Tài liệu CAE Gold plus teachers book

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PLUS Teacher's Book ,), .... ).) PEARSON Longman Norman Whitby Introduction Student profile The students with whom you will be using this course will have studied English for approximately 700 to 800 hours and will now be planning to take the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English (CAE). They may already have taken Cambridge First Certificate (FCE) or one or more Certificates In English language Skills (CElS) at Vantage or Higher level. The CAE corresponds to the Council of Europe Framework level C 1. According to this framework, learners of English at this level can function as follows in the language and skills areas described below. Grammar Students at this level have a good degree of grammatical control and do not generally make mistakes which lead to misunderstanding. Errors may still be made in more complex structures. They will need to revise areas such as these. At the same time, they will also need to develop their knowledge of certain more advanced grammatical structures. Vocabulary Students have good range of vocabulary for common topic areas and are able to use a good variety of expressions to avoid repetition. There may be gaps in their vocabulary when dealing with more specialised topics. They will need to develop their awareness of nuances of meaning and concentrate on making their English sound more authentic and natural by focusing on common collocations and expressions. They should work on expanding their knowledge of word formation, phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions and should be encouraged to make use of a good monolingual dictionary In order to develop their vocabulary. Reading Students at this level have well developed reading skills and can scan for relevant information and skim for the main topic of a text They can grasp the overall meaning of complex authentic and semi-authentic materials and understand complex opinions or arguments as expressed in serious newspapers, using features such as text structure and referencing to help them. register. They are aware of the conventions for organising and structuring different types of texts such as articles, proposals and reports. They can present arguments, persuade and justify their opinions on abstract topics. In general, they are able to communicate their main message clearly in appropriate language so that the text has the desired effect on the intended reader. Speaking Students at this level can communicate effectively in a wide variety of situations and can use both formal and informal language appropriately. They can have extended conversations of a casual nature and discuss abstract topics with a good degree of fluency They can give clear presentations and contribute effectively to discussions by defending and justifying their point of view, and use effective language to persuade and negotiate with others. Listening C 1 students can deal confidently with most authentic or semi-authentic listening passages. They are able to pick up nuances of meaning and opinion and follow discussions on abstract topics. They can understand most of what is said in a film or a TV or radio programme, although they may be unfamiliar with some idiomatic or colloquial expressions and may have problems understanding some regional accents. Preparing for the Certificate in Advanced English exam A CAE course should consolidate and extend what students already know and train them in the specific techniques and strategies required for the CAE exam. During the course, students should try to work independently at times, using and developing their study skills and strategies for improving their language ability. They should be aware of issues such as collocation and register in order to record vocabulary effectively and be able to use grammar reference material in order to cover any gaps in their grammatical knowledge and build on what is done in the Coursebook. Features of the CAE Gold Plus course Writing Components of the course C l-Ievel students can produce a variety of texts such as formal and informal letters of various types in' a consistent The components of the course include the CAE Gold Plus Coursebook, plus cassettes or CDs, the CAE Gold Plus 3 Introduction The Common European Framework and the Gold series The table below gives a general overview of the Common European Framework levei's and the Cambridge ESOL main suite and where the Going for Gold and Gold series fit into this. Common European Framework Guided learning hours from beginner Cambridge ESOL main suite exams A2 Approx. 180-200 KET (Key English Test) B1 Approx. 350-400 B2 Approx. 500-600 Cambridge ESOL Certificates in Language Skills (CELS) Gold series PET (Preliminary English Test) CE lS Preliminary Going for Gold FCE (First Certificate in English) CElS Vantage Going for Gold First certificate Gold Plus C1 Approx. 700-800 CAE (Certificate in Advanced English) C2 Approx. 1,000-2,000 CPE (Ceitificate of Proficiency in Engli sh) Exam maximiser with CDs, the CAE Gold Plus CD-ROM and this teacher's book. Supplementary materials A selection of supplementary materials is also available for extra practice and development of vocabulary, grammar, fluency and exam skills, including: • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English • Longman Exams Dictionary • Longman Language Activator • CAE Practice Tests Plus • Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency • Test your Phrasal Verbs (Penguin English) • Test your Idioms (Penguin English) CAE Gold Plus Coursebook Organisation of the Coursebook The Coursebook offers progressive preparation for the CAE exam, as wel l as developing and extending students' competence in the language. Exam-style tasks are introduced from the early stages of the book with graded su pport being gradually withdrawn as the course progresses. Each of the 14 units provides an integ rated package for all five papers in the CAE exam, as well as grammar and vocabu lary development and practice, which are grouped around a common theme. Advice on specific language points or strategies for tackling exam-style tasks is offered in the Tips boxes . A key feature of each unit is the Exam Focus section which presents the techniques and strategies required for a specific task in the CAE exam and provides exam-level practice. At the back of the Coursebook you will find a section containing visua ls for the Paper 5 Speaking tasks, a Grammar reference, a Writing reference and a 4 CElS Higher CAE Gold Plus NEW Proficiency Gold Vocabulary reference. The Grammar reference is a minigrammar covering al l the points dealt with in the units. The Writing reference contains model answers for the types of writing which may be tested at CAE. There are also authentic student answers which students can evaluate using the general marking guidel ines provided. The Vocabulary reference contains a listing of lexical items which are found in the Coursebook, together with definitions and