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C Language Tutorial Version 0.042 March, 1999 Original MS-DOS tutorial by Gordon Dodrill, Coronado Enterprises. Moved to Applix by Tim Ward Typed by Karen Ward C programs converted by Tim Ward and Mark Harvey with assistance from Kathy Morton for Visual Calculator Pretty printed by Eric Lindsay Applix 1616 microcomputer project Applix Pty Ltd Introduction The C programming language was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie of Bell Laboratories, and was designed to run on a PDP-11 with a UNIX operating system. Although it was originally intended to run under UNIX, there was a great interest in running it on the IBM PC and compatibles, and other systems. C is excellent for actually writing system level programs, and the entire Applix 1616/OS operating system is written in C (except for a few assembler routines). It is an excellent language for this environment because of the simplicity of expression, the compactness of the code, and the wide range of applicability. It is not a good "beginning" language because it is somewhat cryptic in nature. It allows the programmer a wide range of operations from high level down to a very low level approaching the level of assembly language. There seems to be no limit to the flexibility available. One experienced C programmer made the statement, "You can program anything in C", and the statement is well supported by my own experience with the language. Along with the resulting freedom however, you take on a great deal of responsibility. It is very easy to write a program that destroys itself due to the silly little errors that, say, a Pascal compiler will flag and call a fatal error. In C, you are very much on your own, as you will soon find. Since C is not a beginners language, I will assume you are not a beginning programmer, and I will not attempt to bore you by defining a constant and a variable. You will be expected to know these basic concepts. You will, however, not be expected to know anything of the C programming language. I will begin with the highest level of C programming, including the usually intimidating concepts of pointers, structures, and dynamic allocation. To fully understand these concepts, it will take a good bit of time and work on your part, because they not particularly easy to grasp, but they are very powerful tools. Enough said about that, you will see their power when we get there, just don’t allow yourself to worry about them yet. Programming in C is a tremendous asset in those areas where you may want to use Assembly Language, but would rather keep it a simple to write and easy to maintain program. It has been said that a program written in C will pay a premium of a 50 to 100% increase in runtime, because no language is as compact or fast as Assembly Language. However, the time saved in coding can be tremendous, making it the most desirable language for many programming chores. In addition, since most programs spend 90 percent of their operating time in only 10 percent or less of the code, it is possible to write a program in C, then rewrite a small portion of the code in Assembly Language and approach the execution speed of the same program if it were written entirely in Assembly Language. Approximately 75 percent of all new commercial programs introduced for the IBM PC have been written in C, and the percentage is probably growing. Apple Macintosh system software was formerly written in Pascal, but is now almost always written in C. The entire Applix 1616 operating system is written in C, with some assembler routines. Since C was designed essentially by one person, and not by a committee, it is a very usable language but not too closely defined. There was no official standard for the C language, but the American National Standards Association (ANSI) has developed a standard for the language, so it will follow rigid rules. It is interesting to note, however, that even though it did not have a standard, the differences between implementations are usually small. This is probably due to the fact that the original unofficial definition was so well thought out and carefully planned that extensions to the language are not needed. Even though the C language enjoys a good record when programs are transported from one implementation to another, there are differences in compilers, as you will find any time you try to use another compiler. Most of the differences become apparent when you use nonstandard extensions such as calls to the MS-DOS BIOS, or the Applix 1616/OS system calls, but even these differences can be minimized by careful choice of programming means. Applix 1616 builders have only the HiTech C compiler available. This version of the tutorial is customised to suit HiTech C. The original MS-DOS version by Gordon Dodrill was ported to the Applix 1616 (with great effort) by Tim Ward, and typed up by Karen Ward. The programs have been converted to HiTech C by Tim Ward and Mark Harvey, while Kathy Morton assisted greatly in getting Visual Calculator working. All have been tested on the Applix 1616/OS multitasking operating system. The Applix distribution disks contain the complete original text of this tutorial, plus all the converted C source code. The second disk contains executable, relocatable versions of all the programs, ready to run on an Applix 1616. There is also a directory of the original IBM source code, for those using IBM computers, who may wish to try them with a different compiler. This printed version has been edited, indexed and pretty printed by Eric Lindsay, who added the Applix specific material. This printed version of the tutorial includes copies of all the code, for easier reference. It also includes a comprehensive table of contents, and index. 