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First published in Great Britain 2001 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd This second edition published 2012 by Bloomsbury Publishing Pic 50 Bedford Square London W C1B 3DP www.bloomsbury.com Copyright © Rawdon Wyatt, 2012 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publisher. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN: 978-1-4081-5393-2 This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, Derby Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Limited Introduction This w o rk b o o k has been w ritten for students w h o are planning to sit either the Academic or General Training modules of the IELTS examination. It covers some of the main vocabulary areas tha t you will need for, or come across in, the Listening, Reading, W ritin g and Speaking sections of the exam. W e hope that you find the exercises in this book useful, and that the vocabulary you acquire will help you to achieve the grade you w a n t in the IELTS. G o o d luck! Structure of the hook Each vocabulary area is presented in the form of a self-contained m odule w ith task-based activities w hich present each vocabulary item in context. • Pages 1 - 5 7 focus on genera! vocabulary items. Some of these are relevant to specific tasks or questions in the IELTS examination (for example, describing h o w something works, talking abo u t changes shown in a graph or table, saying w h e re things are and fo llow ing directions). • Pages 5 8 - 1 0 4 focus on topic-specific vocabulary areas w hich may be required in the examination (for example, education, architecture, family matters and science and technology). Each m odule consists of three tasks: the first t w o present vocabulary items in context, each w ith a practice or recognition exercise, and the third gives you the o p p o rtu n ity to review the vocabulary in a gap-fill exercise. • Pages 1 0 5 - 1 2 4 contain a comprehensive key so you can check y o u r answers. T h e answer key also gives additional information abo u t specific vocabulary items or general vocabulary areas, as well as other useful w ords or phrases. Using the workbook You should not w o rk through the book mechanically from beginning to end. It is better to choose areas that you are unfamiliar with, or areas that you feel are of specific interest or importance to yourself. Recording, reviewing and extending your vocabulary Rem em ber tha t you should keep a record of n e w words, phrases and expressions tha t you acquire, and review these on a regular basis so that they become part of yo u r active vocabulary. Also rem em ber tha t there are other ways of acquiring n e w vocabulary. For example, you should read as much as possible from a variety of authentic reading materials (books, newspapers, magazines, web-based articles, etc.). Using an English dictionary To help you develop y o u r vocabulary m ore effectively, you should use a go o d m onolingual English dictionary. This should clearly explain w h a t the w ords mean, sh o w you h o w they are pronounced, sh o w you their various forms w h e re relevant (e.g., w h a t the noun fo rm o f an adjective is), tell you which w ords or phrases the y collocate w ith, and give sample sentences to sh o w yo u h o w the w ords are used. W e particularly recom m end the M acm illan English D ictio n a ry fo r A d v a n c e d Learners (ISBN 978-1405026284). A free on-line version o f this can also be fo un d at www.m acm illandictionary.com . The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) T h e IELTS is administered by the University of Cam bridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), the British Council and IDP Education Australia. For further information, visit w w w .u d e s .o r g .u k . Note that this book is not endorsed by any of these organisations. about this workbook About this workbook contents iv Contents Page Title Page Title General vocabulary 47 Reason & result 1 Addition, equation and conclusion 48 Shape & features 2 Around the world 49 Size, quantity & dimension 3 Changes 1 51 Spelling 5 Changes 2 52 Stopping something 7 Condition 53 Success & failure 8 Confusing words & false friends 1 54 Task commands 10 Confusing words & false friends 2 55 Time 12 Context & meaning 1 56 Useful interview expressions 14 Context & meaning 2 16 Context & meaning 3 58 Architecture 18 Contrast and comparison 61 The arts 19 Emphasis & misunderstanding 64 Business & industry 20 Focusing attention 67 Children & the family 21 Generalisations & specifics 69 Crime & the law 23 Groups 71 Education 24 How something works 73 The environment 25 Joining or becoming part of something bigger 75 Food & diet 26 Likes & dislikes 78 Geography 27 Location & direction 80 Global problems 30 Modified words 82 Healthcare 32 Objects & actions 84 The media 34 Obligation & option 86 Men & women 35 Opinion, attitude & belief 89 Money & finance 37 Opposites: adjectives 91 On the road 38 Opposites: verbs 93 Science & technology 39 Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing 96 Sport 40 Phrasal verbs 1 98 Town & country 41 Phrasal verbs 2 100 Travel 43 Phrasal verbs 3 102 Work 44 Phrasal verbs 4 46 Presenting an argument 105 Answers Topic-specific vocabulary 1 Put the follow ing words and phrases into their correct place in the table depending on their function. along with also and as well as besides correspondingly equaHy furthermore in addition in brief in conclusion in the same way likewise moreover similarly thus therefore to conclude to summarise to sum up briefly too we can conclude that what's more Addition and Equation equally general vocabulary Addition, equation & conclusion Conclusion in conclusion 2 Complete these sentences w ith one of the w ords or phrases from above. In most cases, more than one answer is possible. 