycraftivity.com Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 1 • Connect. Create. Explore. 8/1/08 10:21:11 AM © 2008 by Claire Shaeffer Published by Krause Publications 4700 East Galbraith Road Cincinnati, OH 45236 All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a critical article or review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper, or electronically transmitted on radio, television, or the Internet. Other fine Krause Publications titles are available from your local bookstore, craft supply store, online retailer or visit our website at www.fwpublications.com. 12 11 10 09 08 Project Manager: Jay Staten, Toni Toomey Content Editor: Barbara Smith Copyeditor: Barbara Weiland Tagart Illustrations: Rachael Knier and Rachael Smith Cover designer: Julie Barnett Interior designer: Sandy Kent and Rachael Smith Photography (unless otherwise credited): Claire Shaeffer and Sarah Benson Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shaeffer, Claire B. [Fabric sewing guide] Claire Shaeffer’s fabric sewing guide / by Claire Shaeffer. -- Rev. ed. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-89689-536-2 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Textile fabrics. 2. Dressmaking. 3. Sewing. I. Title. TT557.S53 2008 646.40028--dc22 2008017158 5 4 3 2 1 The following registered trademark terms and companies appear in this publication Kodaire™, Kodalite, Kodel®, Kodofi ll™, Lamous®, Lastex™, Lenzing Lyocell®, Lenzing Modal®, Lethasuede, Lifa®, Lorette®, Lurelon®, Lurex®, Lustra®, Lycra®, Marimekko®, Matte Touch®, Maxi-Lock®, Metalastic®, Metlon®, Metroflock®, Metrolene®, Metrosene Plus™, Mettler Poly Sheen®, Micro Modal™, A.C.E.®, Acrilan®, Agilon®, Airloft®, Alaskine, Alcantara®, Anso®, Antron®, Microft®, Micromattique MX®, Microsoft®, Microsupplex®, MicroSupreme®, Aqua Shell®, Aqua Shell®, Aquator®, Armo® Wool, Armo® Rite, Arnel®, Avisco Microtherm®, Milium®, MiniMicro®, Mitin®, Mylar®, Mystique™, Natural XL®, Avlin®, Avril®, Avron®, Avsorb®, Ban-Lon®, Barge™ cement, Barge™ glue, Luster®, NatureTex™, Naugahyde®, Needle Glide®, No Shock®, Nomelle®, No- Beau-Grip™, Bernina®, Bernina® Aurora 440, Bi-Loft®, Bio Fresh, Biz, Blue C®, mex®, Norae®, Nordic Fleece®, Nupron®, Opelon™, Orlon®, Palm Beach®, Pa- Borgana®, Bully Lock, Byrd Cloth®, Cadon®, Caprolan®, Captiva®, Caressa™, Qel®, Pellon®, Pil-Trol™, Plyloc™, Polarfleece®, Polarguard®, PolarLite®, Polar- Casuwool®, Celanese®, Celebrate®, Chinella®, Chromespun®, Citifleece, Cleer- Plus®, Polartec®, Polartec® Power Dry®, Polartec® Power Shield™, Polartec®, span®, Clover™ tire thread, Coloray, Comfort Fiber®, ComFortrel XP®, Com- Power Stretch®, Posder Dry®, Prima®, Qiana®, Qiviut®, Quallofi l®, Quick Knit, Fortrel®, Comiso®, Comuloft®, Cool Wool®, CoolMax®, Cordura®, Core-Lock™, Quick Liner®, Remember®, Retayne, Revere®, ReviveX®, Rexe®, Rib-It®, Savina Courcel®, Courtek M acrylic™, Creora®, Creslan®, C-Th ru® Ruler, Dacron®, DPR®, Savina®, Savina DPR®, Scotchgard®, Seam Sure™, Seams Great™, SEF®, Dan-Press®, Dantwill®, Darleen®, Darlexx Superskin®, Darlexx®, Dorlastan®, Sensuede®, Sensura®, Sesua®, Sewers’ Aid®, Shanton®, Shareen®, Shimmereen™, Dow XLA™, Drima™, Drizzle Cloth™, Dryline®, Dura Spun®, Du-Rel®, Du- Slinky®, Sofrina®, Soft Skin®, Soft Touch®, Soft alon®, So-Lara®, SolarKnit®, rene®, Durvil®, Dynel®, Ecofi l®, Eco-Friendly™ Batting, Eco-Friendly™ Batting Solarweave®, Sorbit®, Spandaven®, Spandura®, Spanzelle®, Stitch Witchery®, Blend, EcoSpun®, Ecsaine®, Eloquent Luster™, Eloquent Touch™, Encron®, StretchAire®, Strialine®, Stunner®, Sulky®, Sunbrella®, SunRepel®, Superloft ®, Enka® viscose, Enkacrepe®, Enkair®, Enkalure®, Enkasheer®, Entrant®, ESP®, Superwash®, Supplex®, T.E.N.®, Tackle Twill®, Tactel Micro®, Tactel®, Tactel Espa®, Essera®, Estron®, Eucalan® Woolwash, EZ® Stitch-Th ru, Facile™, Fairtex®, Micro®, Tanera®, Taslan®, Teflon®, Teklan®, Tencel®, Terylene®, Thermax®, Fantastik®, Fibermet®, Fi-lana®, Fine Fuse®, Formula 409®, Fortisan®, Fortrel® Thermolite®, Thermolite®, Th insulate®, Th insulate® Lite Loft , Th inTech®, Tre- MicroSpun®, Fortrel®, Foxfibre®, Furelle®, Fusi-Knit®, Glore-Valcana®, vira®, Tuftex®, Turtle Fur®, Type 420®, Tyvek®, Ultra Touch®, Ultraglow®, Ul- Glospan®, Golden Glow™, Golden Touch™, Gore-Tex®, Gore-Tex®, Hang traleather®, Ultrasuede®, Ultrex®, Ultron®, Velcro®, VelvaBoard, Verel®, Ver- Loose™, Harris Tweed®, Heat’n Bond®, Helanca®, Herculon™, Hi-Tech Sup- satech®, Vincel®, Vyrene™, WeatherBloc®, Whisper Weft®, Windbloc®, Wind plex®, Hollofi l®II, Hump Jumper®, Hydrofi l®, Ingeo®, Interspan®, JetSpun™, Pro®, Wonder-Under®, Xena®, Yukon Fleece®, Zankara®, Zantrel®, Zefran®, Jean-a-ma-jigs®, Jiff y Fuse™, Kevlar®, Kinderfleece, K-Kote Plus®, Knit Fuze™, Zeft ron®, Zirpro®, Zitkrome® Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 2 8/1/08 10:21:25 AM Since I have accepted my obsession and acknowledged that I like collecting fabrics almost as much as I like sewing them, I’m very well adjusted. After all, everyone collects something (recipes, coins, stamps, dolls, wine, guns, woodworking equipment, records, china figurines, records, videos) or has a hobby to enjoy in his or her leisure hours, so it’s all right for me to collect fabrics. Unlike most collections, the only constant in mine is change. I am an avid sewer, and unlike many fabric collectors, I have the confidence to cut or sew any fabric. Long ago, I decided to discard fabrics that no longer meet my standards, are the wrong color, or make me feel guilty. I don’t have room for them to clutter my space and life. For me, sewing fulfills both the desire to make