examples. Recycling and revision Each unit ends with a review of the language presented in that unit except f or units 5, 10 and 14. These are followed by progress tests, which take the form of a complete Paper 3 test. These can be used by the teacher in class as reviews or as tests of the students' command of the language presented in the units. Grammar Various different approaches are used for the presentation and practice of grammar points. Use of English tasks in exam format also recycle the grammar that has been presented. The grammar sections are cross-referenced to the Grammar reference at the back of the book. The Coursebook also features Watch Out! boxes which are designed to pick up on common grammar and vocabulary mista kes made by students. Vocabulary A variety of presentation and practice techniques is used in CAE Gold Plus. When reading, students are encouraged to work out the meanings of unknown words for themselves and recognise clues such as affixation or explanations in the text. Ways of recording and learning new words are also emphasised. Students are encouraged to use a monolingual dictionary such as the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, which gives inform ation about meaning, pronunciation, grammar and collocations. Introduction Particular attention is paid to word formation, which builds students' understanding of how prefixes and suffixes are used, followed by regular practice. This is particularly relevant for Paper 3 part 3. Reading Authentic texts from a range of sources are used to develop reading skills and techniques for CAE. Students are encouraged to use the titles and subtitles of the text as well as any non-textual information, such as accompanying photographs, to help them predict the content Guidance is provided to help them do the task and apply appropriate strategies. Vocabulary and discussion tasks after the reading texts allow students to develop the topic further and to focus on key vocabulary from the text Each of the 14 units corresponds thematically with the units in the Coursebook. The sections within each unit are crossreferenced to the related Coursebook sections and provide consolidation both of language and of skills work. The grammar and vocabulary sections also recycle material presented in the Coursebook, which is then practised further by means of topic-related exam-style Use of English (Paper 3) tasks. Sections containing exam-style tasks provide information about the exam, plus strategies for tackling each task type, and give students the opportunity to put these into practice. The maximiser can be used in class in tandem with the Coursebook as a means of providing further work on specific grammar or vocabulary areas or, alternatively, students can do the exercises and skills practice for homework. Listening The listening texts are also from a range of sources and the recordings present students with a variety of mild accents. Students are always reminded to read through the task before they listen to help them predict what they might hear, and tips and guidance are often provided to help them complete the task. Writing Each unit ends with a writing task of a type found in the CAE exam. The section is cross referenced to the Writing reference at the back of the book which provides model answers for each of the text types. In each case students are encouraged to read the task carefully, thinking about the intended reader, and what needs to be included. They are guided towards an understanding of the various conventions of the text type, such as register, layout and typical organisation of ideas. They are then presented with a model answer, which is often used for further language work. Finally, they are given the task of writing a similar text themselves, which can be done either in class or as homework. Speaking The grammar, vocabulary and skills sections all provide some opportunity for speaking practice by asking students to respond to the topic or text Each unit also contains a section with specific speaking practice for Part 5 of the exam. This presents language for such functions as agreeing and persuading as well as techniques such as how to keep the conversation going. CAE Gold Plus maximiser Another major component of the course is the CAE Gold Plus maximiser. Working through the exercises in the maximiser will help students to consolidate the language and skills presented in the Coursebook and provide them with further exam-specific practice and prepa~ation. CAE Gold Plus CD-ROM The CD-ROM provides a variety of exercises to recycle and extend grammar and vocabulary areas presented in the Coursebook. The sections again correspond thematically to the units in the Coursebook and many of the exercises, such as multiple-choice gapfills, are in the style of the CAE exam. The CD-ROM can be used in tandem with the Coursebook to provide further grammar and vocabulary work or it can be used as self-access material. CAE Gold Plus teacher's book The teacher's book provides suggestions on how to use the material in the Coursebook to best advantage. Answers to all the exercises in the Coursebook are found at the end of each section of notes. Recording scripts to all of the listening tasks are also provided. Teaching tips and ideas provide suggestions for further activities to practise the material or develop study skills. There is also a section of photocopiable activities which provide extra communicative practice in key areas of grammar and vocabulary from the Coursebook units. Many of these are directly related to exam-style tasks. Detailed teaching notes state the aims and rationale of each photocopiable activity and provide a step-by-step procedure for using them in class. You will also find a bank of 14 photocopiable tests made up of 11 unit tests and 3 progress tests. The unit tests are based on the language covered In a single unit and should take no more than 30 minutes to complete. The progress tests are to be used after your students have completed units 5, 10 and 14 and should take between 50 and 60 minutes to complete. They revise and test the language covered in the previous four or five units. 5 UNIT 1 Tuning in Listening: multiple choice (Part 1) p.6 Grammar 1: overview p.7 Aims: • to give practice in listening to identify opinion. attitude and general gist • to complete an exam-style listening task (Paper 4. Part 1) Aims: • to identify problematical areas of grammar • to raise students' awareness of how they can improve grammatical accuracy In Paper 4. Part 1, candidates listen to three short extracts and answer two multiple-choice questions on each . Some of the questions focus on the speakers' opinions or feelings. 1 Use one or more of these questions to conduct a brief class discussion on the topic of music. You could personalise the topic by asking if anyone plays a musical instrument or has ever attended a concert. 