1. Tourism brings m uch-needed m o ney to developing countries............................................................... .. it provides e m plo ym e n t fo r the local population. 2 .................................................................. b rin ging m uch-needed m oney to developing countries, tourism provides e m plo ym e n t fo r the local population. 3. Tourists should respect the local e n viro n m e n t............................................................... the y should respect the local customs. 4 .................................................................. e nviro nm ent. industrial waste, pollution from car fum es is poisoning the 5. In o rde r to travel, yo u need a passport................................................................, you m ig h t need a visa, im m unisation jabs and w ritte n permission to visit certain areas. 6. Drugs are banned in Britain - .............................................................w eapons such as guns and knives. 7. A ll p o w e r corrupts............................................................... .. absolute p o w e r corrupts absolutely. 8. You sh o uld n 't smoke, drink, take drugs o r eat unhealthy f o o d .................................................................. you should live a m ore healthy lifestyle. 9. Th e o zo ne layer is becom ing depleted, the air in the cities is becom ing to o d irty to breathe and o u r seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in................................................................ pollution is slowly destroying the planet. 10. Yo u r grades have been very p o or fo r the past tw o years................................................................. you need to w o rk really hard if you w a n t to pass yo u r exams next m onth. 1 general vocabulary Around the world 1 Choose the correct w o rd or phrase in bold to com plete these sentences. 1. Japan, Korea and Taiw a n are all in the Near East / the M id dle East / the Far East. 2. Th e South Pole is situated in the 3. N e w Zealand is part of A ustria / Australia / Australasia. 4. Bangladesh is part of the Indian su bcontine n t / India / Indiana. 5. Guatem ala is a co un try in N o rth A m erica / South Am erica / Central Am erica. Arctic / A ntarctic / Antarctica. 6. A rg e n tin a , Brazil, C olom bia, Panama and Honduras all form part of w h a t is often referred to as Latin A m erica / South Am erica / Spanish Am erica. 7. Botswana is in South Africa / southern Africa / Central Africa. 8. England, Scotland, W ales and N orthern Ireland are kn o w n collectively as Britain / Great Britain / the U nited K ing d o m . 9. T h e United K ing d om and the Republic of Ireland are part of C o ntinental Europe / M ainland Europe / Europe. 10. K uw ait, O m a n and the United A ra b Emirates form part of w h a t are k n o w n as the W e st Indies / the G u lf States / the European U nion. 11. Denm ark, Finland, N o rw a y and Sw eden are kn o w n collectively as the Baltic Republics / the Caribbean / Scandinavia. 12. Bangkok, Lima and Tunis are examples of capital / capitol / capitalism cities. 2 W h a t are the nationalities of the people w h o com e from these countries? 1. A f g h a n i s t a n . .................. 2. A rg e n tin a ........................... 3. A u s tra lia .......................................... 4. B an gla d esh ..................................... 5. B e lg iu m ................................. 6. B ra zil................................................. 7. C a n a d a ........................................... 8. D e n m a rk .............................. 9. E g y p t.................................................. 10. E n g la n d .......................................... 11. F in la n d ................................ 12. G reece............................................. 13. In d ia ................................................ 14. Ira n ....................................... 15. Ira q................................................... 16. Ireland............................................ 17. Israel.................................... 18. Jap a n ............................................... 19. K u w a it............................................ 20. Le b a n on ............................. 21. M alaysia......................................... 22. M exico............................................. 23. M o ro cco ............................. 24. the N e th e rla n d s......................... 25. N o rw a y........................................... 26. P akistan............................. 27. P eru................................................. 28. the Philippines............................. 29. P olan d ................................. 30. P o rtu g a l......................................... 31. Russia.............................................. 32. Saudi A ra b ia ..................... 33. Scotla n d ......................................... 34. S p a in ............................................... 35. S w e d e n .............................. 