1 Getting Started This tutorial can be read simply as a text, however it is intended to be interactive. That is, you should be compiling, modifying and using the programs that are presented herein. All the programs have been tested using the HiTech C compiler, and we assume that you have a copy of this. In addition, you should have a copy of various updates and header files for the C compiler, which appear on Applix User disks. You can use either the builtin Applix 1616/OS editor edit, or the $30 Dr Doc editor in non-document mode. Dr Doc is somewhat more powerful, however as it loads from disk, it is slightly slower to get started. The source code has been edited to suit a tab setting of 5, so invoke your editor with tabs set to a spacing of 5. For example, edit sourcecode.c 5 would let you edit a file called sourcecode.c. Before you can really use C, there are certain equipment requirements that must be met. You must have a disk co-processor card, and at least one disk drive. If your drives are smaller than 800k, you will probably require two disk drives. We assume you either have 1616/OS Version 4 multitasking, or else have an assign MRD available on your boot disk. You should make use of the xpath, and the assign commands to set up your boot disk in a form suitable for use with C. This should be done in the autoexec.shell file on your boot disk, as set out below. 1.1 C Boot Disk Make a new, bootable copy of your 1616 User disk, following the directions in your Users Manual. To ensure sufficient space, delete any obviously unwanted files you notice on the copy. Copy the contents of your HiTech C distribution disk to the new disk, keeping the subdirectories the same as on the HiTech disk. If you have received any updated C header files or other updates, copy these also to their respective subdirectories on your new disk. Using edit, alter the xpath and assign commands in your autoexec.shell file in the root directory of your new disk. Your xpath should include /F0/bin (if it is not already included). Add the following lines to your autoexec.shell, to recreate the environment used by Tim Ward when originally running these programs. assign /hitech /f0/bin assign /sys /f0/include assign /temp /rd This will allow code to be written without regard to where you actually put your files. If you are using a second drive, or a hard disk, simply change the assign to point /hitech to the correct drive. C tends to use temporary files extensively. If you have sufficient memory available on your ram disk, use /rd for temporary files. If not, use the current drive and directory, as indicated by the assign /temp . Make sure you copy the new C preprocessor relcc.xrel from the user disk into the /bin subdirectory of your new C disk. Getting Started C Tutorial 1-1 Note that relcc expects by default to find its C library files on the current drive in the /hitech directory. It also expects to find its include files on the current drive in the /hitech/include directory. We will explain what this means later, and there is a detailed discussion of the HiTech C compiler at the end of the tutorial. If all is correct, you can now compile a C file by typing relcc -v file.c The -v flag is to invoke the verbose mode, which produces the maximum information from the compiler. If you are experimenting, you may prefer to capture any errors encountered in a file, for later study. If so, use relcc -v file.c } errorfile 1.2 What Is An Identifier? Before you can do anything in any language, you must at least know how you name an identifier. An indentifier is used for any variable, function, data definition, etc. In the programming language C, an identifier is a combination of alphanumeric characters, the first being a letter of the alphabet or an underline, and the remaining being any letter of the alphabet, any numeric digit, or the underline. Two rules must be kept in mind when naming identifiers. 1. The case of alphabetic characters is significant. Using "INDEX" for a variable is not the same as using "index" and neither of them is the same as using "InDex" for a variable. All three refer to different variables. 2. As C is defined, up to eight significant characters can be used and will be considered significant. If more than eight are used, they may be ignored by the compiler. This may or may not be true of your compiler. You should check your reference manual to find out how many characters are significant for your compiler. The HiTech C compiler used with the Applix 1616 allows 31 significant characters, and prepends an underscore (_) It should be pointed out that some C compilers allow use of a dollar sign in an identifier name, but since it is not universal, it will not be used anywhere in this tutorial. Check your documentation to see if it is permissible for your particular compiler. 1.3 What About The Underline? Even though the underline can be used as part of a variable name, it seems to be used very little by experienced C programmers. It adds greatly to the readability of a program to use descriptive names for variables and it would be to your advantage to do so. Pascal programmers tend to use long descriptive names, but most C programmers tend to use short cryptic names. Most of the example programs in this tutorial use very short names for this reason. 1.4 How This Tutorial Is Written Any computer program has two entities to consider, the data, and the program. They are highly dependent on one another and careful planning of both will lead to a well planned and well written program. Unfortunately, it is not possible to study either completely without a good working knowledge of the other. For this reason, this tutorial will jump back and forth between teaching methods of program writing and methods of data definition. Simply follow along and you will have a good understanding of both. Keep in mind that, even though it seems expedient to sometimes jump right into the program coding, time spent planning the data structures will be well spent and the final program will reflect the original planning. 1-2 C Tutorial Getting Started As you go through the example programs, you will find that every program is complete. There are no program fragments that could be confusing. This allows you to see every requirement that is needed to use any of the features of C as they are presented. Some tutorials I have seen give very few, and very complex examples. They really serve more to confuse the student. This tutorial is the complete opposite because it strives to cover each new aspect of programming in as simple a context as possible. This method, however, leads to a lack of knowledge in how the various parts are combined. For that reason, the last chapter is devoted entirely to using the features taught in the earlier chapters. It will illustrate how to put the various features together to create a usable program. They are given for your study, and are not completely explained. Enough details of their operation are given to allow you to understand how they work after you have completed all of the previous lessons. 