2 Students read the mUltiple-choice questions for the first extract. They may find it useful to underline important words in the alternatives. Then do the listening exercise. They compare in pairs before listen ing again. Follow the same procedure for the other extracts before checking the answers with the whole class. 3 In pairs students compare the types of music that they like or dislike in different situations. You could introduce question 3 by giving examples of people who have made their fortune through singing . ~ Recording script p.90 ANSWERS Ex. 2 1 B 6 2 C 3 A 4B SA 6C 1 Students work individually for about five minutes to correct the mistakes in the letter. There will probably be some items that they can correct immediately and others w hich they feel to be wrong but are not able to confidently correct. For these items you can allow them to underline without correcting . 2 If students do not have access to grammar books, you may choose to use Exercise 1 as a diagnostic exercise for yourself to identify areas for which you may need to do remedial grammar work. 3 These questions can be discussed with the whole class. You can also talk about how they like their written work to be corrected (e.g. correction codes, checking each other's work, etc.). The grammar checkli st suggestion should be introduced at the end of the discussion. ANSWERS Ex. 1 Hi Carlos Just touching base to tell (0) te you about the film I went to see last night as you asked. My advice to you (1) afe is - don't bother with it at all! It was complete rubbish, and a waste of time and money. I really wish I had not gone myself, and if I'd (2) R.we read the reviews, I'd have given it a miss. I've been going to the cinema regularly (3) 5ff:I€e for at least six years, and that was by far the worst film I (4) Rae have seen up to now - it's (5) a such a terrible film I can't understand how or why they decided to make it. (6) Apart ~ from everything else, I was so bored! So in you might consider (7) te ~ going, you know my opinion now! Anyway - enough of my complaints - and in spite of my disappointment with this particular film I haven't actually gone off films in general! So on a different topic - I know that you are (8) interested CNIT 1 fef in live music gigs, and' wondered whether (9) A'li~l:tt yoloJ you might like to come with me to the open-air concert in the park next Saturday? It'll be great, and all the others are going . Let me (10) know +t what you think - but unless I hear from you by Friday "II assume you can't make it. I'm attaching some information about the concert with this ema il so that you can see who is playing, and we can get the tickets on the night. So that's all for now - speak to you soon . All the best, Jose Tuning in 5 6 Students look back at the text and underline the w'ords in the list. They then decide the type of word and the meaning. Point out that they can use both affi xa tion (an obvious example here is the -ing end ing) and context to infer word type . Then students turn to page 188 to check with the dictionary entries. 7 This is an opportunity to hold a class discussion on the use of dictionaries. ANSWERS Ex. 3 1 B 2 E 3 B 4 C 5 D 6 E 7 A 8 C 9 E 10 AB 11 AB 12 BC 13 BC 14 DE 15 DE Reading: multiple matching (Part 4) p.8 Aims: • to practise gist reading to identify the focus of each section • to complete an exam-style reading task (Paper 1, Part 4) • to give practice in inferring word type and meaning from context • to use a dictionary to find example sentences and collocations 1 2 Write the term tribute band on the board and ask st~dents if they know what it means. Then ask the class's opinion on the three gist questions. Students then read the text quickly to find the answers. When check ing the answers, ask students which section of the text they found each answer in and ask them to summarise the topic of each section. For examp le, B deals w ith who goes to see tribute bands. 3 Students first read questions 1-15 . Tell them that it may help if they underline the important words in each question, such as preparation and one tribute band for question 1. Ask if they know any answers from the initial gist reading. Then students complete the reading task, with a time limit of about 15 minutes. They shou ld read each question and then search for the corresponding reference. If they cannot find it. they should move on and come back to that question at the end. After 15 minutes students compare their answers in pairs before checking as a whole-class activity. (A more detailed procedure for Paper 1, Part 4 is given in Unit 5 of the Coursebook) 4 Students scan the text and underline any 'copying' words or phrases. Then give a dictionary to each pair or group and ask them to check the meanings of any words which were new. Th is is an opportunity to point out the kinds of information which a dictionary provides, such as example sentences . Ex. 4 a musical impression covers pop faker facsimilies copycat ersatz clones impersonating impersonators imitators Vocabulary: word formation (suffixes) p.10 Aims: • to revise and extend students' knowledge of suffixes • to provide practice for Paper 3, Part 3 • to practise an exam-style sentence transformation 1 Students identify the part of speech. Ask them to give other examples of adjectives and verbs wh ich can take these suffixes. 2 Students now work in pairs to identify the word types associated with each suffix. 3 Use this question to check students' answers as a whole-class activity. 4 This extends the exercise by asking students to give examples. ........•.................•...•.................•........... . . Teaching tips and ideas Students should be encouraged to record suffixes as part of their vocabulary notes. One way of recording these is to make word diagrams like this: ( decoration decorate ~ decorative 7 l'NIT I Tuning in Use of E~glish: open doze (Part 2) p.12 5 1, 2 Students read the title of the article and speculate about the content before skimming the article. 3 After this initial reading, students work in pairs to put the words in brackets into the correct form. 6 After checking the answers, use this question to personalise the topic by applying it to the students' own town or city, or if there are no buskers, you might like to ask students how they feel about Peter Murphy's decision to give up a steady job as an accountant to become a busker. 7 Point out that the adjective disappointed in the example needs to change to disappointment in the new sentence. Then ask students to complete the four transformations. 8 These questions personalise the topic of the reading text. Aim: • to complete an exam-style open doze 1 If you have already discussed students' opinions about different types of music, just use question 2. 2 Students work in pairs to list the advantages and disadvantages and then tell the class their ideas. Then they skim the text to see which of their ideas are mentioned. 