36. S w itze rla n d ................................... 37. T h a ila n d ......................................... 38. T u r k e y ................................. 39. W ales ............................................. 40. Y e m e n ............................................. Is you r country on this list? If not, h o w do you say yo u r nationality in English? 2 1 Look at the gra ph , and com plete the sentences w ith the correct form of the w o rd s and phrases in the box. In m ost cases, m ore than one o ption is possible. decline decrease drop go up increase peak at remain steady rise fall fluctuate reach a peak of go down remain constant English school student numbers: May - August. □ Briarwood School of English Speakeasy School of Languages [= □ W indsor Language Centre Harefield College May June July general vocabulary Changes 1 August Between M ay and A ug ust... 1. ...student numbers at the Briarwood School of English increa sed / .................... / ....................... 2. ...student numbers at the W indsor Language C e n t r e ....................... / .................. / .................... / .................... / ...................... 3. ...student numbers at the Speakeasy School of L a n g u a g e s .................... / ............................................... 4. ...student numbers at Harefield C o l le g e .......................... T h e y .................. / .................... 120 in June. 2 Look at this table, and com plete the sentences on the next page w ith w o rd s and phrases from the box. In som e cases, m ore tha n one a n s w e r is possible. Th e re is one w o rd o r phrase th a t yo u do n o t need. Petrol prices January £1.10/ litre June £ 1 .5 5 /litre February £ 1 .1 2 /litre July £ 1 .5 2 /litre March £1.15/litre August £ 1 .5 3 /litre April £1.18/litre September £1.58 /litre M ay £1.16/litre October £1.60 /litre downward trend upward trend dramatically gradually sharply slightly steadily 3 general vocabulary Changes 1 1. Between January and April, petrol prices incre as ed ............. ...... / ...................... 2. In May, petrol prices fell — 3. In June, petrol prices rose .. ................. / ........................ 4. Overall, there has been an . ................... in petrol prices 3 Look at the task in the box, the n com plete the sam ple a nsw e r w ith w o rd s and phrases from Exercises 1 and 2. In som e cases, m ore than one a nsw e r m a y be possible. The graph b e lo w shows the n u m b e r o f visitors to three seaside tow ns over a five-m onth period. Summ arise the in fo rm a tio n b y selecting a n d re p o rtin g the m ain features, a n d m ake com parisons w here relevant. MB Seahaven W e stha m pto n Bridgeport 16 15 14 13 o o o X l/l 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 August May April Sample answer T h e graph shows h o w m a ny people visited three seaside to w ns betw een April and August. T h e n u m b e r of visitors to Seahaven (1) .increased ( 2 ) .................... ( 3 ) .................... ( 4 ) .................... betw een April and June, then in July, and continued to ( 5 ) .................... in August. For the first four months, visitor numbers to B ridgeport ( 6 ) .................... .. but then ( 7 ) .................... ( 8 ) .................... in the final m onth. W e stha m pto n visitor numbers ( 9 ) .................... from April to June, then ( 1 0 ) .................... ( 1 1 ) .................... in July and finally ( 1 2 ) .................... 11,000 in August. Overall, there was an ( 1 3 ) .................... in the n u m b e r of visitors to Seahaven and W e stham pton, but a ( 1 4 ) .................... in the n u m b e r of people visiting Bridgeport. 4 1 C o m p lete these sentences w ith the correct form of one of the verbs in th e box. Both sentences in each sentence pair should use the same ve rb . In som e cases, the m e an in g of the ve rb m ay change slightly. adjust swell aftef deteriorate switch vary exchange fade reduce renovate 1. M o vin g to the countryside radically altered our lifestyle. Some people choose to 3Iter their appearance w ith surgery. 2. B y .................... to a different provider, it can be possible to pay much less for yo u r mobile phone bills. I chose drama as an extra-curricular activity, b u t .................... to p h o to grap hy a f e w weeks later. 3. It can take time to different country. 4. Th e noise built up rapidly, and then just as quickly i t .................... into the distance. As the applause started talking. 5. Th e a m o u n t of tax you pay on a car .................... according to the a m o u n t of carbon dioxide it emits. People's reactions to the medicine .................... a lot, w ith some people complaining it has no effect at all. 6. Everyone should try t o .................... the a m o u n t of fat in their diet. M a n y companies were forced t o ....... their workforce during the recession. 7. Economic crises often unrest. 