Tài liệu CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THI ĐH CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN VÀ CÁC DẠNG BÀI TẬP

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CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THI ĐH: CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN VÀ CÁC DẠNG BÀI TẬP Họ và tên : Lương Thị Hiền Chức vụ : Tổ phó chuyên môn Đơn vị công tác : Trường THPT Sông Lô Đối tượng học sinh : Lớp 12 Thời lượng dự kiến : 6 tiết I. MỤC ĐÍCH CHUYÊN ĐỀ - Câu điều kiện và các dạng câu đặc biệt có liên quan là một trong những chuyên đề cơ bản và rất quan trọng trong đề thi đại học. Chỉ cần nắm được cấu trúc của các loại câu điều kiện, các biến thể của chúng, cách sử dụng là học sinh có thể dễ dàng có được những điểm số vô cùng quan trong trong bài thi. Ngoài việc giúp các em hệ thống đầy đủ, ôn lại những kiến thức trọng tâm, chuyên đề câu điều kiện còn giúp các em phân biệt một các rõ ràng hơn, mở rộng kiến thức liên quan và làm bài tập một cách linh hoạt II. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN * Định nghĩa : Có 2 mệnh đề trong câu điều kiện: Mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề điều kiên( mệnh đề if) - Mệnh đề điều kiện (mệnh đề if) có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề chính. Khi nó đứng trước mệnh đề chính, dùng dấu phẩy để tách 2 mệnh đề. Khi nó theo sau mệnh đề chính không dùng dấu phẩy. Ex: If I have money, I will buy a new car. I will buy a new car if I have money. A. CÁC LOẠI CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN Type 1: FUTURE POSSIBLE (Diễn tả một khả năng có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai) A/ Dạng cơ bản: If + S + V(simple present), S + V(simple future) Ex: If I have time, I will go. B/ Những trường hợp khác: 1/ If + S + V(simple present) , Imperative (mệnh lệnh) Ex:If you go to the post office, please mail this letter for me. 2/ Imperative (mệnh lệnh) + or + S + V(simple future). Ex: Prepare the lesson carefully or you will get a bad mark. = If you don't prepare the lesson carefully, you will get a bad mark. 3/ If + S + V(simple present) , S + V(simple present) → diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên (If=When=Whenever) Ex: If you mix blue and yellow, you get green 4. If ....... not = Unless (trừ khi) Ex: If you don't hurry, you'll be late for school. => Unless you hurry, you'll be late for school. 5. As long as/ So long as/ Provided (that)/ Providing (that)/ On condition that + Clause ( Miễn là/ với điều kiện) Ex: As long as you drive carefully, you can use my car. = If you drive carefully, you can use my car. 6. Clause 1 (might/do +V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present) * để chỉ khả năng khách quan Ví dụ: It’s sunny. We may get a headache if we go out without a hat. - Clause 1 (may/can + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present) * để chỉ sự cho phép Ví dụ: You can go home if you finish your test. - Clause 1 (must/should + V) + if + Clause 2 (the simple present) * để chỉ yêu cầu, đề nghị. Ví dụ: You must do exercises if you want to get good marks. Type 2: PRESENT UNREAL (Diễn tả tình huống không có thật ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai) 85 A/ Dạng cơ bản: If + S + V(past subjunctive/ simple past), S + would/ could/ might + bare inf Eg: I don't win a lot of money, so I can't spend most of it travelling round the world. → If I won a lot of money, I could spend most of it travelling round the world. Eg: I am short; that's why I won't be a pilot. →If I were/ was taller, I would be a pilot. *past subjunctive:Quá khứ bàng thái cách/ Quá khứ giả định - To be: chia "Were" cho tất cả các ngôi - Không phải "To be : chia giống thì quá khứ đơnc) Trường hợp đặc biệt: B/ Những trường hợp khác: 1/ The variation of the If-clause: (Biến thể của mệnh đề If) If + S + V(past continuous), S + would/ could/ might + bare inf Eg: If you were driving from London to Glasgow, which way would you go? 2/ The variation of the main clause: (Biến thể của mệnh đề chính) If + S + V(past subjunctive/ simple past), S + would/ could/ might + be + V-ing Eg: I am not on holiday; I am not touring Italy. → If I were / was on holiday, I would be touring Italy . 3/ Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại 2: - Bỏ If - Đưa "Were" ra trước chủ ngữ Eg: If I were you , I would eat less. => Were I you, I would eat less. - Nếu trong câu không có động từ “were” thì mượn “were’ và dùng “ to Verb” If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.  Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book. III/ Type 3: PAST UNREAL (Diễn tả tình huống không có thật ở quá khứ) A/ Dạng cơ bản: If + S + had + PP , S + would/ could/ might + have + PP Eg: I didn't tell her any good news because I wasn't here early. →If I had been here earlier, I would have told her some good news. B/ Những trường hợp khác: 1/ The variation of the main clause: (Biến thể của mệnh đề chính) If + S + had + PP , S + would/ could/ might + have + been + V-ing Eg: Mr.Pike's son was there; that's why I wasn't sitting in front. →If Mr.Pike's son hadn't been there, I would have been sitting in front. 2/ The variation of the If-clause: (Biến thể của mệnh đề If) If + S + had + been + V-ing , S + would/ could/ might + have + PP Eg: I was wearing a seat belt, so I didn't have a bad accident. => If I hadn't been wearing a seat belt, I would have had a bad accident. 3/ Câu điều kiện pha trộn: Loại III + Loại II Eg: He isn't a rich man now because he didn't take my advice. →If he had taken my advice, he would be a rich man now. If I had caught that plane, I would be dead now (the fact that I did not catch that plane.) If I followed your advice, I would have a job now.(the fact that I didn’t follow your advice, so I don’t have a job now) 4/ Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại 3: - Bỏ If - Had + S (not) + P.P Eg:If I hadn't been careful, I would have had an accident last night. =>Had I not been careful, I would have had an accident last night. 5/ Clause 1 (could have + P2) + if + Clause 2 (had + P2) * chỉ sự chủ quan, sự cho phép. Ví dụ: I could have won a prize if I had taken part in the competition last week. 86 You could have gone to the cinema if you had finished your homework last night. - Clause 1 (might have + P2) + if + Clause (had + P2) * chỉ khả năng khách quan. Ví dụ: The last crop might have been better if it had rained much. B. DANG BÀI TẬP LIÊN QUAN VÀ PHƯƠNG PHÁP GIẢI 1)Dạng chia động từ: Cách làm : cần xác định từng cấp độ và loại câu điều kiện để chia động từ cho đúng. Ở cấp độ cơ bản thông thường người ta chia một vế cho mình rồi nên các em chỉ việc quan sát xem đó là loại mấy mà áp dụng công thức cho đúng. Ví dụ: If I meet him, I (give) him this book. Nhìn thấy câu đề cho bên if là thì hiện tại nên ta biết đó là loại 1 nên ta chia loại 1: If I meet him, I will give him this book. Cũng có trường hợp hơi khó hơn là người ta sẽ đóng ngoặc cả hai bên. Trong trường hợp này trước tiên các em xem sự việc có phải xảy ra ở quá khứ không, Nếu phải thì chia loại 3, nếu không có dấu hiệu nào của quá khứ thì các em phải dịch nghĩa : nếu thấy không có khả năng hoặc khó có khả năng xảy ra thì dùng loại 2, nếu có khả năng xảy ra thì dùng loại 1. Ví dụ: If he (go) there yesterday, he (meet) her. Thấy có dấu hiệu của quá khứ (yesterday) nên ta chia loại 3: If he had gone there yesterday, he would have met her. I (go) there if I (be) you. Không có dấu hiệu quá khứ nên ta dịch nghĩa: ...nếu tôi là bạn => chuyện không thể xảy ra nên dùng loại 2:I would go there if I were you. 2) Dạng viết lại câu dùng IF: Cách làm: Học sinh cần xác định rõ nghĩa của câu tình huống đã cho và thì của chúng để lựa chọn loại câu điều kiện phù hợp Dạng này người ta sẽ cho 2 câu riêng biệt hoặc nối với nhau bằng các chữ như : so = that’s why (vì thế), because ( bởi vì ) Đối với dạng này nếu các em thấy : Cả 2 câu đều chia thì tương lai thì dùng loại 1 (không phủ định) Một bên hiện tại, một bên tương lai / hiện tại thì dùng loại 2 (phủ định) Nếu có quá khứ trong đó thì dùng loại 3 (phủ định) ** Ghi chú: Phủ định là câu đề có not thì ta dùng không có not và ngược lại Nếu có because thì để if ngay vị trí because Nếu có so, that’s why thì để if ngược với vị trí của chúng. * So + clause => Main clause * That’s why + clause => Main clause * Because + clause => If- clause * Indicating clause of cause => If – clause * Clause of result => Main clause Example: They don’t have enough time so they cannot do me a favour. => If they had time, they could do me a favour. She has a sore throat. She doesn’t stop smoking. => If she stopped smoking, she wouldn’t have a sore throat Ví dụ:I will go there. I will buy you a dog.=> If I go there, I will buy you a dog. VD: I can’t go out because it is raining. => If it weren’t raining, I could go out. ( người ta can thì mình dùng, không đổi thành will ) 3) Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có if sang dùng unless Unless = except if (= trừ phi, trừ khi ) Cách làm: Học sinh cần xác định rõ Unless và except it được sử dụng để đưa ra giả thuyết vì thế động từ theo sau chúng được chia như trong mệnh đề if của câu điều kiện, trong đó có thêm lưu ý Unless = If …..not vì thế các em cần lưu ý không để bị sai nghĩa trong câu. ’ll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late. (= except if I have to work late) Tôi sẽ gặp bạn vào ngày mai trừ trường hợp tôi phải làm việc muộn. Don’t tell Sue what I said unless she asks you (= except if she asks you) 87 Đừng kể với Sue những gì tôi nói trừ phi cô ấy hỏi bạn. Ta thường dùng unless trong những lời có tính chất cảnh cáo: We’ll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry) Chúng ta sẽ trễ mất nếu chúng ta không khẩn trương. Unless you work much harder, you won’t pass the exam. Nếu bạn không học chăm chỉ hơn, bạn sẽ không thi đậu đâu. I was told I wouldn’t pass the exam unless I worked harder. Tôi đã được nhắc nhở rằng sẽ không thi đậu nếu không học chăm chỉ hơn. Thay vì dùng unless, ta có thể dùng if ...not: Don’t tell Sue what I said if she doesn’t ask you. Chớ nói với Sue những gì tôi đã kể nếu cô ấy không yêu cầu bạn. We’ll be late if we don’t hurry. Chúng ta sẽ bị trễ nếu chúng ta không khẩn trương. 4) Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có But for/ without ….+ điều kiện loại II/ III sang dùng If hoặc ngược lại Cách làm : Học sinh cần nắm rõ : But for/ without/if it weren’t for/ hadn’t been for…+NOUN.: nếu không có… rồi sau đó chuyển sang mệnh đề phụ. Cần lưu ý khi chuyển đa phần sử dụng If…….not để thay thế. Mệnh đề chính thì chia thì phù hợp theo từng loại câu điều kiện. Ví dụ: 88 If you did not help me, I wouldn’t pass my exam. - You help me everyday so I can finish my work.  without your help, I wouldn’t pass my exam.  But for your daily help, I couldn’t finish my  without your help, I wouldn’t pass my exam. work.  If it weren’t for your help, I wouldn’t pass my - She encouraged him and he succeeded. exam.  But for her encouragement, he wouldn’t have If there were no water, we could not live succeeded. If we did not have water, we could not live - The teacher explained and we understood.  without water, we could not live  But for the teacher’s explanation, we wouldn’t But for water, we could not live have understood 5) Dạng viết lại câu đổi từ câu có Or, otherwise sang dùng if : Dạng này thường có cấu trúc là câu mệnh lệnh + or, otherwise + S will … Cách làm như sau:If you don’t ( viết lại, bỏ or, otherwise ) Ví dụ: Hurry up, or you will be late. ( nhanh lên, nếu không bạn sẽ trễ) If you don’t hurry, you will be late. ( nếu bạn không nhanh lên, bạn sẽ trễ) Unless you hurry, you will be late Ms Phương helped me a lot, otherwise I would have failed If Ms Phuong had not helped me, I would have failed 6) Các dạng câu điều kiện ám chỉ: As long as, provided, providing .v.v.: những thành ngữ này có nghĩa 'nếu' hay As long as hay so long as 'trong trường hợp mà'. provided (that) hay providing (that) Cách làm : Học sinh cần xác định các từ nêu trên thường hiểu nghĩa tương đương với từ If vì thế động từ theo sau các cụm từ này cần chia trong mệnh đề phụ. You can use my car as long as you drive carefully. You can use my car so long as you drive carefully. (= You can use my car but you must drive carefully - this is a condition) Bạn có thể dùng xe của tôi nếu bạn đi cẩn thận. (bạn có thể dùng xe của tôi nhưng bạn hãy đi cẩn thận - đó là điều kiện) Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park Travelling by car is convenient providing (that) you have somewhere to park (= but only if you have somewhere to park) Đi du lịch bằng ô tô thật thuận tiện nếu bạn có chỗ để đậu xe. Providing (that) she studies hard - she’ll pass her exams. Provided (that) she studies, she’ll pass her exams. (=She must study hard - if she does this, she will pass) Với điều kiện là cô ấy học chăm chỉ, cô ấy sẽ thi đậu. (= cô ấy phải học chăm - nếu cô ấy học chăm, cô ấy sẽ thi đậu) In case khác với if. Ta dùng in case để nói tại sao một người làm hay không làm điều gì đó: ta làm một việc để đề phòng một việc khác xảy ra sau đó. Hãy so sánh: We’ll buy some more food in case Tom comes. (= Perhaps Tom will come; We'll buy some food now, whether he comes or not; then we'll already have the food if he comes.) Chúng tôi mua thêm đồ ăn để phòng khi Tom đến. (= Tom có thể đến; chúng tôi sẽ mua thêm đồ ăn, dù anh ta có đến hay không; vậy chúng tôi đã có thức ăn nếu anh ta đến.) We’ll buy some more food if Tom comes. (Perhaps Tom will come; if he comes, we'll buy some more food; if he doesn't come, we won't buy any more food.) Chúng tôi sẽ mua thêm đồ ăn nếu Tom đến. (=Có thể Tom đến, nếu anh ta đến, chúng tôi sẽ mua thêm đồ ăn; nếu anh ta không đến chúng tôi sẽ không mua thêm đồ ăn.) I’ll give you my phone number in case you need to contact me. Tôi sẽ cho anh số điện thoại của tôi phòng khi anh cần liên lạc với tôi. Bạn có thể dùng in case (+ thì quá khứ) để giải thích vì sao một người nào đó đã làm điều gì đó: We bought some more food in case Tom came. (= because it was possible that Tom would come) Chúng tôi đã mua thêm đồ ăn phòng khi Tom đến. (= bởi có thể Tom sẽ đến) I drew a map for Sarah in case she couldn’t find the house. Tôi sẽ cho Sarah sơ đồ phòng khi cô ấy không tìm được nhà. 89 We rang the bell again in case they hadn’t heard it the first time. Chúng tôi nhấn chuông một lần nữa phòng khi cô ấy không nghe thấy lần đầu. In case of... là khác với in case. In case of... = if there is... (nhất là ở các thông báo .v.v.): In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. (= if there is a fire) Trong trường hợp xảy ra hỏa hoạn, xin hãy rời khỏi tòa nhà càng nhanh càng tốt. 7) Dạng bài đảo ngữ : Cách làm : xác định loại câu điều kiện sau đó xác định mệnh đề If và mệnh đề chính. Xem xét cách đảo cho từng loại mệnh đề * Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại I - Nếu trong câu có “should” ở mệnh đề if, thì đảo “should” lên đầu câu Ví dụ : If he comes there, he will see me if he should come there, he will see me Should he come there, he will see me. If he should ring , I will tell him the news.  