1.5 A Discussion Of Some Of The Files Many of the files in this tutorial are unduely IBM specific. Details of the Applix 1616 versions of these normally supplement these notes, although some discussion of MS-DOS features still remain. 1.6 List.xrel This file will list the source files for you with line numbers and filename. To use it, simply type "LIST" followed by the appropriate filename. Type list firstex.c now for an example. The C source code is given later in Chapter 14 along with a brief description of its operation. Applix 1616 users always have the inbuilt edit comand available to them, so this program isn’t really essential. Getting Started C Tutorial 1-3 2 Getting started in C The best way to get started with C is to actually look at a program, so load the file named trivial.c into edit and display it on the monitor. 2.1 Your First C Program You are looking at the simplest possible C program. There is no way to simplify this program, or to leave anything out. Unfortunately, the program doesn’t do anything. main() { } The word "main" is very important, and must appear once, and only once, in every C program. This is the point where execution is begun when the program is run. We will see later that this does not have to be the first statement in the program, but it must exist as the entry point. Following the "main" program name is a pair of parentheses, which are an indication to the compiler that this is a function. We will cover exactly what a function is in due time. For now, I suggest that you simply include the pair of parentheses. The two curly brackets { }, properly called braces, are used to define the limits of the program itself. The actual program statements go between the two braces and in this case, there are no statements because the program does absolutely nothing. You can compile and run this program, but since it has no executable statements, it does nothing. Keep in mind however, that it is a valid C program. 2.2 A Program That Does Something For a much more interesting program, load the program named wrtsome.c and display it on your monitor. It is the same as the previous program except that it has one executable statement between the braces. main( ) { printf("This is a line of text to output."); } The executable statement is another function. Once again, we will not worry about what a function is, but only how to use this one. In order to output text to the monitor, it is put within the function parentheses and bounded by quotation marks. The end result is that whatever is included between the quotation marks will be displayed on the monitor when the program is run. Notice the semi-colon ; at the end of the line. C uses a semi-colon as a statement terminator, so the semi-colon is required as a signal to the compiler that this line is complete. This program is also executable, so you can compile and run it to see if it does what you think it should. With some compilers, you may get an error message while compiling, indicating the printf() should have been declared as an integer. Ignore this for the moment. 2-1 C Tutorial Getting started in C 2.3 Another Program With More Output Load the program wrtmore.c and display it on your monitor for an example of more output and another small but important concept. You will see that there are four program statements in this program, each one being a "printf" function statement. The top line will be executed first then the next, and so on, until the fourth line is complete. The statements are executed in order from top to bottom. main( ) { printf("This is a line of text to output.\n"); printf("And this is another "); printf("line of text.\n\n"); printf("This is the third line.\n"); } Notice the funny character near the end of the first line, namely the backslash. The backslash is used in the printf statement to indicate a special control character is following. In this case, the "n" indicates that a "newline" is requested. This is an indication to return the cursor to the left side of the monitor and move down one line. It is commonly referred to as a carriage return/line feed. Any place within text that you desire, you can put a newline character and start a new line. You could even put it in the middle of a word and split the word between two lines. The C compiler considers the combination of the backslash and letter n as one character. The exact characters used to indicate a newlin and carriage return are operating system specific. MS-DOS, Unix, 1616/OS and Macintosh may vary one from the other. A complete description of this program is now possible. The first printf outputs a line of text and returns the carriage. The second printf outputs a line but does not return the carriage so the third line is appended to that of the second, then followed by two carriage returns, resulting in a blank line. Finally the fourth printf outputs a line followed by a carriage return and the program is complete. Compile and run this program to see if it does what you expect it to do. It would be a good idea at this time for you to experiment by adding additional lines of printout to see if you understand how the statements really work. 2.4 To Print Some Numbers Load the file named oneint.c and display it on the monitor for our first example of how to work with data in a C program. main( ) { int index; index = 13; printf("The value of the index is %d\n",index); index = 27; printf("The valve of the index = %d\n",index); index = 10; printf("The value of the index = %d\n",index); } The entry point "main" should be clear to you by now as well as the beginning brace. The first new thing we encounter is the line containing "int index;", which is used to define an integer variable named "index". The "int" is a reserved word in C, and can therefore not be used for anything else. It defines a variable that can have a value from -32768 to 32767 on most MS-DOS microcomputer