8. Ankles and other joints often w h e n people travel by air. 9. T h e tokens can be student canteen. to living in a into social general vocabulary Changes 2 Prices seem low, but w h e n y o u .................... them to allow for tax, they are considerably higher. ., the speaker Th e w e a t h e r ......................rapidly w h e n it started raining and the winds picked up. T h e t o w n is home to 3,000 people, but this f i g u r e .................... to 12,000 in the same summer. for food in the 10. Businesses in the city centre were offered fun din g so they c o u l d .................... their premises. Shops will n o r m a l l y .................... damaged goods if you have a receipt. In some cases it can be more expensive to .................... an old building than knock it d o w n and build a n e w one. 5 general vocabulary Changes 2 2 N o w do the same w ith these. adapt relax cut decline disappear replace transform improve promote T h e plan is t o .................... all the old desktop com puters in the library w ith netbooks. 1. Email has la rg e ly .................... the traditional letter as a means o f w ritte n business com m unication. 2. Som e com panies are slow to cha n gin g m arket. to a Courses can b e ..........................to suit th e needs o f individual students. 3. T h e sym ptom s o f illnesses like measles a re n't usually serious, a n d .................... w ith in a fe w days. As the s u n ....................... behind th e clouds, the tem p e ra ture quickly d ro p p e d . 4. A college course can help you to find a jo b o r g e t .................... at w o rk . Th e 'Peter Principle' is a th e o ry w h ich says th a t in a big com pany, everyone eventually g e t s .................... to a jo b th a t is beyond their ability. 5. Som e people th in k th a t the go ve rn m e n t s h o u ld ................... the rules regarding b uildin g on protected land. For the final part of the exercise, yo u need to repeatedly tig h te n , t h e n .................... yo u r stomach muscles. 6. T h e go vern m en t's aim in the next five years is t o .................... educational standards. T h e best w a y o f .................... y o u r English is to practise using it as m uch as possible. 7. W a te r freezes in th e pipes, forcing th e m to .................... and burst. Britain's u n iversitie s.......... ..........at an unprecedented rate at the end o f th e tw e n tie th century. 8. S u p e rm a rk e ts .................... prices on m any basic items to attract m ore customers. I believe th a t govern m en ts should increase spending on the arts instead o f .................... it. 9. Email and social n e tw o rk in g websites have .................... the w a y people com m unicate. W h e n it was closed d o w n , the old fire station w a s .................... into an art gallery. 10. House prices are so high th a t the n u m b e r o f people b uyin g th e ir o w n hom e has .................... in th e last five years. 6 expand Because so m any people are o u t o f w o rk , living standards a r e .................... rapidly. 1 Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it has the same or a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the words or phrases in bold, and any other w ords that are necessary. 1. You can b o rro w m y dictionary if yo u return it before you g o hom e, providing that You can b o rro w m y dictionary P JQ v jd jn g th a tyo u .return \\ before you go hom e. 2. I should get m y assignm ent finished this w eekend if I have e no u gh tim e, provided that general vocabulary Condition I should get m y assignm ent finished this w e e k e n d .......................................e nou gh tim e. 3. You can't go to university if you d o n 't get go o d exam grades at school, unless You can't g o to u n iv e rs ity .......................................go od exam grades at school. 4. Students can use the com m o n room in the evening if the y tid y up any mess th e y make, on condition that Students can use the com m on room in the e v e n in g .......................................... up any mess they make. 5. Pollution will get worse if w e continue to live in a th ro w a w a y society, as long as Pollution w ill get w o r s e .......................................to live in a th ro w a w a y society. 6. Children w ill always prefer fast food to fresh fru it and vegetables, even if you tell them h o w unhealthy it is. no matter h o w Children will always prefer fast food to fresh fru it and v e g e ta b le s ,.......................................tell them it is unhealthy. 7. C o m p uter p rog ra m m in g is complicated, even if you read a lot of books abou t it. how ever many Com p uter p ro g ra m m in g is c o m p lic a te d ,.................................................................................... read abou t it. 8. Crim e is a problem , even if you live in a small to w n or in the countryside, wherever Crim e is a p ro b le m ,.......................................live. 2 Complete these sentences using an appropriate w ord or phrase from above and your ow n ideas. 1. British universities w ill accept students from a b r o a d ........................................................................................ 2. W o rk in g fo r a large com pany can be a fulfilling experience 3. T h e environm ental situation will continue to worsen 4. Travelling helps you understand m ore abou t the w o rld around you 7 general vocabulary Confusing words & false friends 1 Confusing words are tw o or more w ords which: (a) have a similar meaning to each other but which are used in a different w a y (b ) are related to the same topic, but have a different meaning (c) look similar, but have a different meaning. False friends are w ords in English which have a similar-looking w o rd in another language, but w hich have a different meaning. Complete the follow ing sentence pairs w ith the appropriate w ord. 1. aboard / abroad M o re and m ore people g o abroad fo r th e ir holiday. In 2002, she becam e th e first w o m a n to travel aboard the space shuttle Discovery. 