Tài liệu Building the loyalty of tourists to vietnam beach tourism

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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction In recent years, the satisfaction and loyalty of visitors with a destination have drawn the attention of many researchers in the world (Niininen et al., 2004; Valle et al., 2006). This is explained by the following facts: first, loyalty of visitors to a destination will contribute significantly to increase the profit of the tourism enteprises and the development of tourism at the destination; second, the necessary to better understand the role of each factor under different aspects such as destination quality, satisfaction of tourists, destination of knowledge, involvement of tourists, variety - seeking as well as the demographic characteristics of tourists in explaining their loyalty to beach tourist destination. This information is considered valuable for businesses, tourism managers in making decisions related to building loyal tourists for beach tourism today. 1.2 Necessity of the research 1.2.1 Practical perspective Vietnam has the advantage of being a country with a long coastline of over 3,000 km, thousands of large and small islands, numerous beaches with white sand, and blue water. They are favorable conditions for developing beach tourism. However, the tourism industry including beach tourism is now faced with the issues related to the limitations of the services quality at the destination including shopping services, entertainment, food, transportation and accommodation, etc. The limitations impact on: (1) the percentage of tourists (including foreign tourists) re-visiting to the destinations; (2) expenditure for shopping activities/total cost of the trip; (3) average length of stay; (4) tourist’s comments on the destination quality. Thus, the prime challenge for the rapid development and building sustainable competitive advantage of Vietnam's tourism industry is not only how to provide a solution to increasing the number of tourists, but also how to improve service quality, the visitor’s satisfaction to extend the length of her/his stay, encourage visitors to actively introduce new tourists to the beache destinations, and also actively return to visit them. The thesis, therefore, will analyzise and clarify the factors of visitor’s loyalty to beach destinations. Analysis of visitor’s loyalty for beaches destinations (typically obtained through three beaches: City of Nha Trang, Da Nang and Vung Tau), as to make proposals for tourism enterprises and tourism management at the national and local level in order to build vistor’s loyalty to beaches destinations. This is a necessary condition of the practical perspective of Vietnam's tourism industry development. 1.2.2 Theoretical perspective The study is based on the loyalty of visitors to the destination. It points out that one of the factors to encourage them return to visit is their satisfaction with previous destinations (Alegre & Cladera, 2006, Yoon & Uysal, 2005). However, the main motivation of a visitor’s satisfaction is his/her awareness of the sevice quality at the destination (destination quality) (Backer & Crompton, 2000). Research indicates that natural relationships between service quality-satisfaction-loyalty in marketing in general and tourism in particular is quite complex (Chi & Qu, 2008; Seiders et al., 2005). In the tourism perspective, to study the effects of different components of the service quality to the satisfaction and loyalty of tourists are still subject to many restrictions and debate. Specifically, the previous studies identified that the perceived service quality as well as a quality destination is the general concept and direct impact on visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty (Crompton & Love, 1995). Some other studies, meanwhile, considere service 1 quality through multiple different components, by using scales service quality SERVQUAL (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Particular are studies on the approach in the Western culture perspective, where the development of tourism services very modern and overexploitation of natural resources and other resources for tourism development (Truong & King, 2009). Meanwhile, the problem in the development of Vietnam's beach tourism is how to link between development and conservation or conservation of valuable natural gifts. The question is how to evaluate the impact of service quality components to point to the satisfaction and loyalty of visitors, thereby focusing attention to factors needing investment. What factors need to preserve is a matter of concern. From this perspective, the author suggests that researchers consider how the development of different components of destination quality will inpact on satisfaction and loyalty of visitors, in order to meet the needs of theoretical perspective. In particular, the complex relationship between the satisfaction-loyalty is interested by a number of researchers. This is explained by the different effects of these moderators variables. Study of moderators variables, however, on demographic characteristics (age, gender, income) as well as attitude strength construct (involvement, the knowledge of destination, variety-seeking (psychological interest in exploring which new visitors...) affect the relationship between satisfaction, and the different components of loyalty visitors is very limited in the field of tourism; special especially lacks in Vietnam. Meanwhile, this is the impact on changing the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors and is significant for the development of policy to impact on the related factors. Consequently, studies related to the impact of these variable moderators on the relationship satisfaction-loyalty of tourists to a destination for tourism in the context of Vietnam will meet the needs of theoretical and practical perspectives. 