implementations of C. It defines a variable with a value from -2147483648 to 2147483647 in HiTech C. Consult your compiler users manual for the exact definition for your compiler. The variable name, "index", can be any name that follows the rules for an identifier Getting started in C C Tutorial 2-2 and is not one of the reserved words for C. Consult your manual for an exact definition of an identifier for your compiler. In HiTech C, the construction of identifier names is the same as in UNIX, however 31 characters and both cases are significant. The compiler prepends an underscore to external references in the assembler pass. The final character on the line, the semi-colon, is the statement terminator used in C. We will see in a later chapter that additional integers could also be defined on the same line, but we will not complicate the present situation. Observing the main body of the program, you will notice that there are three statements that assign a value to the variable "index", but only one at a time. The first one assigns the value of 13 to "index", and its value is printed out. (We will see how shortly.) Later, the value 27 is assigned to "index", and finally 10 is assigned to it, each value being printed out. It should be intuitively clear that "index" is indeed a variable and can store many different values. Please note that many times the words "printed out" are used to mean "displayed on the monitor". You will find that in many cases experienced programmers take this liberty, probably due to the "printf" function being used for monitor display. 2.5 How Do We Print Numbers To keep our promises, let’s return to the "printf" statements for a definition of how they work. Notice that they are all identical and that they all begin just like the "printf" statements we have seen before. The first difference occurs when we come to the % character. This is a special character that signals the output routine to stop copying characters to the output and do something different, namely output a variable. The % sign is used to signal the start of many different types of variables, but we will restrict ourselves to only one for this example. The character following the % sign is a "d", which signals the output routine to get a decimal value and output it. Where the decimal value comes from will be covered shortly. After the "d", we find the familiar \n, which is a signal to return the video "carriage", and the closing quotation mark. All of the characters between the quotation marks define the pattern of data to be output by this statement, and after the pattern, there is a comma followed by the variable name "index". This is where the "printf" statement gets the decimal value which it will output because of the "%d" we saw earlier. We could add more "%d" output field descriptors within the brackets and more variables following the description to cause more data to be printed with one statement. Keep in mind however, that it is important that the number of field descriptors and the number of variable definitions must be the same or the runtime system will get confused and probably quit with a runtime error. Much more will be covered at a later time on all aspects of input and output formatting. A reasonably good grasp of this topic is necessary in order to understand everything about output formatting at this time, only a fair understanding of the basics. Compile and run oneint.c and observe the output. 2.6 How Do We Add Comments In C Load the file comments.c and observe it on your monitor for an example of how comments can be added to a C program. /* This is a comment ignored by the compiler */ main( ) /* This is another comment ignored by the compiler */ { printf("We are looking at how comments are "); /* A comment is allowed to be continued on another line */ 2-3 C Tutorial Getting started in C printf("used in C.\n"); } /* One more comment for effect */ Comments are added to make a program more readable to you but the compiler must ignore the comments. The slash star combination is used in C for comment delimiters. They are illustrated in the program at hand. Please note that the program does not illustrate good commenting practice, but is intended to illustrate where comments can go in a program. It is a very sloppy looking program. The first slash star combination introduces the first comment and the star at the end of the first line terminates this comment. Note that this comment is prior to the beginning of the program illustrating that a comment can precede the program itself. Good programming practice would include a comment prior to the program with a short introductory description of the program. The next comment is after the "main( )" program entry point and prior to the opening brace for the program code itself. The third comment starts after the first executable statement and continue for four lines. This is perfectly legal because a comment can continue for as many lines as desired until it is terminated. Note carefully that if anything were included in the blank spaces to the left of the three continuation lines of the comment, it would be part of the comment and would not be compiled. The last comment is located following the completion of the program, illustrating that comments can go nearly anywhere in a C program. Experiment with this program be adding comments in other places to see what will happen. Comment out one of the printf statements by putting comment delimiters both before and after it and see that it does not get printed out. Comments are very important in any programming language because you will soon forget what you did and why you did it. It will be much easier to modify or fix a well commented program a year from now than one with few or no comments. You will very quickly develop your own personal style of commenting. Some compilers allow you to "nest" comments which can be very handy if you need to "comment out" a section of code during debugging. Check your compiler documentation for the availability of this feature with your particular compiler. Compile and run comments.c at this time. 2.7 Good Formatting Style Load the file goodform.c and observe it on your monitor. main() /* Main program starts here */ { printf("Good form "); printf ("can aid in "); printf ("understanding a program.