2. action / activity W e decided to take im m e d ia te .................... w h e n w e realised there was a problem . T h e e nviro nm e n ta l changes in the area are th e result o f h u m a n ....................... 3. advice / advise Can y o u ...................m e on the best course of action to take? He offered me some e x c e lle n t....................... 4. affect / effect D iverting the course of the river w ill have a m a jo r ...................on the local ecosystem. Frequent traffic jams in th e suburbs se rio u s ly.................... jo u rn e y times into the city. 5. appreciable / appreciative W id e n in g the road m ade a n ...................difference to th e flo w of traffic. T h e applause at the end o f the concert was w a rm a n d ..................... 6. avoid / prevent Rapid international action m anaged t o .................... an enviro nm e n ta l disaster fro m tak in g place. Th e re are areas in th e city th a t are wise t o .................... after dark. 7. beside / besides T h e com pany's m ain office i s .................... th e railw ay station. .................... th e ir regular daytim e jo b , m any people d o extra w o rk in the evening. 8. briefly /shortly .................... before th e earthquake began, m a ny animals w e re seen to be behaving in an unusual manner. She s p o k e .................... b u t passionately a b o u t th e need to help those in d eve lop in g countries. 8 9. canal / channel A .................... system join ed the tw o m ain rivers, w hich m ade transporting goods m uch quicker. W h e n television first became p o pular in the early 1950s, there was only o n e ....................... 10. conscientious / conscious Most people a r e .................o f the need to protect the e nvironm ent. .................... w orkers should be rew arded fo r their hard w o rk . 11. considerable / considerate In m y o pinio n, some people are not v e r y .................... of those around them . A ............................................a m o u n t of m o n ey was spent on developing the product. 12. continual / continuous T h e co m p uter system has given u s .................... problem s ever since w e installed it. Some days it works, o ther days it doesn't. T h e ........................noise fro m the n e w m o to rw a y has forced m any people to move. 13. control / inspect N e w teachers often find it difficult t o .................... the ir classes. Environm ental health inspectors regularly .................... especially those in restaurants. comm ercial kitchens fo r cleanliness, 14. criticism / objection I have n o .................... to people using their m obile phones on buses o r trains. Plans fo r the n e w stadium have attracted fie rc e .................... from local people. 15. damage / harm / injury He suffered a se rio u s .................... w hich needed im m ediate hospital treatm ent. T h e lo w levels of dangerous chemicals in the river w ere enough to ca u se .................... to aquatic life. A lot o f .................... was caused to buildings along the coast d urin g the storm. 16. during / for / while T h e college closes.................... t w o weeks at the end of December. He d i e d .................... tryin g to cross the desert alone. M a n y creatures stay u n d e r g ro u n d .................. d ayligh t hours. 17. how ever / moreover Th e plan was g o o d in t h e o ry ..................... . in practice it was extrem ely difficult to im plem ent. T h e plan was excellent....................... it was clear fro m the begin n in g th a t it was goin g to attract a lot o f interest. 18. injured / w ounded I believe th a t w e should do m ore to help and support soldiers w h o have been .................... in com bat. Several w orkers w e r e .................... w h e n the drilling platform collapsed. general vocabulary Confusing words & false friends 1 general vocabulary Confusing words & false friends 2 C o m p lete th e fo llo w in g sentence pairs w ith th e a pp ro p ria te w o rd o r phrase. 1. jo b / w o rk Everybody has the rig h t to a d e c e n t .................... w ith g o o d pay. D u rin g the econom ic recession, a lot of people fo u n d themselves o u t o f ....................... 2. lay / lie If y o u 're suffering fro m d e h yd ra tio n , yo u should d rin k p lenty of w a te r and sit o r .................... d o w n fo r a w hile. Before yo u begin the experim ent, you s h o u ld .................... a large plastic sheet on the g ro u n d . 3. look at / w a tch W e need to .................... th e situation carefully over the next fe w w eeks and see h o w things develop. W e need t o .................... the problem carefully and decide if there is a n yth in g w e can d o a b o u t it. 4. loose / lose Som e people are ve ry com petitive and hate t o .................................a gam e or com petitio n. T h e surface is m ainly com posed o f .................... soil and small stones. 5. m ake / cause T h e noise fro m traffic outside th e school c a n .................... it hard to hear w h a t the teacher is saying. H u rric a n e s .................... w idespread d am a ge in urban areas. 