3 Go over the procedure outlined and then ask students to work individually to complete the task. They then compare answers in pairs and guess the words for any remaining gaps (stages 2 and 3). Step 4, re-reading the whole text, is important to ensure that students' answers fit with the overall argument. You could set aside a special minute for this. 4 The first question checks students' understanding of the overall opinion. ANSWERS Ex. 1 All the words are nouns, because the suffixes -ment and -ness are noun suffixes. Ex. 2 weakness (noun), countable (adjective), alternative (noun/adjective), frightening (adjective), rapidly (adverb), option (noun), successful (adjective), performance (noun), legal (adjective), responsibility (noun), modernise (verb), political (adjective), enjoyment (noun), delicious (adjective), decorative (adjective), confused (adjective), pleasant (adjective), combination (noun) Ex. 3 nouns from adjectives: -ity, -ness nouns from verbs: -ive, -ion, -ment, -ance verbs from adjectives: -ise (NB US spelling -ize) adjectives from nouns/verbs: -ive, -able, -ed, -ing, -ai, -ed, -ant adverbs from adjectives: -Iy Ex. 5 1 professional 4 determined 2 sponsored 5 impression 3 regularly 6 intriguing 7 production 8 inspirational/inspiring 9 formal 10 powerful 11 fluently 12 respectable 13 appearance 14 responsibility 15 involvement 16 negotiations 17 determination 18 performances Ex. 7 1 much more forgetful 2 be more responsible 3 a brilliant performance 4 was actively engaged ~ Photocopiable activity 1 Suffixes pp. 154 and 155 ANSWERS Ex. 2 1 whose 2 no 3 from 4 on 5 how 6 what 7 other 8 in 9 to 10 however 11 gave/give 12 nobody/no(-)one 13 rather 14 as 15 which Exam focus Paper 5 Speaking: conversation (Part 1) p.13 Aims: • to provide students with information about Paper 5 (speaking), Part 1 and allow them to practise • to help students to analyse what makes a good candidate 1 Go over the exam information with the students. Then play the recording and invite students' comments on the candidates. 2 1 Students now work in groups of three to do mock interviews. In the discussion afterwards encourage students to think about what could have been said to make their answers more detailed or interesting. If some candidates try to say too much, you may need to tell them that just two or three sentences will do at this stage. 2 If students find it difficult to think of questions, prompt them by writing possible topics on the board (e.g. TV. weekends, etc.). ~ Recording script p.90 8 l':'IiIT 1 ANSWERS Tuning in ANSWERS Ex. 1 Ex. 1 Brita needs to be more imaginative and explain her reasons. She hesitates, and should try to be more fluent. Petra gives interesting details. She uses good interactive language - I agree with you, you know, etc. She picks up on what Brita has said. first event = past perfect - had downloaded the songs second event = past simple - realised how good they were and forwarded the files Ex.2 1 's been 2 'II have finished 4 've been 3 'd seen 2 Grammar 2: verb tenses (perfect aspect) p.13 1 present perfect a) 2 future perfect d) 3 past perfect c) 4 present perfect b) 3 Aim: • to revise and extend students' knowledge of perfect tenses and the distinction between simple and continuous 1 Students look at the example sentence and identify the order of events. 2 1,2 Do these with the whole class to check familiarity with perfect tense forms. Point out that the use of by in the sense of before or no later than is often associated with a past perfect or future perfect tense. 3 After correcting the mistakes, students should read out the correct versions pronouncing the contractions. 3 1 Students work individually before checking in pairs. 2 This can be done as a whole-class discussion. 4 Students work in pairs to discuss the differences between the sentences. Emphasise the difference in particular between sentences in pairs 2 and 6, where the use of the wrong tense could cause misunderstanding. 5 Students now work in pairs to complete the exercise. 6 This discussion activity gives students an opportunity to use perfect tenses in a freer context. Give ten minutes for students to find something true for both of them for each question. Then ask pairs to tell the class their most interesting example. After I'd been there (past simple vs past perfect) 2 she'II've been away (future simple vs future perfect) 3 Jose went to the football game (past simple vs present simple) 4 He has always enjoyed (present simple vs present perfect - state) 5 l'II've finished (present simple vs future perfect) 6 She has visited (present simple vs present perfect - event) Ex. 3 1 B2 C3 D3 E3 'd been staying 'II have been working 's been practising 'II have been waiting 2 Results apparent later Temporary activity or state Duration emphasised Incomplete action D B E C Ex. 4 1 a) we focus on the result, b) we focus on the activity itself. 2 a) is a present temporary situation, b) is a temporary situation which mayor may not still be the case. 3 a) and b) are very similar, but a) focuses more on the duration. 4 similar, but (b) has temporary implications. 5 no difference, 6 a) in my life so far b) during a specific time in the past. Ex. 5 1 4 6 8 've been listening 2 went 3 hadn't been will have learned 5 has ruined will have been playing 7 were standing had been waiting 9 l ' :\ IT I Tuning in Writing: drafting and organising (Part 1) p.1S Ex. 2 Aims: • to raise students' awareness of the skills involved in producing a written text • to raise students' awareness of how their writing will be assessed in CAE Paper 2 • to complete an exam-style writing exercise (Paper 2. Part 1) 1 Students read the five statements and discuss in pairs whether they think they are true or not. You cou ld extend the discussion by asking students to reflect on what stage of the writing process they focus on. As a general rule, they should consider the audie nce, and plan and connect their ideas first and leave check ing grammar and spelling until later. 2 3 4 1 This is best done as a whole-class activity. Most students at this level shou ld be familiar with the conventions for formal letters. 2 Students read the model letter on p.191 and check it against each question on the list. 5 Students work in pairs to complete the plan of the letter. Go over it with the whole class, asking them to suggest other linking words which could be used . 6 Students read the new task, underline the three areas to be covered and decide on the most logical order. Point out that paragraphing will reflect this. Thi s can be done in class or for homework. 8 If the writing task was done for homework, this activity can be done the following lesson. Students should hand in their letters only after they have been evaluated with the checklist. Some students may wish to write an improved version in response to the evaluation, which they can give in later. 10 a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 e) 1 Ex. 3 2 outlining the reasons why you were disappointed your cousin's reaction to the film suggesting what should be done Ex. 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 2 Students do the matching exercise. 1 Students discuss the three questions briefly in pairs. 