Should he ring, I will tell him the news. - Nếu trong câu không có “should”, chúng ta phải mượn “should” If he has free time, he’ll play tennis.  Should he have free time, he’ll play tennis. If she comes early, we’ll start.  Should she come early, we’ll start. * Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại II - Nếu trong câu có động từ “were”, thì đảo “were” lên đầu. If I were a bird, I would fly.  Were I a bird, I would fly. They would answer me if they were here. Were they here, they would answer me. - Nếu trong câu không có động từ “were” thì mượn “were’ và dùng “ to Verb” If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.  Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book. If they lived in Australia now, they would go swimming.  Were they to live in Australia now, they would go swimming. * Đảo ngữ của câu điều kiện loại III - Đảo trợ động từ của thì quá khứ hoàn thành. If it had rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home.  Had it rained yesterday, we would have stayed at home. If he had trained hard, he would have won the match.  Had he trained hard, he would have won the match. * Chú ý: ở dạng phủ định, “not” được đặt sau chủ ngữ: Had it not been so late, we would have called you. C. BÀI TẬP CỤ THỂ EXERCISE 1 : put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence type 1 1. David will leave for Ren tomorrow if the weather .......................... (be) fine. 2. What will you do if you ............................ (not / go) away for the weekend ? 3. The game .......................................... (start) if you put a coin in the slot. 4. If you ................................... (be) scared of spiders, don’t go into the garden. 5. We’ll have to go without John if he ( not arrive)…………….soon. 6. Please don’t disturb him if he ...................................... (be) busy. 7. If she ........... (accept) your card and roses, things will be very much hopeful. 8. If a holiday .................................... (fall) on a weekend, go to the beach. 9. If she (come)…………………………. late again, she’ll lose her job. 10. If he (wash)…………………………..my car, I’ll give him $20. Answer : 1. is 5. Does not arrive 2. Do not go 6. Is 3. Starts 7. accepts 4. Are 8. falls 90 9. comes 10. washes EXERCISE 2 : put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence type 2 1. If I knew his address, I (write)............. to him. 2. If the sun (be)................ shining now, we would go to the beach 3. If you (paint)…………….the walls white, the room would be much brighter. 4. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come)………………………. 5. I (buy)…………………..shares in that company if I had some money. 6. If you drove more carefully, you (not have)………….. so many accidents. 7. If I (be)……….. you , I (not worry)………...............about going to university. 8. If I (have)…………………any money, I would give you some. 9. Mary doesn’t study hard. She (not pass)……… the examination unless she worked harder. 10. The man would go abroad if he (can speak)…………… japanese. Answer 1. Would write 6. Would not have 2. Were 7. Were/ would not worry 3. Painted 8. Had 4. Would not come 9. Would not pass 5. Would buy 10. could speak EXERCISE 3 : put the verbs in correct forms using conditional sentence type 3 1. If Mary (wear)…………a raincoat, she would not have got a cold. 2. There (not have)….....…an accident if the driver in front hadn’t stopped so suddenly. 3. If she had eaten something, she (not feel)………………………. hungry. 4. If I (have)………………a sound sleep last night I would have been well. 5. If it (not rain)…………yesterday we would have had lunch in t he garden. 6. If it had not been very expensive I (buy)…………………………..it. 7. If the teacher (speak)…………more slowly Peter would have understood the lessons. 8. If I ........ (have) my camera with me yesterday, I ............... (take) a picture of Alex standing on his head. 9. The cowboy pulled his gun to shoot at the rattlesnake, but he was too late. If he ...............