6. nature / countryside Thousands o f .................... lovers head fo r th e national parks every w ee ke nd . I'd rather live in t h e .................... tha n in a city. 7. per cent / percentage It is a m yth th a t o n ly t e n ....................... of Am ericans hold a passport. O n ly a s m a ll............................... o f land is privately o w n e d . 8. perm ission / p erm it I'm afraid w e c a n 't .................... p h o to g ra p h y in th e m useum . . W e re c e iv e d t o attend th e m eeting, as long as w e d id n 't interrupt. 9. personal / personnel M y o w n .................... v ie w is th a t professional football players are paid far to o m uch. T h e co m p an y w as in tro u b le until there was a change o f .................... on th e m a n a g e m e n t team . 10. possibility / chance W e m ig h t go to Spain fo r o u r field trip . A n o t h e r .................... is th a t w e 'll g o to Italy instead. If w e act now , w e have a g o o d .................... of fin d in g a cure fo r the disease. 10 11. practice / practise It's im p o rta n t t o .................... yo u r English w h e n e ve r possible. I th in k I need m o r e .................... before I take the exam. 12. priceless / w orthless .................. paintings by artists like Van G o g h and R em brandt should not be in the hands of private collectors. general vocabulary Confusing words & false friends 2 As inflation spiralled o u t of control, paper m oney suddenly became a lm o s t....................... 13. principal / principle M a n y people refuse to eat m eat o n ..................... She was appointed U n iv e rs ity .................... in 2009. T h e c o u n try 's .................... fo o d products are coffee and sugar. I believe in t h e .................... th a t healthcare should be free fo r everyone. 14. problem / trou b le A t night, the streets are full of people fig h tin g and generally causing ....................... I was w o n d e rin g if you could help me w ith a litt le .................... I'm having. 15. process / procession T h e h igh lig h t of the carnival is a h u g e .................... along the to w n's main street. In some cases, applying fo r a visa can be a long and fru s tra tin g ....................... 16. raise / rise As p ric e s .................... . dem and usually drops. In response to th e oil crisis, most airlines had t o .................... th e ir fares. 17. rem em ber / rem ind I c a n ........m y first day at school really w ell. Language teachers o f t e n ..................... th e ir students th a t th e best w a y to rem em ber n e w w ords is to use the m as m uch as possible. 18. respectable / respectful W e all listened i n .................... silence as she outlined her plans fo r the museum's future. Everybody w ants to bring th e ir children up in a .................... n e igh b o u rh o o d . 19. tolerable / to lerant People need to be m o r e .................... of th e ir neighbours, and not com plain every tim e th e y make to o m uch noise. Th e local authorities say th a t the noise fro m passing trains i s .................... . b ut m any living near the railw ay lines disagree. 20. treat / cure M a n y hospitals are so understaffed th a t the y are refusing t o ................patients w ith m inor injuries. Th e n e w d ru g was unable t o .................... the disease, and hundreds died as a result. 11 general vocabulary Context & meaning 1 W h e n w e see a n e w w o rd (in a reading passage, fo r exam ple), w e can often w o rk o u t w h a t it means, o r ge t an idea o f w h a t it means, by looking at the context in w hich it appears (fo r exam ple, w h a t is th e passage a bo ut, w h a t is the sentence a bo u t and w h a t info rm a tio n comes before and after the w o rd ? ). Identifying th e m ean in g o f a w o rd fro m its context is an especially useful skill in th e IELTS Reading Test. 1 Look at these words, and answer the questions which follow. nocturnal 1. 2. cites coherently feat W ith o u t seeing them in a sentence, do you k n o w (or can you guess) w h a t the w ords in the box mean? nocturnal: Yes/N o cites: Yes/N o coherently: Yes / No feat: Yes / No N o w look at th e w o rd s in the passage. Can yo u guess w h a t they m ean n o w ? In y o u r o w n w ords, explain w h a t th e y m ig h t mean. T h e rem arkable success o f Sim on W e be r's b o o k on ow ls, bats, foxes and o th e r nocturnal creatures, A Call in the Dark, is p ro b a b ly n o t surprising in vie w of th e p o p u la rity o f his recent television series, 'N ig h t Prow lers'. It is a ve ry th o ro u g h b o o k by an a u th o r w h o is an e xpert in his field a nd w h o has clearly d o n e a lot o f research. In a d d itio n to describing his o w n findings, he cites th e research carried o u t by others, inclu d in g W r ig h t and Lawson in the 1990s, and discusses w h e re th e y m ig h t have g o n e w ro n g w ith som e of th e ir assum ptions. He w rites coherently on th e subject, b e g in n in g by lo o kin g at basic facts before discussing progressively com plex theories, w ith o u t once confusing his readers. This is a rem arkable feat, considering th e com p lexity o f the subject and th e science th a t is o ften involved. nocturnal: cites: coherently: feat: 2 Look at the w ords in bold in sentences 1 - 1 5 , and try to decide w h a t they mean. 1. T h e jo u rn e y across the hills was long and arduous, m uch o f it having to be d o ne on fo o t in tem peratures o f over 40°C. 2. Foxes are a co m m o n sight in o u r to w n s and cities, w h e re th e y forage in dustbins, in gardens and on waste g ro u n d . 