\n"); printf("And bad form "); printf ("can make a program "); printf ("unreadable.\n"); } It is an example of a well formatted program. Even though it is very short and therefore does very little, it is very easy to see at a glance what it does. With the experience you have already gained in this tutorial, you should be able to very quickly grasp the meaning of the program in it’s entirety. Your C compiler ignores all extra spaces and all carriage returns giving you considerable freedom concerning how you format your program. Indenting and adding spaces is entirely up to you and is a matter of personal taste. Compile and run the program to see if it does what you expect it to do. Now load and display the program uglyform.c and observe it. Getting started in C C Tutorial 2-4 main( ) /* Main program starts here */{printf("Good form ");printf ("can aid in ");printf(" understanding a program.\n") ;printf("And bad form ");printf("can make a program "); printf("unreadable.\n");} How long will it take you to figure out what this program will do? It doesn’t matter to the compiler which format style you use, but it will matter to you when you try to debug your program. Compile this program and run it. You may be surprised to find that it is the same program as the last one, except for the formatting. Don’t get too worried about formatting style yet. You will have plenty of time to develop a style of your own as you learn the language. Be observant of styles as you see C programs in magazines, books, and other publications. This should pretty well cover the basic concepts of programming in C, but as there are many other things to learn, we will forge ahead to additional program structure. 2.8 Programming Exercises 1. Write a program to display your name on the monitor. 2. Modify the program to display your address and phone number on separate lines by adding two additional "printf" statements. 2-5 C Tutorial Getting started in C 3 Program Control 3.1 The While Loop The C programming language has several structures for looping and conditional branching. We will cover them all in this chapter and we will begin with the while loop. The while loop continues to loop while some condition is true. When the condition becomes false, the looping is discontinued. It therefore does just what it says it does, the name of the loop being very descriptive. Load the program while.c and display it for an example of a while loop. /* This is an example of a "while" loop */ main( ) { int count; count = 0; while (count < 6) { printf("The value of count is %d\n",count); count = count + 1; } } We begin with a comment and the program name, then go on to define an integer variable "count" within the body of the program. The variable is set to zero and we come to the while loop itself. The syntax of a while loop is just as shown here. The keyword "while" is followed by an expression of something in parentheses, followed by a compound statement bracketed by braces. As long as the expression in parentheses is true, all statements within the braces will be executed. In this case, since the variable count is incremented by one every time the statements are executed, and the loop will be terminated. The program control will resume at the statement following the statements in braces. We will cover the compare expression, the one in parentheses, in the next chapter. Until then, simply accept the expressions for what you think they should do and you will probably be correct. Several things must be pointed out regarding the while loop. First, if the variable count were initially set to any number greater than 5, the statements within the loop would not be executed at all, so it is possible to have a while loop that never is executed. Secondly, if the variable were not incremented in the loop, then in this case, the loop would never terminate, and the program would never complete. Finally, if there is only one statement to be executed within the loop, it does not need braces but can stand alone. Compile and run this program. 3.2 The Do-While Loop A variation of the while loop is illustrated in the program dowhile.c, which you should load and display. /* This is an example of a do-while loop */ main( ) { int i; i = 0; do { printf("the value of i is now %d\n",i); Program Control C Tutorial 3-1 i = i + 1; } while (i < 5); } This program is nearly identical to the last one except that the loop begins with the reserved word "do", followed by a compound statement in braces, then the reserved word "while", and finally an expression in parentheses. The statements in the braces are executed repeatedly as long as the expression in parentheses is true. When the expression in parentheses becomes false, execution is terminated, and control passes to the statements following this statement. Several things must be pointed out regarding this statement. Since the test is done at the end of the loop, the statements in the braces will always be executed at least once. Secondly, if "i", were not changed within the loop, the loop would never terminate, and hence the program would never terminate. Finally, just like the while loop, if only one statement will be executed within the loop, no braces are required. Compile and run this program to see if it does what you think it should do. It should come as no surprise to you that these loops can be nested. That is, one loop can be included within the compound statement of another loop, and the nesting level has no limit. 