something creative and to show it off, and part of my joy is taking a risk to achieve the unexpected and conquer the unknown. I love to experiment, try new techniques, fine-tune old methods, and combine fabrics and designs innovatively. Most of my results have been successful, and some have been stunning creations beyond my wildest expectations. When I have the occasional failure, I remind myself that professionals have them, too, and it really is no worse than burning the brownies. This book is the only comprehensive sewing reference that focuses on fabrics. It began several decades ago when I first taught Sewing Special Fabrics at the College of the Desert in Palm Desert, California. There was no book that came close to being a textbook. As I researched my subject, I realized that, in addition to the wealth of material on special fabrics scattered in a variety of different sources, a great deal of information about traditional fabrics was no longer available, some of the information provided by the home-sewing industry was incorrect, and many of the techniques I had learned as a professional had never been put into print. So the project mushroomed into a very large book that includes techniques for sewing all types of fabrics. The information is based on my experiences as an educator and professional home sewer; interviews with designers, experts, and educators in the home-sewing and fashion industries; visits to factories and designer workrooms; research in consumer and trade publications; research in the costume collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fashion Institute of Technology, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Phoenix Art Museum, and the Museum of the City of New York; countless snoop-shopping expeditions to examine ready-to-wear in all price ranges; and reexamining the garments in my own personal collection. The Second Edition has been revised extensively to incorporate new fabrics, fibers, design ideas, and techniques. It continues to be the most comprehensive reference available and includes 300 diagrams and 248 color photographs. If you are new to sewing, you will find all the basic information needed for your first projects. As you grow more experienced, you will discover a variety of construction alternatives and learn to select different methods appropriate for the fiber, fabric, garment’s use, your skill level, time available, and personal preferences. If you are an educator, sewing professional, or a very experienced home sewer, you will be inspired by the many new ideas, and you will learn new ways to apply skills you already have. I know I am obsessed. Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 3 8/1/08 10:21:26 AM Acknowledgments. Once again, I would like to thank the many individuals and businesses who provided information and photographs for the original edition (1989) and the updated edition (1994). For this Second Edition, I would like thank the following: The businesses and individuals who provided fabrics and products: American & Efird, Inc. (Mettler), Bernatex, Britex Fabrics, Coats & Clark, Emma One Sock, Marcia Cohen, Jean Dilworth, Something Wonderful!, Plumridge Inc., Sawyer Brook, Sew Beautiful magazine, Linda Stewart, Superior Threads, Audrey Szmyd, Terri Tipps, Gutermann of America, Inc., and YLI. Everyone who provided photographs: Jennifer Amor, Lisa Aherns, Susan Andriks, Ileana Andruchovici, Apple Annie Fabrics, Paula Archbold, Karen Augusta, Australian Stitches magazine, Kathy Barnard, Annie Barnes, Sarah Benson, Bernina of America, Inc., Danielle Billing, Sharon Blair, Barb Blum, Ellie Bremer, Kathryn Brenne, Bonnie Browning, Nancy Cain, Linda Calvo, Christie Chase, Ruth Ciemnoczolowski, Marcia Cohen, Barbara Cohn, Lynn Cook, Mary Corbett, Susan Crane, Terry Crawford, Anna Csaba, Patti Dee Wazny, Joyce DeLoca for Signe, Jean Dilworth, Pamela Erny, Karen Evanetz, Karmen Flach, Jessica Franklin, Wendy Gardiner, Michelle Gillmartin, Gini’s Greyhound Fashions, Nancy Gray, Judy Gross, Melissa Hayden, Bianca Herrera, Sara Hochhauser, Hoff man Media, Cathie Hoover, Doreen Hund, Susan Igou, Anna Marie Isaacson, Mimi Jackson, Jana Jamieson, Tomasa Jimenez, Laura Johansen, Adrena Johnson-Telfair, Mary Johnson-Voss, Christine Kazmerzak, Kayla Kennington, Kacie Killen, Juliette Kimes, Leah Klingelhofer, Sandi Knutie, Rachel Kurland, Michelle LaFortune-Wamego, Carol Lambeth, Joy Landeira, Martha Leefson, Marie Lehfeldt, Justine Limpus Parish, Stephanie Link, Angel Livingston, Justine Livings- Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 4 8/1/08 10:21:29 AM ton, Linda Macke, Joi Mahon, Make It With Wool, Hazel Matthys, Barbie McComick, Kwik Sew Co., Diane McPartland, LJ Designs, Elaine Mintzer, Debbie Mocnik, Gayle Moline, Jon Moore, Patricia Mundwiler, Teresa Nieswaag, Tammy O’Connell, Meredith Olds, Phoenix Art Museum, Cheryl Pollock, Alison Ray, Mary Ray, Faith Reynolds, Bob Ruggiero, David Sassoon, Paula Scaffidi, Penny Schwyn, Melissa Schultz, Claudia Scroggins, Denise Severson, Dennita Sewell, Lisa Shepard Stewart, Rachel Siegel, Silhouette Patterns, Simplicity Pattern Co., Sandy Snowden, Cherrelle Sowell, Shelma Sperry, Rosemary St. Claire, Gabrielle Stanley, Linda Stewart, Marinda Stewart, Susan Stewart, Linda Teufel, The McCall Pattern Co., Taunton Press, Cathy Thomas, Dot Treece, Charles Whitaker, Darlene Wilson, and Debra Young. Every effort has been made to provide appropriate credit. If the credit is incorrect or missing, please advise. Sarah Benson, for photographing numerous fabrics and garments, organizing the photographs and photo releases, and making samples. Cheri Collins for developing the stabilizer chart. Bernina of America, Inc. for continued support and excellent equipment. My colleagues, students, and Internet friends who shared their expertise and enthusiasm. My parents, the late Juanita and Louie Brightwell, who gave me wings and taught me how to use them, and my husband, Charlie, who supports and encourages me. My editors Toni Toomey and Vanessa Lyman and the staff at F+W Publications for their expertise, support and countless hours of hard work and attention to detail. Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 5 8/1/08 10:21:52 AM table of contents Introduction , 10 PA R T O N E PROLOGUE Chapter One Basic Guide for Sewing Any Fabric, 12 Plan the Garment, 13 | Design Ideas and Pattern Selection, 19 | Assemble the Equipment, 21 | Sewing Notes, 25 | Urban Myths, 31 | How to Sew a Zebra, 32 Chapter Three Manufactured-Fiber Fabrics, 82 Rayon, 82 | Lyocell, 84 | Acetate and Triacetate, 86 | Nylon, 88 | Polyester, 90 | Lightweight Polyesters, 94 | Acrylic, 97 | Modacrylics, 99 | Stretch Fibers, 99 | DOW XLA, 101 | PLA, 101 | Olefin, 101 | Microfibers, 102 | Wicking Fibers, 105 Chapter Four Leathers, 106 PA R T T W O FIBER CONTENT Leather and Suede, 106 | Pigskin, 115 | Shearling, 115 Chapter Five Synthetic Suedes, 118 Chapter Two Natural-Fiber Fabrics, 34 Cotton, 34 | Ethnic Cottons, 40 | Linen, 40 | Hankerchief Linen, 45 | Ramie, 45 | Hemp, 46 | Bamboo, 47 | Silk, 48 | Silk Blends, 52 | Lightweight Silks, 56 | Wool, 61 | Woolens and Worsteds, 62 | Lightweight Wools, 69 | Textured Woolens, 71 | Worsted Suitings, 72 | Wool Coatings, 74 | Washable Wool, 78 | Hair Fibers, 79 Chapter Six Nonwoven Plastics, 124 Pleather and Vinyl, 124 | Vinyl Laminates, 128 Chapter Seven Fur, 129 Chapter Eight Feathers, 138 Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 6 8/1/08 10:22:02 AM PA R T F O U R FA B R I C TYPES Chapter Twelve Sheers, Open Weaves, and Meshes, 208 Crisp Sheers, 215 | Soft Sheers, 219 | Mesh and Open-Weave, 221 Chapter Thirteen PA R T T H R E E FA B R I C STRUCTURE Lace and Net, 223 Lace, 223 | Net, 233 Chapter Fourteen Chapter Nine Woven Fabrics, 140 Plain Weave, 140 | Twill Weave, 143 | Denim, 145 | Loosely Woven, 148 | Satin Weave, 154 | Wash-andWear, 154 Chapter Ten Stretch Fabrics, 157 Stretch Wovens, 157 | Elasticized, 161 Chapter Eleven Special Occasion Fabrics, 236 Satin and Sateen, 236 | Ribbed, 241 | Taffeta, 245 | Brocade, Damask, Matelasse, and Jacquards, 248 | Pleated, 252 | Metallics, 257 | Embellished, 260 | White, 263 Chapter Fifteen Napped and Pile Fabrics, 266 Napped, 266 | Pile, 268 | Corduroy, 271 | Velveteen, 274 | Velvet, 277 | Panné and Devoré Velvets, 282 | Woven Terry and Velour, 283 | Tufted Piles, 285 | Fake Fur, 287 Knits, 163 Knit Types, 163 | Zebra, 171 | Jersey and Single, 172 | Double, 175 | Interlock, 180 | Textured, 181 | Sweatshirt, 184 | Mesh, 186 | Tricot, 187 | Milanese, 189 | Sweater, 190 | Ribbing, 193 | Stretch Terry and Velour, 195 | Power Stretch, 198 | Power Net, 201 | Fleece, 202 | Slinky, 205 Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 7 8/1/08 10:22:08 AM Chapter Sixteen Felt and Felted Fabrics, 294 Felt, 294 | Felted Fabrics, 296 Chapter Seventeen Reversible Fabrics, 299 Double-Faced, 299 | Double-Cloth, 302 | DoubleFaced Quilted, 309 PA R T F I V E I N T E R FA C I N G S AND LININGS Chapter Twenty-Two Interfacings, Linings, and Battings, 350 Interfacings, 350 | Underlinings, 357 | Linings, 359 | Battings and Insulating, 363 Chapter Eighteen Quilted Fabrics, 313 Single-Faced Quilted, 313 | Custom Quilting, 316 Chapter Nineteen Plaids and Stripes, 318 Plaids, 318 | Tartans, 329 | Checks, 329 | Stripes, 329 | Diagonals, 333 PA R T S I X SEWING TECHNIQUES Chapter Twenty-Three Seams, 366 Chapter Twenty Prints and Border Designs, 336 Prints, 336 | Large-Scale Prints, 338 | Border Designs, 339 Chapter Twenty-One Technical and Outerwear Fabrics, 342 Technical, 342 | Outerwear, 343 | Neoprene, 348 Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 8 Abutted, 366 | Appliqué, 367 | Bound, 369 | Channel, 372 | Corded, 372 | Decorative, 372 | Double-Cloth, 373 | Double-Lapped, 373 | DoublePly, 373 | Double-Stitched, 373 | Double-Welt, 373 | Draw , 373 | Drapery French, 374 | Enclosed Seam Allowances, 374 | False Merrow, 375 | False French, 375 | Flat-Fell, 375 | Flatlocked, 377 | French, 377 | Fringed, 378 | Fur, 379 | Hairline, 380 | Insertion, 380 | Laced, 381 | Lapped, 381 | Leather, 382 | Machine-Felled, 383 | MachineRolled, 383 | Nonwoven, 383 | Piped, 385 | Plain, 387 | Reversed, 387 | Self-Finished, 387 | Serged, 388 | Sheer, 389 | Slot , 389 | Standing-Fell, 390 | Stand-up, 390 | Strap, 391 | Stretch, 391 | Taped, 392 | Tissue-Stitched, 394 | Topstitched, 394 | Tucked, 394 | Twin-Needle, 396 | Wadmal, 396 | Welt, 396 | Whipped, 396 | Wrong-Side-Out, 397 | Zigzagged, 397 8/1/08 10:22:18 AM Chapter Twenty-Four Seam and Hem Finishes, 398 Seam Finishes, 398 | Hem Finishes, 402 Chapter Twenty-Five Hems, 403 Plain, 403 | Faced, 406 | Quick, 407 | Interfaced, 407 | Machine Blindstitched, 409 | Narrow Machine Hems, 410 | Mitered, 412 | Topstitched, 414 | Weighted, 417 | Miscellaneous, 417 PA R T S E V E N APPENDICES AND GLOSSARIES Appendix A General Sewing Threads, 455 Appendix B Sewing Machine Needles, 458 Appendix C Chapter Twenty-Six Needle and Thread Guide for Machine Stitching, 460 Edge Finishes, 422 Appendix D Bands, 422 | Bindings, 423 | Elastic, 430 | Facings, 431 | Ribbing, 433 Stabilizers, 462 Appendix E Chapter Twenty-Seven Interfacings, 466 Closures, 434 Appendix F Button Loops, 434 | Buttonholes, 435 | Covered Snaps, 444 | Ties and Straps, 444 | Zippers, 444 Burn Tests for Fiber Identification, 475 Chapter Twenty-Eight T ips for Topstitching , 476 Hand Stitches, 448 Backstitch, 448 | Basting, 448 | Blanket, 449 | Blindstitch, 449 | Blind Catchstitch, 449 | Buttonhole Stitch, 449 |Catchstitch, 450 | CrossStitch, 450 | Fell, 450 | Figure-eight, 451 | Overcasting, 451 | Pad, 451 | Running, 451 | Stabstitch, 452 | Slipstitch, 452 | Tailor’s Tacks, 452 | Whipstitch, 453 Fiber and Fabric Glossary , 478 Glossary of Sewing Terms , 508 Index , 512 Resources , 522 Additional Reading , 526 About the Author , 527 Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 9 8/1/08 10:22:23 AM Introduction All sewing (fashion garments, artwear, home décor, accessories, and quilts) begins with the fabric, and understanding the fabric is the key to success. Claire Shaeffer’s Fabric Sewing Guide focuses on the fabrics and materials used to make garments. It is designed to give you the confidence to sew fabrics you have not sewn before and the skills to sew all fabrics better. High fashion is as close as your own sewing machine. (Photo courtesy of Australian Stitches.) Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 10 This single-volume reference includes complete and practical information for sewing all of today’s fabrics, but since there will be more new materials tomorrow, next month, or next year, this book also provides the information you need to develop the skills and techniques needed to sew those fabrics successfully. The book is organized for easy reference, with seven sections and extensive appendices: • part one: Prologue, presents the basics of planning a garment. • part two: Fiber Content, outlines the characteristics of fibers, natural and manufactured. • part three: Fabric Structure, describes the various weaves and knits with the details for sewing them. • part four: Fabric Types, describes methods for handling fabrics with specialty surfaces and structures. • part five: Interfacings and Linings, provides complete details about lining, interfacing, and other fabrics used for interior support. • part six: Sewing Techniques, describes the basic techniques referenced in the previous sections. • part seven: Appendices and Glossaries is a comprehensive listing of important textile terms and frequently used fabrics. Unlike most sewing books, which focus only on techniques, this guide focuses on fabrics and their characteristics, as well as how to sew them successfully. It will help you select fabrics and become a more knowledgeable consumer, even if you don’t sew. It addresses fabric-related situations that cannot be included on pattern guides and warns you about problems or mistakes before they occur. It will help you choose the most appropriate techniques for individual garments and fabrics, depending on the garment quality and use, as well as your time commitments and sewing experience. (For example, if I am sewing an everyday wash-and-wear cotton blouse, I choose quick-and-easy machine techniques that will launder well. When sewing a 8/1/08 10:22:26 AM introduction cotton tapestry party dress that will be dry-cleaned, I use more hand sewing and design details.) This book will broaden your understanding of fabrics and sewing techniques so you can apply your knowledge intelligently. It includes many fashion photographs from friends, colleagues, homesewers, fashion-focused businesses, and vintage collections that will stimulate your imagination for future designs. My personal style is classic and appropriate for my age and lifestyle, and yes, there are some designs that reflect my taste, particularly those from the Custom Couture Collection, which I design for Vogue Patterns. But this is a book for everyone who sews, so I have included designs appropriate for many different lifestyles, age groups, and individual tastes that are quite different from those I sew and wear. I have also included some vintage garments because the designs showcase the fabrics well, include interesting details, and provide inspiration for new designs. I might add that I often see the influence of designs from the past in the current collections of the world’s best designers. Some photographs show the garments on dress forms, others are on models, both professional and amateur. You will see a variety of figure types since my readers can be any age and any size. I have also included a few fabulous quilts, some accessories, and home décor items because they are easy to sew and provide a great way to learn to sew on different fabrics. How to Use This Book This sewing guide is organized for easy reference. First, identify your fabric, its fiber content, structure, and type, including its texture, weight, transparency, and surface design. Then review any appropriate sections in the book that apply. I usually begin my review with the fabric type unless it’s a fiber I have not sewn recently. For example, if the fabric is a striped silk chiffon, like the design on page 49, I begin with the fabric types: Sheers, Stripes, and Z0933i_Shaeffer_p001-011.indd 11 11 Prints. If I haven’t sewn lightweight silks recently, I’ll review the section on Lightweight Silk. Each fabric section begins with the fabric’s characteristics so you will know what to expect. The sewing checklists summarize the basic equipment, supplies, and techniques for handling the fabric. The core of the section details specific information for planning the garment, design ideas, selecting quality fabrics, sewing notes for layouts, cutting, marking, stitching tips, construction details, pressing techniques, and garment