2 Students read the task carefully to themselves and underline the three points that the answer must deal with. 7 ANSWERS' 3 4 5 6 7 reason for writing explanation/clarification of the situation further supporting details any requests for action, or further information Yes, but has expanded on some. It is not always necessary to use every point but the writer should choose the most appropriate points to answer the task. Practical problems, inappropriateness of film Yes a) uncomfortable seats, single seller, missed bus b) cousin unable to sleep Semi-formal No - to complete the task fully and appropriately it is necessary to add more weight to some points. Ex. 5 Opening paragraph: Reason for writing Information included: background situation Linking phrases: I am writing to ... Second paragraph: Practical problems Information included: started late/no ice cream/ missed bus/uncomfortable seats Linking phrases: Firstly, so, although, On top of that Third paragraph: More suitability problems Information included: Inaccuracy of advertisement, emotional problems Linking phrases: However, Despite the fact that, In fact Final paragraph: Suggestion and solution Information included: possible future action Linking phrases: I suggest that, thus {·NIT 1 Tuning in UNIT 1 Review p.17 ANSWERS Ex. 1 1 In the first place 2 even though 3 Secondly 4 in spite of 5 Furthermore 6 Finally 7 as Ex. 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 We never go out ... Where are the tickets? ... whether there is another cinema ... The new arts centre is very nice ... That's the boy whose brother ... The tourist board gave us lots of information ... Unless you work harder ... OR If you don't work harder ... We tonsidered going to the concert ... I really wish I had more time to study! She apologised for being late. I know she enjoys ... I can't get used to starting ... ... despite e4' her fear of heights. My teacher won't let me te get out of doing homework. If I'd Ra¥e known .. . They've been living in this town for at least 25 years. He's such a hard worker ... Computer games are a lot ffiefe cheaper now ... I found the film absolutely terrifying. He might decide ... Ex. 3 1 enjoyable 2 standardise 3 donation 4 hopeful 5 financially 6 productive 7 disappointment 8 weakness 9 outrageous 10 acceptable 11 frightening 12 uplifting 11 UNIT 2 Spend it or save it Listening 1 p.18 ANSWERS Aims: • to give practice in listening for specific information • to review I introduce expressions to do with saving and spending Ex. 2 1 How saving a little each day can make a difference 2 There's more to life than saving Ex. 3 1 1 A C 2 DE 3 BF This can be used as a whole-class activity to introduce the theme of spending money. If you are teaching in a country which does not use the euro, give similar amounts of the students' own national currency. 2 In pairs or groups, students think of ways in which they could save money. They then report back to the class. 3 Discuss these questions briefly with the whole class. Ex. 4 1 pay bills online 2 pay for things by cheque 3 set a budget that includes treats Ex.S 2 Play the first part of the recording and ask students as a whole class to explain the answers to 1 and 2. a) interest, set a budget, a sound investment, a nest egg, to economise, put it away for a rainy day b) conspicuous consumption, go on a spree, run out of cash, a treat, in the red, shopaholic, get through money like water, on impulse, a 'must-have' item 3 Ask students to look at the categories of people and tell you what they think the words mean. You will probably need to teach the verb scrimp and the collocation scrimp and save. Play the recording so that students compare their ideas with the psychologists' descriptions. Then ask them to match statements A to F to the type of spender. 2 This is a chance to personalise the topic of the listening task. Speaking: giving opinions p.19 Aim: • to provide practice in speaking for Paper 5, Part 3 4 Students now listen for the specific advice. After li stening, they compare notes in pairs. 1 Play the recording and ask students to summarise what the candidates have to do. 5 Students can work in pairs to divide the expressions into the two groups. After they have completed this, play the recording aga in , pausing after the description of each kind of person. Ask which expressions they heard in each section and check the answers to the vocabulary exercise. As a possible follow-up activity, students could work in pairs to personalise this topic. Give them some suggestions (e.g. they co uld talk about a time they went on a shopping spree, made a sound investment, bought something on impulse, ran out of cash, gave themselves a treat, etc.). 2 Students sometimes make the mistake of describing the pictures instead of discussing the given issues, and so the first question is intended to pre-empt this. After they have identified the agreeing and disagreeing phrases, ask them to suggest others. Students often overuse I agree whereas native speakers prefer other phrases such as absolutely. Watch out for the common error I am agree. ~ Recording script p.90 3 Students now do the spea king task in pairs. Encourage them to use a range of expressions for giving opinions, agreeing or disagreeing . 4 Discuss this with the class. You could compare these with other non-material things that are important, such as health. 12 r:\' IT ~ Recordin g script p.9 1 ANSWERS Ex. 1 Explain why the things have become important, decide which two are not necessary Ex. 2 1 no, because they have to discuss the ideas behind th e pictures not describe them . They have to explain why these things have become important. 2 Give their own opinion: Well. yes, actually I do think that; I really believe .. .; that's what I'm saying; it still seems to me .. . Ask for their partner's opinion: Do you think ... ; but don't you think that .. .; Why do you think ... ; Agree with their partner: Yes, that's right; Yes, all right - you've got a point there; Absolutely Disagree with their partner: I'm not entirely sure that I agree with you there; I just don 't accept ... ; Well, e ven if I go along with that ... 2 Spend It or save it specific phrase. Ask w hat phrase in questi o n 4 they could scan for t o locate th e correct section of t he pa rag raph (immense satisfaction) and how t hey know t hat it ap pears in t he text (it is in invert ed commas) . Then students work in dividually to choose th e co rrect answers. 5, 6 Foll ow the same reading proced ure as f or the prevIou s two text s. Establish th at question 5 agai n deals with th e exact mea nin g or implicati on of a phrase an d that question 6 deals wi th th e reference system of the text in th at it requires students to understand w hat previous idea it refers to. 2 Disc uss t hese opin ions briefly w it h t he whole class. ANSWERS Ex. 1 1 C 2 D 3 C 4 C 5 A 6 B Grammar 1: defining and non-defining relative clauses p.22 Exam focus Paper 1 Reading: multiple choice (Part 1) p.20 Aims: • to provide an introduction to the new Paper 1, Part 1 • to give practice in answering multiple-choice questions Exam information In CAE Paper 1, Part 1, there are three texts with six multiple-choice questions. The texts have a common theme but may come from different sources and display different purposes and opinions. Go over the exam Information secti on and suggest ed procedure. Ask stude nts t o suggest any other t ips f or answering multiple-choice questions. 