3.3 The For Loop The "for" loop is really nothing new, it is simply a new way of describe the "while" loop. Load and edit the file named forloop.c for an example of a program with a "for" loop. /* This is an example of a for loop */ main( ) { int index; for(index = 0;index < 6;index = index + 1) printf("The value of the index is %d\n",index); } The "for" loop consists of the reserved word "for" followed by a rather large expression in parentheses. This expression is really composed of three fields separated by semi-colons. The first field contains the expression "index = 0" and is an initializing field. Any expressions in this field are executed prior to the first pass through the loop. There is essentially no limit as to what can go here, but good programming practice would require it to be kept simple. Several initializing statements can be placed in this field, separated by commas. The second field, in this case containing "index < 6", is the test which is done at the beginning of each loop through the program. It can be any expression which will evaluate to a true or false. (More will be said about the actual value of true and false in the next chapter.) The expression contained in the third field is executed each time the loop is executed but it is not executed until after those statements in the main body of the loop are executed. This field, like the first, can also be composed of several operations separated by commas. Following the for( ) expression is any single or compound statement which will be executed as the body of the loop. A compound statement is any group of valid C statements enclosed in braces. In nearly any context in C, a simple statement can be replaced by a compound statement that will be treated as if it were a single statement as far as program control goes. Compile and run this program. 3.4 The If Statement Load and display the file ifelse.c for an example of our first conditional branching statement, the "if". 3-2 C Tutorial Program Control /* This is an example of the if and if-else statements */ main() { int data; for(data = 0;data < 10;data = data + 1) { if (data == 2) printf("Data is now equal to %d\n",data); if (data < 5) printf("Data is now %d, which is less than 5\n",data); else printf("Data is now %d, which is greater than 4\n",data); } /* end of for loop */ } Notice first, that there is a "for" loop with a compound statement as its executable part containing two "if" statements. This is an example of how statement can be nested. It should be clear to you that each of the "if" statements will be executed 10 times. Consider the first "if" statement. It starts with the keyword "if" followed by an expression in parentheses. If the expression is evaluated and found to be true, the single statement following the "if" is executed. If false, the following statement is skipped. Here too, the single statement can be replaced by a compound statement composed of several statements bounded by braces. The expression "data" == 2" is simply asking if the value of data is equal to 2, this will be explained in detail in the next chapter. (Simply suffice for now that if "data = 2" were used in this context, it would mean a completely different thing.) 3.5 Now For The If-Else The second "if" is similar to the first, with the addition of a new reserved word, the "else", following the first printf statement. This simply says that, if the expression in the parentheses evaluates as true, the first expression is executed, otherwise the expression following the "else" is executed. Thus, one of the two expressions will always be executed, whereas in the first example the single expression was either executed or skipped. Both will find many uses in your C programming efforts. Compile and run this program to see if it does what you expect. 3.6 The Break And Continue Load the file named breakcon.c for an example of two new statements. main( ) { int xx; for(xx = 5;xx < 15;xx = xx + 1){ if (xx == 8) break; printf("in the break loop, xx is now %d\n",xx); } for(xx = 5;xx < 15;xx = xx + 1){ if (xx == 8) continue; printf("In the continue loop, xx is the now %d\n",xx); } } Notice that in the first "for" there is an if statement that calls a break if xx equals 8. The break will jump out of the loop you are in and begin executing the statements following the loop, effectively terminating the loop. This is a valuable statement when you need to jump out of a loop depending on the value of some results calculated in the loop. In this case, when xx reaches 8, the loop is terminated and the last value printed will be the previous value, namely 7. Program Control C Tutorial 3-3 The next "for" loop, contains a continue statement which does not cause termination of the loop but jumps out of the present iteration. When the value of xx reaches 8 in this case, the program will jump to the end of the loop and continue executing the loop, effectively eliminating the printf statement during the pass through the loop when xx is eight. Compile and run the program to see if it does what you expect. 3.7 The Switch Statement Load and display the file switch.c for an example of the biggest construct yet in the C language, the switch. main( ) { int truck; for (truck = 3;truck < 13;truck = truck + 1) { switch (truck) { case 3 : printf("The value is three\n"); break; case 4 : printf("The value is four\n"); break; case 5 : case 6 : case 7 : case 8 : printf("The value is between 5 and 8\n"); break; case 11 : printf("The value is eleven\n"); break; default : printf("It is one of the undefined values\n"); break; } /* end of switch */ } /* end of the loop */ } The switch is not difficult, so don’t let it intimidate you. It begins with the keyword "switch" followed by a variable in parentheses which is the switching variable, in this case "truck". As many cases as desired are then enclosed within a pair of braces. The reserved word "case" is used to begin each case entered followed by the value of the variable, then a colon, and the statements to be executed. In this example, if the variable "truck" contains the value 8 during this pass of the switch statement, the printf will cause "The value is three" to be displayed, and the "break" statement will cause us to jump out of the switch. Once an entry point is found, statements will be executed until a "break" is found or until the program drops through the bottom of the switch braces. If the variable has the value 5, the statements will begin executing where "case 5 :" is found, but the first statements found are where the case 8 statements are. These are executed and the break statement in the "case 8" portion will direct the execution out the bottom of the switch. The various case values can be in any order and if a value is not found, the default portion of the switch will be executed. It should be clear that any of the above constructs can be nested within each other or placed in succession, depending on the needs of the particular programming project at hand. Compile and run switch.c to see if it does what you expect it to after this discussion. 