1.3 Research objectives The overall objective of the study is to build tourists’ loyalty to Vietnam beach tourism (the intention to return to visit, intention to encourage other visitors to visit in the Vietnamese tourism destination). Specific objectives: (1) Exploring the factors (components) of different destination quality effects on the tourist’s satisfaction at a destination. (2) Exploring the factors (components) of different destinations quality effects on different aspects of destination loyalty (intention to return to visit, intention to suggest to others to visit). (3) Testing of the effects of variables moderatorsuch as demographic characteristics (gender, age, average income) as well as attitude/satisfaction strength construct (knowledge of destinations, involvement, variety seeking) in the relationship between satisfaction and various aspects of destination loyalty (the intention to return to visit, intention to encourage other visitors to visit the Vietnam beaches destination tourism). 1.4 Research questions (1) How do the factors of different destination quality influence visitor’s satisfaction at a destination? (2) How do the factors of different destination quality influence the difference aspects of destination loyalty (intention to return to visit, intention to suggest to others to visit). 2 (3) How do the moderator’s variables such as demographic characteristics (gender, age, average income) as well as attitude strength construct (knowledge of destinations, involvement, variety seeking) influence the relationship between satisfaction and various aspects of destination loyalty (the intention to return to visit, intention to encourage other visitors to visit in the Vietnam beaches destination tourism). 1.5 Subject and scope of research This study is based on the samples collected randomly from domestic tourists at other hotels, restaurants, tourist attractions in three beaches: Nha Trang, Vung Tau, Da Nang, during the period from May to August 2012. The selection of these three cities mentioned above is needed to balance between visitors to of regional beach tourism in Vietnam. This is typical of the local tourism development and marine tourism which is less affected by seasonality than in the provinces of the north. In addition, in recent years, this has been pretty typical of three beaches cities in the selection of domestic tourists. 1.6 Research model The research model in which the visitor’s loyalty will be an entirely dependent variable and influenced by the different components of the destination quality (accommodations, food, tour, attraction of beach city; local people, shopping services, entertainment, recreation ...); visitor’s satisfaction. At the same time, the role as variable moderators characteristics of visitors’ demographics (gender, age, average income) as well as attitude strength (knowledge of destinations, tourist’s involvement, variety seeking) in the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will also be addressed in the model. 1.7 New contributions of the thesis New contributions to theoretical and methodological aspects New contributions to the theoretical aspect: Based on the theory of consumer behavior and tourist’s loyalty in the tourism sector, this doctoral thesis has focused on the clarifying the theoretical basis of visitor’s loyalty, and the factors that influence the loyalty as a basis for offer three new researches, namely: (1) Establish the need to access quality beach tourism destination in view of the components (elements) as well as the degree of their influence on different satisfaction, and loyalty of visitors to the beach tourism destination. (2) The components of the attitude strength (destination knowledge, involvement in beach tourism, variety seeking of tourists) as moderate effects for example, making the relationship between tourist’s satisfaction and loyalty to beach destinations to increase or decrease various). (3) The components of the demographic characteristics (age and income) as moderate effect (for example, making the relationship between tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty to beach destinations to increase or decrease various). New contributions to the methodological aspect: this doctoral thesis has applied research methodology by combining the qualitative and quantitative method (multivariate research model that takes into account mediator and moderator variables), with techniques to handle data at the AMOS software for research into beach tourism in Vietnam. New conclusions and recommendations from the research fidings For the tourism enterprise: The quality of accommodation, restaurant, and tour sevices has the greatest influence on the satisfaction and loyalty of tourists to Vietnam beach tourism. Meanwhile tourist resources play an important role in increasing the attractiveness of beach tourism destination. Therefore, tourism enterprises need to: (1) Focuse on the study and classification of visitors’ premise customer data to build the cruise; (2) Improve the quality of business services to meet the needs of each target group visitors; (3) Improve the quality of human resources in the tourism enterprises