3. T h e cuckoo is a rare and elusive bird w hich is often heard b u t rarely seen. 4. T h e research th e y carried o ut was exhaustive, so by the tim e th e project was com plete, th e y knew e verything th e y had to k n o w a b o u t th e ir subject. 5. T h e hotel w e stayed in was a mediocre place, w ith small rooms, rather dull fo od and an uninspiring v ie w o f a car park. 6. Research suggests th a t children are m ore resilient than adults w h e n it comes to ge ttin g over an illness. 7. T h e room was extrem ely untidy, w ith stacks of books and piles of paper all over th e floor, and unw ashed coffee cups on the tables. 8. He was an extrem ely prolific author, w ritin g three or fo u r novels a year as w ell as m any short stories. 9. W a te r is essential fo r hum an life, so it is im perative w e make sure th a t in the future there is e no u gh fo r everyone. general vocabulary Context & meaning 1 10. A tte m p ts to im ple m en t change m et w ith strong resistance at first, b ut gradually people realised th a t this change was needed. 11. M a n y m en say th a t the y are w illin g to share the b urden o f domestic duties like w ashing and cooking, b u t I d o u b t th a t th e y m ean it. 12. Th e building is designed to s w a y slightly in strong w inds, b ut it's still a rather frig h te n in g sensation w h e n you are on th e uppe r floors. 13. M a n y people w o u ld like to o w n a house in the city centre, b u t pro h ib itive pro p erty prices m ean th a t very fe w o f the m w o u ld ever be able to buy such a place. 14. Th e city centre has some beautiful old buildings, b u t there are some extrem ely ugly industrial estates on the fringe. 15. Employees are encouraged to use the ir initiative w h e n th e y are faced w ith a problem and there is n o b o d y m ore senior there to help them . 3 N o w match the w ords in bold in sentences 1 - 1 5 above w ith their definitions (a) - (o) below. (a) A serious or difficult responsibility th a t yo u have to deal w ith , burden (b ) Producing a lot of things, ideas, etc.............................. (c) T h e ability to decide w h a t to do in an independent (d ) A b le to quickly becom e healthy, happy or strong a g a in ............................... (e) M o ve o r sw ing slightly fro m side to side.......................................... (f) Difficult or impossible to catch o r fin d .............................................. (g ) M ake som ething such as in idea, plan, system, etc., start to w o rk ................................ (h) w a y ................. Extremely difficult and involving a lot of effort.............................. (i) Th e oute r edge of som e thing............................... (j) So expensive th a t n o bo d y can afford it............................................ (k) T h o ro u g h and co m p lete ............................... (I) To search in a w id e area fo r som ething, especially f o o d ............................... (m ) Piles of things placed one on to p of another. ........................... (n ) Extrem ely im po rtan t and u rg e n t................................ (o ) A vera ge o r b e lo w average............................... 13 general vocabulary Context & meaning 2 1 Read these sentences carefully, and decide if the definitions in italics of the w ords in bold are correct or incorrect. If they are incorrect, try to give a correct definition. Th e first one has been done as an example. 1. I'm w o rrie d th a t a lack o f suitable qualifications w ill hinder m y search fo r a job . H elp som eone o r som eth ing, o r m ake so m e th in g easier. Correct / Incorrect H in d e r kvtefliA-s to stop som-eo^e or so^vtethli/vg fro m w -atel^g progress or developing. 2. Research was g oing well, but there was a risk that cuts in funding w o u ld jeopardise the entire project. Risk d a m a g in g o r de stro ying so m e th in g im p o rta n t. 3. W h e n yo u address a m eeting, it is im p o rta n t to speak clearly, confidently and at a g o o d pace. W rite a le tte r to som eone. 4. Correct / Incorrect T h e villas w e re basically flimsy w o o d e n huts th a t shook every tim e there w as a bit of w in d . S tro n g a n d w e ll b u ilt o r m ade. 5. Correct / Incorrect Correct / Incorrect A lth o u g h several species of turtle can be fo u n d in relatively cool seas, w a rm w a te r provides the optimal conditions fo r breeding. The best o r m o st suitable w ith in a ra n g e o f possibilities. 6. It can be very difficult fo r im m igrants to integrate into local society, especially if the re are m arked cultural differences. M e e t p e o p le o r m ake useful contacts. 7. Correct / Incorrect He was a talented yo u n g film director w hose unique and innovative style inspired generations of film students. D ifficult to understand. 