3.8 The Goto Statement Load and display the file gotoex.c for an example of a file with some "goto" statements in it. 3-4 C Tutorial Program Control main() { int dog,cat,pig; goto real_start; some_where: printf("This is another line of the mess.\n"); goto stop_it; /* the following section is the only section with a useable goto */ real_start: for(dog = 1;dog < 6;dog++) { for(cat = 1;cat < 6;cat++) { for(pig = 1;pig < 4;pig++) { printf("Dog = %d Cat = %d Pig = %d\n",dog,cat,pig); if ((dog + cat + pig) > 8 ) goto enough; }; }; }; enough: printf("Those are enough animals for now.\n"); /* this is the end of the section with a useable goto statement */ printf("\nThis is the first line out of the spaghetti code.\n"); goto there; where: printf("This is the third line of the spaghetti code.\n"); goto some_where; there: printf("this is the second line of the spaghetti code.\n"); goto where; stop_it: printf("This is the last line of the mess.\n"); } To use a "goto" statement, you simply use the reserved word "goto", followed by the symbolic name to which you wish to jump. The name is then placed anywhere in the program followed by a colon. You are not allowed to jump into any loop, but you are allowed to jump out of a loop. Also, you are not allowed to jump out of any function into another. These attempts will be flagged by your compiler as an error if you attempt any of them. This particular program is really a mess but it is a good example of why software writers are trying to eliminate the use of the "goto" statement as much as possible. The only place in this program where it is reasonable to use the "goto" is the one in line 17 where the program jumps out of the three nested loops in one jump. In this case it would be rather messy to set up a variable and jump successively out of all three loops but one "goto" statement gets you out of all three. Some persons say the "goto" statement should never be used under any circumstances but this is rather narrow minded thinking. If there is a place where a "goto" will be best, feel free to use it. It should not be abused however, as it is in the rest of the program on your monitor. Entire books are written on "gotoless" programming, better known as Structured Programming. These will be left to your study. One point of reference is the Visual Calculator described in Chapter 14 of this tutorial. This program is contained in four separately compiled programs and is a rather large complex program. If you spend some time studying the source code, you will find that there is not a single "goto" statement anywhere in it. Compile and run gotoex.c and study its output. It would be a good exercise to rewrite it and see how much more readable it is when the statements are listed in order. 3.9 Finally, A Meaningful Program Load the file named tempconv.c for an example of a useful, even though somewhat limited program. This is a program that generates a list of centigrade and Fahrenheit temperatures and prints a message out at the freezing point of water and another at the boiling point of water. Program Control C Tutorial 3-5 /***********************************************************/ /* This is a temperature conversion program written in */ /* the C programming language. This program generates */ /* and displays a table of farenheit and centigrade */ /* temperatures, and lists the freezing and boiling */ /* of water */ /***********************************************************/ main( ) { int count; /* a loop control variable */ int farenheit; /* the temperature in farenheit degrees */ int centigrade; /* the temperature in centigrade degrees */ printf("Centigrade to farenheit temperature table\n\n"); for(count = -2;count <= 12;count = count + 1 ){ centigrade = 10 * count; farenheit = 32 + (centigrade * 9)/5; printf(" C =%4d F =%4d ",centigrade,farenheit); if (centigrade == 0) printf(" Freezing point of water"); if (centigrade == 100) printf(" Boiling point of water"); printf("\n"); } /* end of for loop */ } Of particular importance is the formatting. The header is simply several lines of comments describing what the program does in a manner the catches the readers attention and is still pleasing to the eye. You will eventually develop your own formatting style, but this is a good way to start. Also if you observe the for loop, you will notice that all of the contents of the compound statement are indented a few spaces to the right of the "for" reserved word, and the closing brace is lined up under the "f" in "for". This makes debugging a bit easier because the construction becomes very obvious. You will also notice that the "printf" statements that are in the "if" statements within the big "for" loop are indented three additional spaces because they are part of another construct. This is the first program in which we used more than one variable. The three variables are simply defined on three different lines and are used in the same manner as a single variable was used in previous programs. By defining them on different lines, we have opportunity to define each with a comment. 3.10 Another Poor Programming Example Recalling uglyform.c from the last chapter, you saw a very poorly formatted program. If you load and display dumbconv.c you will have an example of poor formatting which is much closer to what you will actually find in practice. This is the same program as tempconv.c with the comments removed and the variable names changed to remove the descriptive aspect of the names. Although this program does exactly the same as the last one, it is much more difficult to read and understand. You should begin to develop good programming practices now. main( ) { int x1,x2,x3; printf("Centigrade to Farenheit temperature table\n\n"); for(x1 = -2;x1 <= 12;x1 = 1){ x3 = 10 * x1; x2 = 32 + (x3 * 9)/5; printf(" C =%4d F =%4d ",x3,x2); if (x3 == 0) printf("Freezing point of water"); 3-6 C Tutorial Program Control if (x3 == 100) printf("Boiling point of water"); printf("\n"); } } Compile and run this program to see that it does exactly what the last one did. 3.11 Programming Exercises 1. Write a program that writes your name on the monitor ten times. Write this program three times, once with each looping method. 