themselves. For tourism management agencies at the local beach tourism: First, policies should be developed for tourism services, to take care of “loyalty of visitors” in order to increase the loyalty of groups of tourists such as: married; high income; higher levels of education; over 50 years old. Second, there should be further development of new tourism services, continuous improvement of services to “entice” young unmarried visitors to develop their loyalty to the destination. Third, increase investment in improving the quality of accommodation facilities, restaurant, tour, shopping, and entertainment facilities from which to build and promote the brand image of beach tourism. This will contribute to increasing tourists’ knowledge, their involvement with services such as beach tourism destination “Unique - Safe – Civilized - Friendly”. For tourism management agencies at the national level: (1) First, the policies should preserve and conserve the cultural value of coastal fishermen, conservation and development of beaches bays, beach protected areas associated with the maintenance of the beach ecological environment; (2) there should development of policies transportation system safe destination associated with inter-regional, and inter-disciplinary aspects; (3) policies should educate, about the role and position of beach, marine economics, and marine tourism the local people and communicate. 1.8 Thesis outline: Besides the introduction and conclusion, the thesis consists of five chapters and is structured as follows: Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: An overview of the theoretical aspect; Chapter 3: Research methodology; Chapter 4: Research findings; Chapter 5: Implications and recommendations. 3 4 Chapter 2: AN OVERVIEW OF THE THEORETICAL ASPECT 2.1 Introduction The purpose of the reviewing theories include: (1) The theory of consumer behavior in tourism; (2) The different views concerning customer’s loyalty; (3) Factors impacting on loyalty; (4) The gap theory needs further study; and (5) The reseach proposal models and hypotheses. 2.2 The theory of consumer behavior in tourism 2.2.1 The concepts concering consumer behavior in tourism Consumer behavior in tourism is interpreted as visitor’s behavior in finding, purchasing, using, evaluating and removing of the products/services which they want to satisfy the needs of the trip. Consumer behavior in tourism focuses on individual decision -making as to how to use the available resources (time, money, effort) and the consumption of tourism-related products in the trip. Consumer’s tourism is understood as buyers of tourism products to meet the personal needs and wants. They are the ultimate consumers of tourism products due to manufacturing/supply business enterprises/destination. Consumer’s tourism market is where the participation of individuals, househomes, and groups exists and potential buyers of tourism products aim at satisfying their individual needs/wishes. 2.2.2 The research model in consumer behavior in tourism The general model of consumer behavior in tourism indicates the individual consumer decision making in tourism depends on two groups of factors. The first group is the stimulus from the external factors (economic, political, socio-cultural, technology, nature, the elements of Marketing - Mix of business tourism unit). Meanwhile, the second group is the domestic factors or tourist consumers (personality and psychological characteristics, cognitive processes, involvement, variety seeking, evaluation the quality of the product/service tourism, attitudes toward tourism products selected, and the decision to select travel products…). The model of consumer behavior of visitors (Mathieson & Wall, 1982) including five stages (identifying needs, wants, selecting information regarding the trip, decision making of destination choice, travel; experience evaluating and deciding to go back). Stimulus-Response model (Middleton, 1994) shows the interaction of four components (stimulating travel, personal factors, social factors, characteristics of the destination) with the central component being characteristics of visitors and their making-decisions. 2.3 Customer’s loyalty 2.3.1 The research related to customer’s loyalty For nearly 80 years, the studies of customer’s loyalty have become a topic of great concern to the researchers (Rundle-Thiele, 2005). The concept of loyalty has been developed through three basic aspects: (1) Acts of brand choice/use of customer service; (2) Buttons attitude towards the customer for the purchase of a brand; (3) Combining the above two aspects (Jacoby & Chestnut, 1978; Rundle-Thiele, 2005). 2.3.2. Behavioural loyalty Customer’s loyalty is defined as behavior in choicing the brand/repurchase (Jacoby & Chestnut 1978). In the tourism perspectice, customer’s behavioural loyalty is as following: (1) Residence time (Iwasaki and Havitz, 1998); (2) Intensity (time of the 5 purchase, use, or participation in recreational activities every day/week/month/year) (Iwasaki & Havitz, 1998); and (3) Frequency (quantity purchase, use, or participate in a certain time period) (Petrick, 2004). In this thesis, the author proposes that behavioural loyalty is interpreted as a set of reactions of visitors which can be observed through the frequency of their back travel in a defined time period (number of back travel to the destination in a defined time period) and the length of stay at the destination of that tourist (staying in one of the day trips). 