care. If you have never made a particular type of seam or seam finish, need a refresher on a technique, or want to learn new techniques, look for step-by-step instructions in Part Six, Sewing Techniques. If you want to expand your knowledge of techniques even more, consult my other books, Couture Sewing Techniques (Taunton Press, 2001), and High Fashion Secrets from the World’s Best Designers (Rodale Press, 2001). My book, Sew Any Fabric: A Quick Reference Guide to Fabrics from A to Z (Krause Publications, 2003), is a handy, quick guide for shopping expeditions and getting started. When you encounter an unfamiliar textile or fabric term, look it up in the Fiber and Fabric Glossary. It includes a brief definition and reference for similar materials. To expand your knowledge, begin a swatch library, using the glossary as a guide. To answer your most frequently asked questions, I have provided appendices with detailed information about needles, threads, interfacings, topstitching, and identifying your fiber types, as well as a resource list for fabrics, patterns, and notions. This fabric sewing guide was written for you. To reap the most from it, read it from cover to cover and make notes in it. Describe the fabrics you sew, the techniques you like or don’t like, and your ideas for future designs or trims. This book is only a springboard. It is designed to stimulate your creativity and provide the knowledge you need to sew with confidence. Dare to experiment with new ideas and new fabrics and share them with me. 8/1/08 10:22:32 AM CH A P T E R O N E Basic Guide for Sewing Any Fabric Welcome to the exciting world of PART ONE PROLOGUE Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 12 sewing! You can enjoy the pleasures of wearing what you sew and astonish your friends with your creativity and your successes. You can use your imagination to create one-of-a-kind garments, accessories, home décor items, and gifts. You can quilt, embroider, bead, appliqué, and felt fabrics. You can create trendy avant-garde designs, couture creations, or practical everyday wearables. Today, there are hundreds of different fabrics, but many are sewn using similar techniques. This fabric sewing guide focuses on the most frequently sewn fabrics. In each chapter, I have included suggestions for planning the design and preparing the fabric, along with some sewing notes. The Fiber and Fabric Glossary (page 478) defines even more fabrics. Almost every fabric can be used for a variety of designs, from everyday casual garments to high-fashion evening wear. The photographs feature many diverse designs to inspire and excite you. Some are original, one-of-a-kind creations, while others were made using commercial patterns. The models are just as diverse as the designs. Some are professionals, while others are home sewers. Some are pencil-thin; others pleasingly plump. Some are very young; others not so young. 8/1/08 10:22:41 AM chapter one: basic guide for sewing any fabric PROLOGUE This beautiful evening gown by Bellville Sassoon is when fabricated in emerald green satin. This gown and the red plaid gown at right were made from the same pattern Bellville Sassoon designed for Vogue Patterns. your sewing ability, time available, lifestyle, and personal preferences. Begin with the garment and its end use. Describe it in detail: identify the garment type—blouse, skirt, suit, leotard, nightgown, or evening gown; the garment style—avant-garde or classic; the garment structure and silhouette—soft, draped, structured, bouffant; the desired quality—luxury or moderate; the relationship of the design to other garments in your wardrobe; and the design’s relationship to current fashion trends. Consider where the garment will be worn— home, work, grocery store, PTA, symphony, wedding, or job interview, as well as when it will be worn—morning, afternoon, evening, every day, special occasion, winter or summer, or all of these. Then think about how often it will be worn—once, occasionally, frequently, or for several years. Once you have described the garment, consider the fabrication. Review the fabrics in your collection, visit fabric retailers, examine the latest mailorder swatches, and survey current trends. Goodquality, natural-fiber fabrics never go out of fashion, and since I do not live near a store with fine fabrics, 13 (Photo courtesy of The McCall Pattern Co.) Plan the Garment The first phase of sewing, planning the garment, is one of the most important. Deciding which comes first, the fabric or the design, can be compared to “the chicken or the egg.” Designs can begin with either the fabric or the design. Most develop when the fabric and design are considered together. Each garment will require a variety of decisions based on the garment type; its planned use, quality, and current fashion trends; the fabric characteristics and quality; the garment design and pattern; the compatibility of the fabric and the design; and Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 13 What a difference a fabric makes! This gown displayed in the Bellville Sassoon Boutique is the same as the one to the left except for the fabric. (Photo courtesy of David Sassoon and Bellville Sassoon.) 