(be) quicker to pull the trigger, the snake .......... (not-bite) him on the foot. 10. If you ......................... (be) more careful, you wouldn't have cut yourself. Answer : 1. Had worn 6. would have bought 2. would not have had 7. had spoken 3. would not have felt 8. had had/ would have taken 4. had had 9. had been / would not have bitten 5. had not rained 10. had been EXERCISE 4 : Rewrite the following sentences using “Unless” 1. I won’t go to school if I don’t feel better. 2. Tony will talk to you if you question him. 3. If you don’t put on your overcoat, you’ll be cold. 4. You will fail the exam if you don’t work hard. 5. You’ll get a cold if you don’t keep your feet dry. 6. If I don’t leave now, I’ll miss my flight. 7. If you aren’t going to the party, I won’t go. 8. I can’t send you a postcard if you don’t give me your address. 9. If I won a big prize in a lottery, I’d build a school for the poor. 10. I’ll call the police if you don’t leave me alone. Answer : 1. I won’t go to school unless I feel better. 2. Tony won’t talk to you unless you question him. 3. Unless you put on your overcoat, you’ll be cold. 4. You will fail the exam unless you work hard. 91 5. You’ll get a cold unless you keep your feet dry. 6. unless I leave now, I’ll miss my flight. 7. unless you are going to the party, I won’t go. 8. I can’t send you a postcard unless you give me your address. 9. unless I won a big prize in a lottery, I would not build a school for the poor. 10. I’ll call the police unless you leave me alone. Exercise 5: Rewrite the following sentences using conditional sentences: type 2 1. They are poor, so they can’t help us. 2. He doesn’t do his homework. He is always punished. 3. He doesn’t have enough time. He can’t help me. 4. She doesn’t take any exercise, so she is overweight. 5. He doesn’t have a bicycle, so he always goes to class late. 6. I am bad at English, so I can’t do homework. 7. He doesn’t practise speaking French, so he doesn’t speak it fluently. 8. The meeting can be cancelled because it snows heavily. 9. We don’t go because it will rain. 10. John is fat because he eats so many chips. Answer : 1. They could help us if they are not poor. 2. If he did his homework, he would not be always punished. 3. If he had enough time, he could help me 4. If she took some exercises, she would not be overweight. 5. If he had a bicycle, he would always go to class late. 6. If I were good at English, I could do homework. 7. If he practised speaking French, he would speak it fluently. 8. If it did not snow heavily, the meeting could not be cancelled. 9. If did not rain, we could go. 10. If he would not eat so man chips, he would not be fat. Exericse 6: Rewrite the following sentences using conditional sentences: type 3 1. He didn't hurry, so he missed the train. 2. We didn't go because it rained. 3. We got lost because we didn't have a map. 4. He lost his job because he was late every day. 5. The dress was so expensive. She could not buy it. 6. Sue felt sick because she ate four cream cakes. 7. My brother left the car keys, so I had to pick him up at the station. 8. We didn't go on holiday because we didn't have enough money. 9. He didn't have the ticket to the game last week. He wasn't be able to get in. 10. Robert got a bad cough because he started smoking cigarettes. Answer : 1. If he had hurried, he would not have missed the train. 2. If it had not rained, we would have gone. 3. If we had had a map, we would not have got lost. 4. If he had not been late every day, he would not have lost his job. 5. If the dress had not been so expensive, she could buy it. 6. If she had not eaten four cream cakes, she would not have felt sick. 7. If my brother had not left the car keys, I would not have had to pick him up at the station. 8. If we had had enough money, we would have gone on holiday. 9. If he had had the ticket to the game last week, he would have been able to get in 10. If Robert had not started smoking cigarettes, he would not have got a bad cough. Exericse 7: Rewrite the following sentences using the suggestion. 1. I didn’t eat lunch, I feel hungry now. If I…………………………………. 2. If it hadn’t rained, we would have a better crop.But for……………………………………… 3. If you want my advice, I wouldn’t buy it. If I ……………………………………… 92 4. I only come if they invite me. Unless………………………. 5. He didn’t revise all his lessons, he failed the exam.  If he…………………………………… 6. His sister sent her money, so he continued to study. But for…………………………… 7. The park is over there, only 5 minutes’ walk. If you walk………………………………. 8. In case it rains, we’ll stay at home  If it…………………………….. Answer : 1. If I had eaten lunch, I wouldn’t feel hungry now. 2. But for rain, we would have a better crop. 3. If I were you, I wouldn’t buy it. 4. Unless they invite me, I won’t come. 5. If he had revised all his lessons, he wouldn’t have failed the exam. 6. But for his sister’s money, he wouldn’t have continued to study. 7. If you walk to the park, it will take you 5 minutes. 