2.3.3. Attitudinal loyalty Attitudinal loyalty is defined as the attitude of the customer's perception of a certain behavior. This is expressed through the psychological constraints, intention to buy the brand or using service providers, as well as suggestions from others or to speak well of a product/service for them (Oliver, 1999). In this thesis, the author proposes that attitudinal loyalty is interpreted as the visitor’s preference/intention to return to a tourist destination (as measured through statements such as: will/ intent/desire/ability) and intention to suggest to others about travel destinations (as measured through speech-related mouth intentions as: will/intent/desire to ...). 2.3.4. Composite loyalty Some researchers exploit the aspects of customer loyalty by using the concept of composite loyalty (Backman & Crompton, 1991; Morais et al., 2004) (attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, and composite loyalty). The thesis presents concepts related to the loyalty of tourists based on the synthesis of previous research in many different fields and statements of loyalty visitors which have access to the three main aspects of the measure as follows: First, behavioural loyalty in toursim is the behavior of visitors expressed through the frequency of their back travel in a defined time period and their length of stay. Second, attitudinal loyalty in tourism is interpreted as the visitor’s preference/ intention to return to a tourist destination and his/ her intend to introduce others to travel destinations. Third, composite loyalty is defined as a combination of commitment or frequency of tourist’s return travel which stems from their positive attitude to specific destinations. 2.3.5. Factors impacting on visitor’s loyalty The identification of factors affecting tourists' loyalty plays a very important role in the development of their loyalty to a tourist destination (Chi & Qu, 2008; Morais et al., 2004). If the researchers point out where the fundamentals have great influence on customer loyalty, it would be really useful to managers as well as corporate sectors in developing measures to influence on the factors that contribute to building loyalty travelers. • • • • • • • • • • Attitudinal loyalty Service quality; Satisfaction; Brand trust; Switching costs; Variety seeking; Reliability of provider; Sự quan tâm đến thị trường tham gia; Marketplace involvement; Perceived value; Knowledge. • • • • • • • • • • 6 Behavioural loyalty Service quality Satisfaction; Switching costs; Lack of suitable alternatives; Economic costs; Brand image; Service recovery; Strength of preference; Customer involvement; Attitudinal loyalty. Figure 1.2: Factors impacting on customer’s loyalty in the service and tourism area Based on many different studies in the world, the author finds that there are many factors that affect customer’s loyalty in the research of service and tourism areas. The factors mentioned above may impact directly, linear and customer loyalty. In addition, some factors include indirect effects, linear or non-linear. In addition, the nature of the impact factor is not the same. Specifically, some factors that influence positively (for example making customers more loyal to the destination) while other factors have a negative impact. However, in this thesis, the author focuses on two main groups of factors related to consumer behavior theory in tourism: Group 1: Factors belonging to different components of destination quality, tourist’s satisfaction effect on visitor’s loyalty to the beaches cities. Group 2: The role moderator of some factors which makes the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors for destination change (positive relationship, negative, linear or non-linear). 2.4. Destination quality 2.4.1. The research related to destination quality Visitors have the opportunity to have access to many different services in a destination so the evaluation of perceived quality of tourist services is complex (Crompton & Love, 1995). The concept of “destination quality” indicates the attributes of service introduced by service providers in a destination, namely: quality of roads, airports, ports, hotels, restaurants, bars, communications systems, parks, amusement parks, sports activities, area museums, historical sites, the level of security, political stability, the price of items, atmosphere, weather, noise pollution, traffic congestion. Moreover, some other factors can also help us to assess the destination quality such as tourism resources in rural areas, the friendliness and hospitality of the local population, language problems (Backer & Crompton, 2000; Beerli & Martin, 2004). Apart from the research in the beaches cities, besides some components of destination quality are mentioned above, the components of the beaches tourism resources also play a vital role in creating an attractive destination and enticing visitors to return. 2.4.2. The relationship between destination qualities with visitor’s loyalty Type 1: Focus on the direct relationships, positive, linear between service quality and customer loyalty (Chi & Qu, 2008; Truong & King, 2008; Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Type 2: The role moderator of custormer’s satisfaction in the relationship between destination quality and customer loyalty (Caruana, 2002; Yu et al., 2005). Type 3: Destination quality effect on customer’s loyalty by both direct and indirect through satisfaction (Baker and Crompton, 2000; Lee et al., 2004). In this thesis, the destination quality is a multidimensional concept including components (accommodation, food, tour, entertainment, recreation, transportation, shopping, attractive beach resources, hosts ...). The influence on the satisfaction and loyalty of visitors is essential. 