8/1/08 10:22:47 AM PROLOGUE 14 part one: prolo gue I have a large stash of fabrics, and I frequently order fabrics by mail. To be on the safe side, I always buy a little extra. Most fabrics for adult designs, especially luxury and novelty fabrics, are purchased because the fabric’s design, pattern, or color appeals to you, not because it’s durable. When purchasing fabric for children, durability is generally more important. To eliminate an unsuitable fabric, evaluate its quality, type, structure, design, weight, hand (how it feels), care requirements, comfort factors, and dura- bility, and then compare it to the garment style you have chosen. Hold the fabric, crush it, and drape it to determine whether it is crisp or soft, thick or thin, heavy or lightweight, loosely or firmly woven, flat or textured, silky or rough, transparent or opaque, sleazy or luxurious. Evaluate the fabric’s suitability for the garment type, design, occasion, and your lifestyle; how the fabric will fit, or not fit, into your wardrobe; how it will look on you; and whether you have the skills, time, and patience to sew it. Cl air e’s Secr ets for Success • Sew with a positive attitude. • To save time, stitch it right the first time. • Test, test, test. When in doubt, practice before stitching the garment. • Stitch directionally with the fabric. • Stitch with the fabric bulk to the left of the needle. • Stitch in the direction of the nap, as if you were petting an animal. • Begin stitching at the point of difficulty. For example, when stitching reverse corners, begin at the corner. When stitching notched collars, begin at the notch. • Stitch with the longer layer on the bottom. • Sew flat. For example, set the pockets before sewing the side seams. • Sew inside loops, circles, sleeves, pant legs, and collars carefully to avoid inadvertently A combination of knits and wovens makes a great fashion statement for the younger set. (Photo courtesy of Simplicity Pattern Co., Inc.) stitching through unwanted layers. • When topstitching, stitch with the piece right-side up unless directed otherwise. • When straight stitching, use a foot that holds the fabric firmly. I prefer a wide, straightstitch foot instead of an all-purpose or embroidery foot. • Understitch faced edges. Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 14 Consider the cost of the fabric and its care requirements. Determine whether the total cost is appropriate for this type of garment and whether it works within your budget. Do not be tempted to economize on interfacings, linings, or buttons to save money. Cheap findings can spoil an otherwise beautiful design. If necessary, select a less expensive fabric, but finish it with findings appropriate to its quality. 8/1/08 10:22:52 AM chapter one: basic guide for sewing any fabric Claire's Hint more flattering to large figures than those that outline the silhouette. Medium values are usually more slimming than dark or light ones, but in the Sunbelt states, light and bright colors may be better. All shiny fabrics—satin weaves, metallics, and beaded materials—reflect light and make you look heavier, but dull fabrics—dull-faced satins, peau de soie, and dull metallics—add less visual weight than acetate satin and shiny sequins. Although textured fabric—piles, thick woolens and tweeds, mohair, fake furs and real furs—add bulk, they can be worn by larger figure types if they are selected carefully. Velour knits are more slimming than woven velours, and short-haired furs have less bulk than long-haired furs. Cotton velvet and velveteen, which absorb light, are more flattering to a large figure than rayon velvet, which reflects light, thus enlarging the figure. Most soft fabrics flatter heavier figures, but when they are fitted too closely, the fabric clings, emphasizing size and shape. Since stiff fabrics stand away from the body, they can be used to hide figure irregularities, but they make the figure appear larger when used for exaggerated silhouettes. PROLOGUE Choose a pattern with a silhouette and design details that will flatter your figure, look attractive on you, and be appropriate for your age, size, and figure type. Study the line drawings in the pattern catalog, try on similar garments in your wardrobe, and go shopping to try on some ready-to-wear pieces. Before marrying the fabric to a pattern, examine the fabric’s character, including its fiber content, hand, weight, texture, drape, transparency, and weave. Evaluate its compatibility with the garment design. Review the fabric recommendations on the pattern, analyze successful fabric-design combinations, and survey current fashion trends. If the fabric is not perfect for the selected design, can its character be changed with interfacing or an underlining so the fabric and design will work well together? Consider your sewing skills, difficulty of the design, characteristics of the fabric, amount of time available, and your patience. Unfortunately, you will have an occasional failure. It happens to the very best sewers, so do not be discouraged. 15 When sewing complicated designs, I often select easy-to-sew fabrics. When sewing simple styles, Fabr ic Qua lit y I choose more challenging fabrics. When time is To keep disappointments to a minimum, learn to recognize fabric quality. Examine it carefully. Check for flaws in the weave, printing, or finishing. Even the best-quality fabrics will sometimes have flaws. If you know this before you buy, you can purchase extra so you can cut around them. really at a premium, I try to combine easy-tosew fabrics with easy-to-make designs and use a pattern I have sewn before. Fabr ics for Figur e Fl attery Woven Fabric s Choose fabrics that will flatter your figure. Select colors you like and think are becoming. Generally, cool hues such as blue, green, and violet are more slimming than warm hues, like red, orange, and yellow. Colors that blend into the background are Examine the fabric. It should be on grain with the warp (lengthwise yarns) and fi lling (crosswise yarns), straight and at