1 1, 2 Ask stu dents t o read th e first text quickly, giving them a t ime li mit of about 30 seconds. Th en ask t hem t o rea d th e two mu ltiple-choice questions carefu lly. For question 1, ask them to scan t he pa rag rap h f or the words problem and job to locate th e releva nt part of the paragraph . When going over the correct answe rs t o any mu ltipl e-choice question, it is usefu l to discuss w hy th e oth er altern atives are w rong . For exa mple, in questi on 1, A and B are incorrect because we lea rn th at she is known to be very good at her job, and D is incorrect beca use we lea rn th at she has a stylish dress sense. 3,4 Follow t he same readi ng proced ure as wi th t he f irst text Estab lish t hat quest ion 3 deals wi th t he w fit er's purpose in the text and t hat question 4 is askin g for the meaning of a Aim: • to review the grammar of defining and non-defining relative clauses, and the use of relative pronouns 1 1 Stud ents may already be fami liar with the basic distinction between defini ng and non-defi ning cl auses, but may still have difficulty disti ng uishing bet ween th e two and feel uncert ai n about w hen to put a comma. Go over the first exa mple w ith t he class and t hen el icit th e differences betwee n the other pai rs. In 2, ask t hem in which sente nce the re was more than on e charity (the second , as the definin g clause here must indicate th at th ere was one charity which the man pref erred and anoth er or others h ~ did not). In 3, ask them how many sisters the speaker has. 2 Complete the rules as a whole-class activity. At th is point you could check stud ents understand th e use of whom. Whom is not very often used in modern Eng lish; it is, however, still used after a preposition. Tell stu dents t hat in spoken English it is more usua l t o say That's the woman who I gave a lift to. 2 Stud ents rewrite the se ntences ind ividually and then eli cit th e rule . 3 Stu dents w ork ind ividual ly to tran sform the sentences. 4 1 W rite t he words charity and celebrity on th e boa rd and ask students t o give some exa mples of each. Ask them if t hey know any celebrities w ho are involved with a pa rticular charity (Bob Geldof might be a wel l-known example). Th en t hey skim the text and answer the gist questions. 13 l':\IT 2 Spend it or save it 2 Students work in pairs to complete the gaps. 5 This exercise gives oral practice in using relative pronouns. Do an example with the whole class first by choosing one of the categories and giving a definition so that they can guess the word. They then do the activity in pairs or small groups. 2 1 which/that 2 who/that 3 which 4 which/that 5 which 6 who/that 7 that 8 where/when 9 whose 10 whom Use of English: word formation (Part 3) 6 If students have little experience of charity events, you could change the discussion into a simulation by telling them that they have been given the task of raising a certain amount of money for a charity that they know, and have to plan how they are going to do it. Ex. 1 1 b) non-defining b) defining b) non-defining which for things Ex. 2 1 The school where I first studied Economics was in London . 2 Wednesday is the day of the week when I always have a meeting. 3 It was a conference in Rome where I met my future husband. 4 Two o'clock is the time when I always have a cup of coffee. With relative clauses of place and time, use where or when instead of at which or on which. Ex. 3 1 She gave me her email address, which was how we managed to contact her later. 2 I spent the money on a new car, which was what I had always planned to do. 3 Her face was red, which was how we knew she was upset. 4 He left at six, which was when she arrived. 5 The actor forgot his words, which was why they brought the curtain down. 6 I had a holiday in Spain, which was where I learned to swim . Ex. 4 1 a) image and career enhancement b) people will remember the charity and support it themselves 14 Aim: • to complete an exam-style word formation exercise (Paper 3, Part 4) ..1 Write the word auction on the board and check that students understand it. If no one has experience of buying or selling anything in thi s way, they can simply suggest possible advantages and disadvantages. ANSWERS 1 a) defining 2 a) non-defining 3 a) defining 2 non-defining 2 who for people and 3 defining 4 Whose p.23 . "' 2 Ask students to skim the text quickly and answer the gist questions. They then complete the word building exercise. 3 Discuss this with the class. ANSWERS Ex. 2 1 a) easy to buy b) hard to sell online facilitator 2 possessions 2 unwanted 3 pleasure 4 frankly 5 solution 6 remarkably 7 variety 8 potential 9 percentage 10 commission Vocabulary 1: compound adjectives p.24 Aim: • to introduce or review compound adjectives Teaching tips and ideas The exercises in this section provide a good opportunity to point out the usefulness in general of students recording full collocations in their vocabulary notes. Pages in the notes can be set aside for common collocations around a key word or theme. These can be added to as an ongoing activity. This technique of recording vocabulary also helps students to prepare for Paper 3, Part 5 (gapped sentences). 1. Students work in pairs to match the words to make compound adjectives. Encourage students to guess any that U~lT they are unfamiliar wi th before using a dictionary. They then decide how each adjective might be used. 2 Thi s can be done as a w ho le-class activity. 3 For thi s exercise, students focus first on the co llocation and guess the meaning if it is not already known . Then, they read the last part of the se ntence and suggest a correct alternative . 2 Spend it or save it Listening 2: multiple choice (Part 3) p.24 Aims: • to give practice in understanding the speakers' attitude and opinion • to give practice in answering multiple-choice listening questions for Paper 4, Part 3 1 1 Thi s is a lead-in to the listening activity for students to 4 Students now listen to th e recordin g and match each speaker to the correct summa ry. 5 Students now choose the correct prepositions in pairs before checking as a whole class or with a dictionary. 2 Thi s is a brief follow-up to Exercise 5.1, and aims to help students to remember the adjectives through persona lisation ~ Photocopiable activity 2A Compound adjective snap p.156 ~ Recording script p.92 ANSWERS Ex.1 1+2 old-fashioned (person or thing) self-centred (person) last-minute (plan or idea) far-fetched (idea) air-tight (thing) long/short-term (plan) level-headed (person) quick-witted (person) so-called (person or thing, e.g . expert) long-standing (plan, e.g. agreement) mass-prod uced (th i ng) self-made (person, e.g. millionaire) 2 level-headed ~ Recording script p.92 ANSWERS Ex. 2 1 we decided a long time ago . 