9. Correct / Incorrect From the outset o f the expedition th e y k n e w th e y w e re g o in g to have problem s, so it was no surprise w h e n o nly t w o days later things started to go very w ro n g . The e n d o f som eth ing. 8. Correct / Incorrect Correct / Incorrect T h e b uildin g is 200 metres tall and tapers g e n tly to a point, giving it the appearance o f a thin, glass pyram id. G ra d u a lly becom es w id e r tow a rds o ne end. Correct / Incorrect 10. Th e re are one or tw o similarities b etw een m y coun try and the UK, b u t on the w h o le th e y are so disparate th a t it is difficult to find a ny com m o n g ro u n d . H a vin g m a n y differences. Correct / Incorrect 11. M ost m o d ern fu rn itu re is functional b u t n o t especially aesthetic, especially w h e n com pared w ith some o f the beautiful and elegant designs of the past. Cheap b u t com fortable. Correct / Incorrect 12. Shops k n o w th a t the y can attract m ore customers if th e y have a large array of colourful products on display by o r near the m ain entrance. A large g ro u p o f p e o p le o r things. 14 Correct / Incorrect 2 N o w do th e same w ith these. 1. Th e track has a coarse surface, providing better grip fo r bicycle tyres and m aking the m less likely to skid on tig h t corners. S o ft a n d sm ooth. 2. Correct / Incorrect Th e idea o f a tunnel und er th e sea was first propagated by engineers in the nineteenth century, b ut it was almost 200 years before it became a reality. De signed a n d b u ilt 3. Everyone was in favo u r o f m aking the city centre traffic free, b ut public opinion shifted w h e n locals realised th a t vehicles w o u ld need to be diverted th ro u g h residential areas. C h a n g e d o r m oved. 4. Correct / Incorrect People like the n e w system, b u t because of the costs involved w e d o not believe it is viable, and w e need to look fo r o th e r options. P o p u la r w ith people. 5. Correct / Incorrect Correct / Incorrect Som e of Shakespeare's plays are often attrib u te d to o th e r writers, a lth o ugh m ore recent research suggests th a t the y w e re all his o w n w o rk . G iven to som eone else as a gift, d ona tion, etc. 6. Correct / Incorrect A lth o u g h the inventor had a patent fo r his n e w product, o ther companies and selling it, and he was forced to take legal action against them . A n a w a rd o r prize. 7. Spiders usually trap th e ir prey in webs, b u t others actively h u n t fo r it. Correct / Incorrect Som e illnesses are serious e no u gh to require medical trea tm en t, b ut fo r m in o r health problem s, a visit to the doctor is usually n o t w a rra n te d . To be unable to do som ething. 9. rapidly began copying Correct / Incorrect A n an im a l th a t is ca u g h t a n d eaten b y a n o th e r anim al. 8. general vocabulary Context & meaning 2 Correct / Incorrect W e need to com e up w ith a radical solution to the problem of crime in o u r to w n s and cities, since everything else seems to have failed. N e w a n d very d iffe re nt from the usual way. Correct / Incorrect 10. D u rin g the m eeting, w e m ade progress on peripheral issues, b u t un fo rtu na tely w e failed to deal w ith the issues th a t had been causing us the most problems. The m ain o r m ost im p o rta n t p a rt o f som ething. Correct / Incorrect 11. 1 hate flying, and n o th in g could induce m e to get on an aeroplane. Stop o r p re v e n t som ething. Correct / Incorrect 12. Th e re w e re several small problem s w ith th e original device, and it needed to be refined slightly before it could go on sale. Turned o ff a n d then on again. Correct / Incorrect 15 general vocabulary Context & meaning 3 Sometimes, in a dditio n to its context, w e can w o rk o u t w h a t a w o rd means fro m 'clues' in the w o rd itself. These clues are usually in th e fo rm o f one or tw o w o rd s (o r parts o f w ord s) th a t w e already know , often w ith the a ddition of prefixes and / or suffixes. For exam ple: Healthcare = health + care The to w n lacks basic healthcare facilities, so p e o p le have to travel m a n y miles to see a doctor. Deforestation = de + forest + ation. D e forestation has resulted in the destruction o f thousands o f acres o f tropical forest. Facial = face + ial (th e e is rem oved) The co m p a n y started o f f p ro d u c in g a range o f facial cleansers a n d moisturisers w hich h a d n o t been tested o n animals. 1 Can you w o rk out w h a t the w ords in bold in these sentences mean? Check yo u r answers at the back of the book. 1. T h e co un try is ve ry poor, and one in seven children dies in infancy. 2. A ll the em ployees are asked to produce a w ritte n evaluation of th e ir perform ance and hand it to the personnel m anager. 3. T h e n e w d ru g does n o t cure th e illness, b u t can prolong the patient's life by up to five years. 4. T h e farm was on to p o f a w ind sw ept hill, miles fro m the nearest to w n . 5. Oil prices increased threefold over a five -ye a r period. 6. T h e historical d o cu m e n t has been exam ined by several distinguished scholars, b u t none of the m can tell if it is g e n uine o r fake. 7. W h e n yo u deliver the package, m ake sure th a t th e recipient signs fo r it. 8. T h e centrepiece o f the n e w m useum is a H enry M o o re sculpture th a t was b o u g h t fro m a private collector. 9. T h e city offers a m ultitude o f interesting and exciting activities fo r people of all ages. 10. G o v e rn m e n t statistics on the numeracy skills of ten-year-olds suggests th a t m ore emphasis needs to be placed on th e teaching of m athem atics in school. 11. T h e average lifespan o f an elep ha nt is 60 - 70 years. 12. Several interesting objects w e re fo u n d d u rin g the archaeological dig, b u t none o f th e m w ere of any great m onetary value. 16
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