right angles to each other. Look for slubs, printing errors, permanent wrinkles, and snags. Good dyes penetrate the fabric Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 15 8/1/08 10:22:54 AM 16 part one: prolo gue Claire's Hint PROLOGUE If a fabric is not on grain, do not buy it. Many fabrics today have permanent finishes, making it impossible to straighten them prior to wrinkling by squeezing the fabric in your hand. It should spring back with few creases. Generally, woven plaid, checked, and striped fabrics are better quality than similar printed patterns, but there are exceptions. cutting. If you already own one, be creative or discard it, but do not tilt the pattern pieces to Knit Fabric s fit as you will be cutting them off grain. Examine the ribs on knit fabrics. They should be parallel to the edges and at right angles to the horizontal rows on the wrong side of the fabric. If the ribs are badly skewed, the garment will not hang properly when the fabric pattern looks right, and if it does hang properly, then the fabric pattern will be distorted. To check for shape retention, stretch the knit to see if it returns to its original shape. well so that the color is good on the back as well as the face. Generally, plain fabric is judged by the number of threads per square inch. Hold the fabric up to the light and examine the weave. It should be uniform. Patches of light and dark indicate poor construction, poor-quality yarns, or heavy sizing. If the fabric is not a novelty weave, the threads should be fine and closely spaced. To test for fraying and seam slippage, scrape your thumbnail across the warp threads to see if they separate. If they do, the fabric will fray and the threads will pull apart at stress points. Test for resiliency and the ability to recover from Iden tifying the War p When you have a fabric scrap with no selvage, use these guides to identify the warp threads Fib er Content The fabric’s fiber content determines its comfort and care qualities. To determine the fiber content, ask for a small swatch so you can test it. If it is not convenient to take it home for testing, ask the salesperson to do a burn test, or take it outside and test the swatch yourself. (See the updated Burn Test for Fiber Identification, page 475.) When you think the fabric is made from more than one fiber, burn the warp and filling threads separately for best results. Hold the swatch or yarns securely in a pair of tweezers and work over a sink. that run parallel to the selvage. • In plain weaves, there are usually more yarns in the warp. • In twill weaves, the warp yarns run in the direction of the pattern. • In satin weaves, the warp yarns make the floats. • In sateen, the filling yarns make the floats. • The direction of the fabric with the least stretch is generally the warp. • Inferior or thicker yarns and yarns with slubs, lower twist, or fewer plies are usually in the filling. • Plaid fabrics often have vertical rectangles. Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 16 Fabr ic Serviceabilit y The life of a fabric depends on the fiber: the kind, tensile strength, and the twist; the number of plies and number of yarns per inch; and the weave and compactness of the fabric construction. Naturalfiber fabrics with long-staple fibers, such as cotton percales and worsted wools, are stronger, smoother, and more serviceable than those with short-staple fibers like muslin and woolens. Natural-fiber fabrics may be more or less serviceable than fabrics made of synthetic fi laments. The twist of the yarns determines the behavior, durability, and appearance. Fabrics made from fine, high-twist yarns, like men’s worsted suitings, 8/1/08 10:22:55 AM chapter one: basic guide for sewing any fabric (Photo courtesy of Terry Crawford and Graphics 35, Inc.) are stronger, smoother, more durable, more elastic, more absorbent, more resistant to soil, and more crease-resistant than those made from low-twist yarns, such as women’s soft woolens. Fabrics made with several yarns twisted together are more durable than fabric made with single-ply yarns or multi-ply yarns that are not twisted. When the yarns are not twisted together, the fabric will be softer and more luxurious but less resistant to abrasion and snags. Fabrics woven from staple fibers, such as cotton, linen, and wool, slip less at seams than fabrics woven from fi lament yarns, such as silk, nylon, and polyester. Fabrics that are made with slubbed, looped, or novelty yarns for decorative effects—bouclés and Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 17 PROLOGUE Custom made for actor Hank Fincken, this worsted wool suit was inspired by a 1932 suit worn by Henry Ford. shantungs, for example—are not as serviceable as flannels and silk linens. Closely woven fabrics that have a high thread count, that is, more threads per inch, are more durable, shrink less, and hold their shape better. They also have less slippage at the seams. The closeness of the weave or thread count is determined by adding the number of warp threads per inch to the number of filling threads per inch. For example, burlap, which is a coarse weave, has 20 threads per inch, while fine sheets can have as many as 600 threads per inch. Compared to plain-weave fabrics, basket-weave fabrics drape better. They are not as durable because of their loose weave, and the low-twist and low tensile strength of the yarns typically used to create them. Twill-weave fabrics with the same number of threads per inch drape better. When they are more tightly woven, they are stronger, firmer, and heavier. To see for yourself, examine two neckties, one