2. Write a program that counts from one to ten, prints the values on a separate line for each, and includes a message of your choice when the count is 3 and a different message when the count is 7. Program Control C Tutorial 3-7 4 Assignment & Logical compares 4.1 Integer Assignment Statements Load the file intasign.c and display it for an example of assignment statements. /* This program will illustrate the assignment statements main( ) { int a,b,c; a b c c c c c c c a b = = = = = = = = = = = /* Interger variables for examples */ */ 12; 3; a + b; /* simple addition */ a - b; /* simple subtraction */ a * b; /* simple multiplication */ a / b; /* simple addition */ a % b; /* simple modulo (remainder) */ 12*a + b/2 - a*b*2/(a*c + b*2); c/4+13*(a + b)/3 - a*b + 2*a*a; a + 1; /* incrementing a variable */ b * 5; a = b = c = 20; /* multiple assignment a = b = c = 12*13/4; */ } Three variables are defined for use in the program and the rest of the program is merely a series of illustrations of various assignments. The first two lines of the assignment statements assign numerical values to "a" and "b", and the next four lines illustrate the five basic arithmetic functions and how to use them. The fifth is the modulo operator and gives the remainder if the two variables were divided. It can only be applied to "int" or "char" type variables, and of course "int" extensions such as "long", "short", etc. Following these, there are two lines illustrating how to combine some of the variables in some complex math expressions. All of the above examples should require no comment except to say that none of the equations are meant to be particularly useful except as illustrations. The next two expressions are perfectly acceptable as given, but we will see later in this chapter that there is another way to write these for more compact code. This leaves us with the last two lines which may appear to you as being very strange. The C compiler scans the assignment statement from right to left, (which may seem a bit odd since we do not read that way), resulting in a very useful construct, namely the one given here. The compiler finds the value 20, assigns it to "c", then continues to the left finding that the latest result of a calculation should be assigned to "b". Thinking that the latest calculation resulted in a 20, it assigns it to "b" also, and continues the leftward scan assigning the value 20 to "a" also. This is a very useful construct when you are initializing a group of variables. The last statement illustrates that it is possible to actually do some calculations to arrive at the value which will be assigned to all three variables. The program has no output, so compiling and executing this program will be very uninteresting. Since you have already learned how to display some integer results using the "printf" function, it would be to your advantage to add some output statements to this program to see if the various statements do what you think they should do. 4-1 C Tutorial Assignment & Logical compares This would be a good time for a preliminary definition of a rule to be followed in C. The data definitions are always given before any executable statements in any program block. This is why the variables are defined first in this program and in any C program. If you try to define a new variable after executing some statements, the compiler will issue an error. 4.2 Additional Data Types Loading and editing mortypes.c will illustrate how some additional data types can be used. /* The purpose of the file is to introduce additional data types */ main( ) { int a,b,c; /* -32768 to 32767 with no decimal point */ char x,y,z; /* 0 to 255 with no decimal point */ float num,toy,thing; /* 10E-38 to 10E+38 with decimal point */ a = b = c = -27; x = y = z = ’A’; num = toy = thing = 3.6792; a = y; /* a is now 65 (character A) */ x = b; /* x will now be a funny number */ num = b; /* num will now be -27.00 */ a = toy; /* a will now be 3 */ } Once again we have defined a few integer type variables which you should be fairly familiar with by now, but we have added two new types, the "char", and the "float". The "char" type of data is nearly the same as the integer except that it can only be assigned values between zero and 255, since it is stored in only one byte of memory. The "char" type of data is usually used for ASCII data, more commonly known as text. The text you are reading was originally written on a computer with a word processor that stored the words in the computer one character per byte. In contrast, the integer data type is stored in two bytes of computer memory on most 8 bit and MS-DOS based microcomputers. The Applix 1616 uses a 68000 chip with true 32 bit registers, so integers are 32 bits. This means the range of an integer is not ±32767, but ±2147483648, or over two billion! On the Applix, a short int may be more appropriate in some places. 4.3 Data Type Mixing It would be profitable at this time to discuss the way C handles the two types "char" and "int". Most functions in C that are designed to operate with integer type variables will work equally well with character type variables because they are a form of an integer variable. Those functions, when called on to use a "char" type variable, will actually promote the "char" data into integer data before using it. For this reason, it is possible to mix "char" and "int" type variables in nearly any way you desire. The compiler will not get confused, but you might. It is good not to rely on this too much, but to carefully use only the proper types of data where they should be used. The second new data type is the "float" type of data, commonly called floating point data. This is a data type which usually has a very large range, a large number of significant digits, and a large number of computer words are required to store it. The "float" data type has a decimal point associated with it and, on most computers, has an allowable range of from 10-38 to 10+38. Not all compilers have the same available range, so check your reference manual for the limits on your compiler. Assignment & Logical compares C Tutorial 4-2
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