2 it's just the same as all the others. 3 her no time at all to think of a reply. 4 so it stops your food going dry in the air. S he started with no financial help at all. Ex. 4 2 = speaker 2 5 speaker 4 3 = speaker 1 = Ex. 5 1 hard up Swell-off 2 run-down 6 burnt out 2C 3 A 4D 5 A 6B 3 far-fetched Ex. 3 1 = speaker 5 speaker 3 This can be kept as a brief whole -class discussion. 4 Students ca n discuss thi s question in pairs. If they do not know the same people, they could w rite down what they have decided to buy and where and th en explain their choice to their partner. 1 D 1 last-minute 4 self-centred = 2 The multiple-choice questions focus on the speakers' opi nions. In order to answer them successful ly, students need to understand the speakers' overall argument, not specific information. After students have read the questions, point this out to them, and warn them against basing their an swe rs on a si ngle word or phrase. For example, the phrase I think this is very worrying in Graham's first utterance may lead students to incorrect alternative C Just because of the si milar phrase feels concerned. You can encourage students to follow the overall argument by asking them to focus on the links between the ideas in individ ual questions. For example, question 6 asks about a cause and effect. At the end, play the recording again to check each answer. 3 Ex. 2 4 discuss in pairs. 2 This can be discussed as a whole-class activity. 3 one-off 7 fed up 4 worn out Vocabulary 2: advertising and marketing p.26 Aim: • to introduce or review further verb-noun collocations and compound adjectives 1 Introduce the topic by giving an exa mple of an advertisement that you feel is successful. Then students talk in pairs. In a multinational class, they can compare advertisements in different countries. 2, 3 These points are best discussed briefly with the whole class. 15 l : NIT 2 Spend it or save it Grammar,2: articles p.27 2 1 Ask students to read the text quickly, ignoring the gaps, and answer the gist question. 2 Students now work in pairs to fill the gaps before checking the answers as a whole class. Remind them that the answers depend on collocation. 3 Students underline the collocations in the text or record them in their vocabulary notebooks. Ask them to suggest other collocations for these nouns (e.g. attract someone's Aims: • to review the grammar of articles • to give practice for Paper 3, Part 3 1 Students work in groups to brainstorm brand names, possibly taking two or three items each. 2 Ask students to read the text quickly, ignoring the gaps, and answer the gist question. attention). 3 3 Students now work in pairs or individually to complete the gap fill. Articles can be a very problematic area, especially for students whose native language may not have them . 1 Students brainstorm all the places where they can see advertisements. If the words hoarding and flyer do not come up in the brainstorming, pre-teach them before students read the text. 2 Students work in pairs to complete the compound words. 4 1, 2 Students do these exercises individually at first and then 4 Students discuss these questions in pairs or small groups and then report their opinions. ........................................................... : Teaching tips and ideas The activity of thinking of their favourite advertisements may not be suitable in a multinational class, where students will know different ones. In this case, you could bring some advertisements into class, give one to each pair of students and ask them to comment on the techniques, the type of consumer targeted and how effective the advert is. ANSWERS . compare answers. 3 Briefly discuss students' reaction to the two articles . ~ Photocopiable activity 2B Advertising techniques p.1S7 ...•..•...............•.••........•..•.............•...... : Teaching tips and ideas To extend this topic, ask students to work in groups to design a logo and invent a slogan for a given product. Give them a choice of three (e.g . trainers, toothpaste, fruit juice). Provide each group with an OHT or paper to make a poster so that they can draw the logo that they decide on and present it to the rest of the group. One person from each group shou ld be chosen to talk for approximately one minute (as in CAE Paper 5) and then invite questions. Ex. 2 1 To involve the reader immediately and reinforce the message. 2 1 adopt 2 create 3 grab 4 bring 5 finishes 6 drives 3 adopt an approach; create an image; grab someone's attention; bring something to mind; drive a message deep Ex. 3 2 pop-ups 2 mass-market 3 high-profile 4 highly regarded 5 so-called ANSWERS Ex. 2 b) Ex. 3 1 4 5 7 What is a brand? 2 a car 3 the brand name the design or packaging the special features of 6 the world the consumer 8 brand names 9 school ('NIT 2 Spend it or save it Ex. 4 ANSWERS 1 Ex. 1 explaining what happened, what you did about it, how it affected you and advising your friend 1 a brand name 2 insurance (no article) 3 a group 4 a desirable lifestyle 5 the world 6 a brand 7 the brand image 2 1 an advertisement 2 a car 3 the company's advertisement 4 the poor quality 5 the determining factor 6 people (no article) 8 a product 7 a strong response Writing: informal letter (Part 2) p.28 Aim: • to complete an exam-style writing question (Paper 2, Part 2) requiring students to produce an informal letter Examinformafion In CAE Paper 2, candidates are required to answer one compulsory question and choose a second question from four alternatives. The compulsory question can be on a number of different genres including a letter, report or article but the task will always involve persuasion in some form. 1 Students read the task and identify which part of it explains the situation (the first part) and which tells them what they have to do (the second). Then they read the second part and underline the relevant phrases. 2 Students talk in pairs and then tell the class their ideas. Ex. 2 1 2 no - they haven't advised their friend 2 had a go 2 a bit of a disaster 3 a downside 4 home and dry 5 watch their backs 6 at a loss to know what to do UNIT 2 Review p.29 ANSWERS Ex. 1 1 unharmed 2 tendency 3 exposure 4 unacceptable 5 outlets 6 examination 7 replacement 8 applications 9 unfortunate 10 equally Ex. 2 1 2 3 4 in a house which has (got) it very difficult to live without (her) support to a number of (which) I like best is (the) Ex. 3 1 a 2 a I the 3 the 4 ~ 5 ~ 6 the 7 the 8 a 9 the 10 the 11 ~ 12 the 13 ~ 14 a 15 the 2 Students read the letter and answer questions 1 and 2 as a whole-class activity. 2 Students work alone or in pairs to find and underline the expressions. Some of them are collocations which could be recorded in the students' vocabulary notes (e.g. have a go). 3 Students decide in pairs how the last two paragraphs sho uld change and then write their own improved version. 4 This writing could be set for homework, but it may be better to do it in class if the group are relatively un practised at CAE writing tasks . 