plain weave and one twill weave. Satin-weave fabrics, such as charmeuse, are less durable but more lustrous than plain-weave fabrics like broadcloth, or twill-weave such as gabardine. Fabrics woven with fine, tightly twisted yarns and a close weave, organdy for example, are more durable than loosely woven fabrics such as damask, which is made with low-twist yarns and long floats. Fabrics with long floats, open weaves, and embellishments—embroidered fabrics, laces, quilted fabrics, and satin—snag easily. Woven fabrics, such as seersuckers, are more durable than embossed materials such as plissé. Embossed designs are more durable on heat-sensitive fibers, such as polyester and nylon, than on natural fibers or cellulosic manufactured fibers, such as rayon and lyocell. Flocked fabrics are less durable than fabrics with similar woven designs. 17 8/1/08 10:22:56 AM 18 part one: prolo gue Time Savers PROLOGUE If your time to sew is limited, choose fabrics that do not require special handling. For skirts, slacks, and outerwear, select fabrics that do not require interlinings or linings. Firmly woven, opaque, mediumweight fabrics and knits are easier to sew than slippery, soft, or loosely woven ones. Broadcloths are easier to sew than soft, slippery crepes. Avoid using fabrics that require matching, such as plaids; making a test garment from an expensive fabric, such as velvet or leather; and sewing special seam and hem finishes on transparent fabrics. Pr ice Fun and fashionable, consider easy-to-sew designs when you have limited time to sew. (Photo courtesy of Simplicity Pattern Co., Inc.) Fabr ic Comfort a n d Car e Read the information on the end of the bolt. Check the fiber content and care requirements. Generally, natural fibers are more comfortable to wear, and synthetic fibers are easier and cheaper to clean. Blends combine the best, and sometimes the worst, of the fibers used. For example, when polyester is blended with cotton, the new fabric is more resistant to wrinkles, but it pills and stains more easily. Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 18 Purchase the best quality you can afford. Finequality fabrics are not necessarily the most expensive, and once you have learned to recognize the characteristics of different grades, you will often find that medium-priced fabrics are attractive and wear well. When your budget is limited, select a goodquality fabric from a less expensive group instead of poor-quality fabric from a more expensive group. For example, choose a good-quality polyester blouse fabric over a cheap silk one, velveteen over velvet, or a linen-look or cotton over linen. Another way to preserve your budget is to combine two different kinds of fabrics, such as lace with a plain fabric, velvet with a satin, or novelty wool with a wool jersey. To figure the cost of the garment, add the cost of cleaning to the initial cost of the fabric, notions and other findings, then divide by the expected number of wearings. Gar men t Car e Garment care depends on the fiber content; the yarn construction; the fabric construction; the fi nishes and dyes applied to the fibers, yarns, or fabric; and the garment construction. Clean all garments before they become heavily soiled. I dry clean most of my garments so they will maintain their like-new appearance longer. I rarely try to remove spots and stains because many spot removers will set stains 8/1/08 10:22:58 AM chapter one: basic guide for sewing any fabric 19 permanently and may remove the fabric color. PROLOGUE Design Ideas and Pattern Selection Before selecting a pattern, survey the latest in readyto-wear pieces for design ideas. Do not just look. Try the garments on, especially if they are in a new color, silhouette, or style. Analyze the designs you like to determine what pleases you. Is it the fabric, the design, or a detail you can adapt? When selecting a pattern, analyze the design to determine whether it will flatter your body. Look at the line drawings; do not rely on the photograph or fashion illustrations. Also consider the fabric’s weight, bulk, texture, opaqueness, drapeability, crispness, surface design, and care requirements. Review the fabric suggestions on the pattern envelope. In addition to specific fabrics, these suggestions provide guidance for selecting other fabrics with a similar hand. This elegant veil is finished with a wide lace trim. This smart princess style is a good choice when sewing a difficult fabric. (Claire Shaeffer’s Custom Couture Collection for Vogue Patterns. Photo courtesy of The McCall Pattern Company.) If your fabric is not listed, compare its characteristics to those that are. If they are similar, continue on. If they are not, consider a different pattern or another fabric. When you want to be creative, combine the two. Innovative combinations can lead to fantastic garments. Unfortunately, they can also lead to disaster, but I prefer the “nothing ventured, nothing gained” route over safe and dull. Analyze the design features to determine whether you have the time and ability to sew them well in the fabric you have selected. Features such as set-in-sleeves are always more time-consuming than dropped-shoulder designs, and while they are relatively easy to sew in a soft woolen, they are much more difficult to set smoothly in wool gabardine because of its tight weave and hard surface. When sewing a fabric for the first time, select an easy design so you can concentrate on mastering the fabric. (Photo courtesy of Simplicity Pattern Co., Inc.) Z0933i_Shaeffer_p012-023.indd 19 8/1/08 10:23:03 AM
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