8. If it rains, we’ll stay at home. Exercise 8: Choose the best answer by circling A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences. 1. If I …………hungry now, I……………..five sandwiches, but I’m not. A. am – can eat B. were – can eat C. were – could eat D. were – will eat 2. What would you do if you ……………..a lottery. A. win B. will win C. won D. had won 3. If you………………….a millionaire, you might be happy. A. became B. will become C. become D. had became 4. If you had tried your best, you…………………………the job. A, will get B. got C. had got D. would have got 5. If he…………………..late, he would have caught his bus. A. worked B. has worked C. had not worked D. would work 9. It ............................... quicker if you use a computer. A. will be B. would be C. were D.been 10. If I knew his address, I ................................. round and see him. A. go B. will go C. would go D. went 11. If we want to get higher salary, we………………….harder. A. work B. would work C. worked D. must work 6. If Ken ……….. the train, he would have been late for his interview. A. missed B. has missed C. miss D. had missed 7. It ............................. be a pity if she married Fred. A. will B. would C. can D. may 8. I know I’ll feel better if I .................................. smoking. A. will stop B. stopped C.stop D. had stopped 9. If the driver in front … so suddenly, the accident wouldn’t have happened A. hasn’t stopped B. hadn’t stopped C. didn’t stop D. don’t stop 10. If I … a lot of money now, I … .....a new car. A. have/ will buy B. have/ would buy C. had/ will buy D. had/ would buy 11. If I … you were in hospital, I … to see you. A. know/ will go B. knew/ would go C. had known/ would have gone D. knew/ would have gone 12. You are late. If you …… a few minutes earlier, you …… him. A. came / would meet B. had come / would have met C. come / will meet D. had come / would meet 13. I’d have gone swimming yesterday afternoon if I …… time. A. had B. have had C. had had D. would have had 14. If he had told me the truth, I …… him. A. will not punish B. would not have punished C. would not punis D.would have not punished 15. If they had not given me advice, I …… again. A. would have failed B. would fail C. would have been failed D. wouldn’t fail 16. If I …… a scholarship to England, my parents would be very proud of me. 93 A. get B. got C. had got D. will get 17. If there …… no floods last year, the crop …… better. A. had been / would have been B. were / would be C. had / would have been D. was / would have been 18. . If he worked harder, he …….now A. will not be sacked B. will not have been sacked C. had not been sacked D. would not be sacked 19. If energy …… inexpensive an unlimited, many things in the world would be different. A. is B. will be C. were D. would be 20. We …… the game if we’d had a few more minutes. A. might have won B. won C. had won D. will win 21. Unless you …… all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you. A. answered B. answer C. would answer D.are answering 22. If I were you, I …...............… that job. A. would apply for B. will ask for C. will have changed D. can take 23. If I …… a wish, I’d wish for happiness for my family. A. have B. am having C. had D. was having 24. If we …… enough rain, we could have grown rice. A. had had B. had C. have had D. didn’t have 25. If he … us the truth in the first place, things wouldn’t have gone so wrong. A. has told B. had told C. would have told D. should have told 26. I’ll be able speak English well if I …… hard. A. studied B. study C. have studied D. has studied 27. ……................... if I take a map. A. I will get lost B. I will not get lost C. I would get lost D. I would not get lost 28. ......……, I’d have told you the answer. A. If you asked me B. Unless you asked me C. You had asked me D. Had you asked me 29. If you …… careful with electricity, you may get a shock. A. don’t B. won’t C. wouldn’t D. aren’t 30. If I ……the trick with my own eyes, I would never have believed it possible. A. don’t see B. didn’t see C. hadn’t seen D. haven’t seen Exercise 9. Choose the best answer 1. If I _______you, I ________him the secret. A. was/ would tell B. were/would tell C. had been/would tell D. had been/would have told 2. He _______tired now if he didn’t work hard yesterday. A. wouldn’t be B. won’t be C. won’t have been D. wouldn’t have been 3. If Mr. Tom had left Paris two hours ago, he _______in London an hour ago. A. would arrive B. may arrive C. may have arrived D. would have arrived 4. If Mary _______ to the movies last night, she may still be sleeping now. A. went B. had gone C. would go D. would have gone 5. Unless you start at once, you ________late. A. are B. will be C. would late D. won’t late 6. Supposing you saw a flying saucer, what ____________? A. would you do B. you would do