17 UNIT 3 What makes us tick Vocabulary: adjectives of character p.30 Aim: • to extend students' knowledge of personality adjectives and idioms to describe personalities 1 Write the term reality TV on the board and ask what stu dents understand by it (rea l people, not actors, in real situa tions) and if they kn ow any exam ples. Th e 'Bi g Brother' format has been te levised in ma ny countries and so many students w ill probab ly have hea rd of this. Then go on to ask the questions in the book about how people are chosen and why. 2 1 Students re ad the profil es and un derli ne the personality adjectives. You cou ld tel l them to double un derline any adjectives for w hich they are not sure of the meaning. Then they can work in pairs to compare whi ch adjectives they knew and explain the meani ngs if necessa ry. 2 St udents t alk in pa irs to choose one adjective from each profile. At the end, ask the cl ass wh ich adjective was most com monly chose n for each person . Watch Out! sensible/sensitive; sympathise/empath ise Sensible is a we ll-known fa lse friend , as many European languages have a sim ila r word w hi ch mea ns sensitive. Th e second pai r of sentences high lights the difference between sympathise and empathise. Aga in th is problem is ofte n compou nded by the existence of a false fri end . Many European languages have a word sim ila r to sympathetic wh ich simply means that you get on well w ith that person. 3 Students discuss briefly In pairs or groups who they th ink has the best reason for wa nting to take part. This shoul d lea d naturally into the discu ssion in task 2 where stud ents select five pe rsona lities. At the en d, groups report their decision to the whole class. Franz: trustworthy, supportive, reliable, serious Gina: playful, high-spirited, undisciplined, impatient, extrovert Harold: quick-tempered, assertive, self-opinionated Iva: normal, sociable, not confrontational Brita: caring, empathetic, sincere, warm-hearted, sentimental Positive: idealistic, conscientious, well-organised, sensitive, curious, independent, trustworthy, supportive, reliab le, playful, high-spirited, assertive, sociable, caring, empathetic, sincere, warm-hearted Negative: self-conscious, taciturn, undisciplined, impatient, quick-tempered, self-opin ionated, confrontational, sentimental Either: ambitious, quiet, extrovert, normal Watch out! 1 a) sensible 2 a) sympathise b) sensitive b) empathise Grammar 1: modal verbs 1 p.31 Aims: • to revise common modal verbs and clarify students' knowledge of their meanings • to give further practice with modal verbs in the context of an exam-style sentence transformation activity (Paper 3, Part 5) 1 Students complete the matchin g exercise and then com pare answe rs in pa irs. 2 Ask students to work individua lly to complete the tra nsform ations and then compare their answers in pa irs. Then go throug h t he answers wi th the whole class, pointing out how the modal mea nings are expressed in different ways such as is compulsory fo r has to . ANSWERS Ex.2 2 Alain: idealistic, conscientious, well-organised Cris: ambitious David: quiet, sensitive, self-conscious Ella: curious, independent, taciturn 18 3 1 Stu dents rea d the advice and com plete the gap-fil l exercise before comparing in pa irs. 2 Students now work in pa irs to w rite an additional two or three sentences. Pa irs then read their advice to each other. 3 Begin this speakin g activity by telling the class about an example of your own and t hen aski ng them to ta lk in l! :-.lIT J pairs. You cou ld allow them to choose just one of these situations if they prefer. ANSWERS 2 c) eliminate some answers before they hear the correct one. For example, the phrase I wasn't made fun of or anything for Speaker three eliminates option F before students hear the correct answer. ~ Recording script p.93 Ex. 1 1 e) What makes us tick 3 a) 4 f) 5 d) 6 b) 7 g) 8 h) Ex. 2 2 Students now match the phrases from the recording to the closest meaning. Check answers as a whole class. 1 didn't have to take 2 could/may/might find this book helpful 3 This discussion allows stud ents to personalise the topic of chang ing names from the listening test. 3 chances are (that) he'll 4 that/it must be him 5 has to work ANSWERS Ex. 3 1 ought to 2 might 3 can 4 have to 5 can't 6 could 7 may 8 must 9 shouldn't 10 don't have to 11 mustn't 12 can Ex. 1 1H 2A 9 G 10 D 3C 4E 5D 6H 7E 8C Ex. 2 ~ Photocopiable activity 3 Personality types pp . 158 and 159 Exam focus Paper 4 Listening: multiple matching (Part 4) p.33 Aims: • to give practice in listening to identify attitudes • to complete an exam-style listening task (Paper 4, Part 4) to laugh it off = not to take too seriously to stand out in a crowd = be distinctive really fed up = very unhappy I happened to = by chance to get his tongue round = pronounce to split up = end a relationship made redundant = lost a job did the trick = achieved its aim a snap decision = happened quickly to tease = to make fun of Exam information In Paper 4 (listening), Part 4, students listen to five extracts. There are two sets of questions, both involving matching. Students should focus on the first set of questions on the first listening and the second set when the extracts are repeated. The questions focus on attitude, opinions and context rather than specific information . 1 Go over the exam information and suggested procedure with students. Then ask them to read the two tasks and underline the most important words in both the main question and the alternatives. Point out that general or 'vague' information in the options is likely to be more specific in the actual record ing. For example, if option C is used, the recording is likely to name a specific perso n who could not pronounce the name. Students listen to the recording for the first time and do task 1. They compare their ideas in pairs before listen ing again and focusing on task 2. When going over the answers, play the recording again, pausing after the key sentence in each extract such as I really felt that my name stopped me from standing out in a crowd for Speaker one. Point out how sometimes students can Reading: multiple choice (Part 3) p.34 Aims: • to introduce some ways of apologising in English • to give practice in identifying opinions and how they are supported in the text by reference to other authorities • to complete an exam-style multiple-choice exercise . EXam information In Paper 1, Part 3, candidates answer seven mUltiple-choice questions on a text. The questions can test understanding of both specific details and the writer's overall opinion . Sometimes the question may explicitly direct students to a particular paragraph; if not, they should try to pick out a word in the stem which they can look for in the text to help them locate the answer. 1 Students read the two sayings and then comment. You might develop the discussion of the second saying by asking if loving someone means that you never hurt them. 19
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