C. will you do D. you will do 8. He _______now if he had not watched football late last night. A. is not sleeping B. does not sleep C. wouldnot be sleeping D. will not be sleeping 9. If they _________to Huong Pagoda by coach, they wouldn’t have got carsick. A. didn’t go B. had gone C. hadn’t gone haven’t gone 11. Assuming we had good weather now, we _________be there by dusk. A. will be B. won’t be C. would be D. wouldn’t be 12. If only he _______me some money, I could have bought that new hi-fi. A. gave B. has given C. hadn’t given D. had given 13. Should you want to get good marks, you ______harder. A. must learn B. mustn’t learn C. had to learn D. would learn 94 14. Had we only thought of it in time, we ________troubles. A. wouldn’t get B. would get C. would have got D. wouldn’t have got 15. Were we to find them at home, we ________them to go to the cinema with us. A. will invite B. would invite C. would have invited D. will have invited 16. If Jack and Alice get married next year, they ________their sweetmoon in Paris. A. would have B. have C. had D. will have 17. If our baby ________a girl, we will call her Marilyn. A. is B. was C. will be D. shall be 18. If her sister is at home now, she ________with her mother. A. is cooking B. will cook C. will be cooking D. will be cooked 20. Peter ________on the Great Wall if he had visited China last week. A. will be visiting B. would visit C. would be visiting D. would have visited D. BÀI TẬP TỰ GIẢI 1. If I had had some money, I would give you some. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 2. If he jogs regularly, his health wouldn’t be so bad as it is now. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 3. I won’t go to school tomorrow unless I don’t feel better. A B C D Giải thích : Unless = If not 4. I would make a very interesting film about mathematicians if I am a film director. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 5. We could have saved more time if we took the plane. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 6. If the class is full, we would find another one. A B C D Giải thích : type 1 – if + simple present + main + will + V 7. If I graduated from college, I wouldn’t have missed the opportunity last year A B C D Giải thích type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 8. If I were in your position, I would have changed the job. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 9. If she bought that house now, she ran out of money. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V (meaning ) 10. Were our train arrived punctually, we should have time to visit your sister. A B C D Giải thích : Nếu trong câu không có động từ “were” thì mượn “were’ và dùng “ to Verb” khi đảo ngữ. 11. If Jack had not been honest, he would have returned the money. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 (meaning ) 12. I’ll be at the cinema on time unless I’ll have to work overtime. A B C D Giải thích : type 1 – if + simple present + main + will + V 13. If you had been careless, you wouldn’t have had an accident. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 95 14. If I die, please to inform my wife. A B C D Giải thích : type 0 – if + simple present, +V+C 15. If it hadn’t rain yesterday, I would have come to see you. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 16. If we had known the news, we would have been told you. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 17. If we were serious about pollution, we spent more money on research. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 18. Tom would feel better if he takes the medicine. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 19. If I am 10 centimeters taller, I would play basketball. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 20. If I were you, I will go to the dentist’s and have the tooth checked. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 21. If the weather weren’t too bad, we would to go swimming. A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 22. What would you have do if you were in my position? A B C D Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V 23. If I had knew the time when the match started, I would have told you. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 24. If had I known you were in financial difficulty, I would have helped you. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 25. If she had listened to my direction, she will not turn down the wrong street. A B C D Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 26. Had she worked harder last summer, she ______. A. wouldn't have been sacked B. wouldn't have sacked C. wouldn't sack D. wouldn't be sacked Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 = had + S +P2 + main + would + have + P2 27. Unless someone has a key, we cannot get into the house. A. We could not get into the house if someone had a key. B. If someone does not have a key, we can only get into the house. C. We can only get into the house if someone has a key. D. If someone did not have a key, we could not get into the house. Giải thích : type 1 : Unless + if ………….not 28. I / not be / trouble / police / now if / take / your advice / first place. A. I wouldnt be in trouble with the police now if I had taken your advice in the first place. B. I wouldnt have been in trouble with the police now if I had taken your advice in the first place. C. I wont be in trouble with the police now if I take your advice in the first place. D. I shouldnt have been in trouble with the police now if I have taken your advice in the first place. Giải thích : type 3+2 : – if + had P2 + main + would + V 96 29. Without transportation, our modern society would not exist. A. Our modern society will not exist without having traffic. B. Our modern society does not exist if there is no transportation. C. If transportation no longer exists, our modern society will not either D. If there were no transportation, our modern society would not exist. Giải thích : type 2 But for/ without/if it weren’t for/ hadn’t been for…+NOUN.: nếu không có… 30. If you didn’t get rid of smoking, ______. A. your health wouldn’t affect C. you will affect your health B. your health will be affected D. your health would be affected Giải thích : type 2 – if + simple past + main + would + V Đáp án đúng là D. your health would be affected vì đây là câu điều kiện loại 2 (dựa vào cấu trúc ) 31. David broke his leg and couldn’t play in the final. A. If David didn’t break his leg, he could play in the final. B. If David hadn’t broken his leg, he could play in the final now C. But for his broken leg, David couldn’t have played in the final. D. David couldn’t play in the final due to his broken leg. Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 = had + S +P2 + main + would + have + P2 Tình huống ban đầu cho ở thì quá khứ vì thế cần sử dụng câu điều kiện loại 3 để viết lại nhưng đáp án D. David couldn’t play in the final due to his broken leg lại không phù hợp về nghĩa vì thế chỉ có thể chọn đáp án đúng là C. 32. But for two minor mistakes, I would have got full marks for the test. A. If I didn’t make these two minor mistakes, I would have got full mark for the test. B. I would have got full marks for the test if there hadn’t been these two minor mistakes. C. Had I made two minor mistakes, I would have got full marks for the test. D. If the mistakes hadn’t been minor, I could have got full marks for the test. Giải thích : type 2 But for/ without/if it weren’t for/ hadn’t been for…+NOUN.: nếu không có… 33. They were exposed to biased information, so they didn’t know the true story. A. If they got unbiased information, they could know the true story. D. If they have exposed to the unbiased information, they would have seen the true story. C. If they had been exposed to unbiased information, they would have known the true story. B. If they had unbiased the information, they could have known the true story. Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 = had + S +P2 + main + would + have + P2 Tình huống đưa ra ở trong quá khứ vì thế cần sử dụng câu điều kiện loại 3 để viết lại, đặt giả thiết. 34. You might fall if you’re not careful. 97 A. Unless you are careful, you might not fall B. If you are careless, you cannot be easy to fall C. Be careful or else you will have a fall. D. You are not careless and you could have fallen. Giải thích : type 3 – if + had P2 + main + would + have P2 = had + S +P2 + main + would + have + P2 Đáp án : Unless = If …..not .. vì thế đáp án đúng của câu là C. Be careful or else you will have a fall. 35. ______ , we would be rich by now. A. If we invest in the telecommunications industry B. Unless we had investment in the telecommunications industry C. Did we invest in the telecommunications industry D. Had we invested in the telecommunications industry Giải thích : type 3+2 : – if + had P2 + main + would + V III. KẾT QUẢ TRIỂN KHAI CHUYÊN ĐỀ Sau 8 tiết giảng dạy cho học sinh lớp 12 A2 tại trường THPT Sông Lô trong học kỳ 1 vừa qua tôi thấy rằng các em đã hiểu khá rõ và hệ thống lại một cách hoàn chỉnh về câu điều kiện. Mặc dù khả năng tiếng Anh của các em chưa thật tốt nhưng chuyên đề đã góp phần nào giúp các em tự tin hơn khi cầm đề thi đại học trong tay. Đa phần các em đã xử lý các bài tập của câu điều kiện khá tốt chỉ còn một số em là còn chưa thể linh hoạt với các dạng đặc biệt của câu điều kiện. Qua kiểm tra về câu điều kiện và các dạng bài tập liên quan cho kết quả : 100% các em đạt > 5 Trong đó có 28/45 học sinh chiếm 62% làm bài đạt từ 7 đến 8 5 em đạt điểm 9-10 chiếm 11,1%
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