2.5 Customer’s satisfaction 2.5.1. The research related to customer’s satisfaction Oliver (1997) suggests that satisfaction is the process of “fully meeting customer’s needs”; customers will be satisfied if the products and services are provided to meet their expectations. Zeithaml et al., (1996) emphasize that satisfaction is considered the state level of customer feelings through comparative awareness of a product/service to expectation. This study uses the concept of tourist’s satisfaction as a result of the comparison sense when using products/services in a destination with the expectation that tourists pose before using the product/services. 2.5.2. The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty Type 1: Focus on direct relationships, positive, linear between customer’s satisfaction and loyalty (Chi & Qu, 2008; Truong & King, 2008; Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Type 2: Focus on the two aspects of direct impact, linear, non-linear by the different effects of variables moderator such as demographic characteristics (age, gender, income) (Cooil et al., 2007; Homburg & Giering, 2001), or strengths attitudes such as involvement, knowledge, varieting seeking, preperence conflict, degree of certainty... (Chandrashekaran et al., 2007; Seiders et al., 2005). Thus, the complexity of the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, in other words the gap, especially the role of moderator-personal variables in studies concerning the relationship between these two factors should be further implemented in the subsequent studies in different contexts, including the tourism perspective. 2.6 The factors which play the role as moderators in the relationship between customer’s satisfaction- and loyalty. 2.6.1 The components of attitude strength 2.6.1.1 Knowledge of destination Concept Knowledge is indicated as subjective evaluation of visitors relevant to performing a specific task (Gallarza et al., 2002). The thesis examines the perspective of knowledge as visitor’s knowledge or capacity to access new information of the marine tourism destination. The role of knowledge of destination in the relationship between satisfaction and customer loyalty Visitor’s evaluation of the destination is effected by their knowledge (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999), satisfaction, and intention to WOM and intention to return to visit The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty is stronger for the visitors much private/understanding of destination (Beerli &Martin, 2004). 2.6.1.2 Visitor’s Involvement in the beach Concept Involvement is the combination of the level of awareness of personal issues with either the importance of the product/service in the customer's consumption (Homburg & Giering, 2001). This thesis inherits the concepts of involvement mentioned above and uses it to grow as awareness of the importance of beaches tourism activities for visitors in the context of business tourism destinations in Vietnam. The role of tourist’s involvement in the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and loyalty Customers have a high level of involvement in the product/service will lead to attention seeking information related to the product/service (Mittal, 1989; Homburg & Giering, 2001). A high level of involvement they tend to search for and consume such products and services. Therefore, the involvement is expected as moderator variables in 7 8 the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and after-sales service and customer’s loyalty. 2.6.1.3 Variety seeking (finding new destiantions) Concept Variety seeking is seen as the motivation persperctive, the diversity of behavior is found as a tool or function of the diversity of choice (Bansal et al, 2005). The motivation of variety seeking means that customers prefer to search for a new brand to have a variety of brands, whether customers are satisfied with the original brand. This is the result of changing shopping behavior (Steenkamp & Baumgartner, 1992). This thesis develop the concept in previous studies in many fields, and for that (variety seeking), or psychological interested in exploring new destinations of tourists is choice behavior towards a new destination which replaces the destination before. The role of variety seeking in the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and loyalty Variety seeking of customers will affect the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of customers for products/services (Homburg & Giering, 2001). In the field of tourism, tourists prefer to seek diversity in tourism products will reduce the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty to the destination rather than looking at the diversity. 2.6.2 The components of demographic characteristics 2.6.2.1 Gender Homburg & Giering (2001) has suggested that gender influences moderate in the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of customers when shopping. In the tourism perspective, the research of Pizam et al (2004) indicates that men differ from women in detination loyalty. Particularly, those who prefer the outdoors, seek change, even though they are satisfied with the service at the destination, but it is hard to go back the next time. 2.6.2.2 Age Homburg và Giering (2001) has proposed that age plays a moderator role in the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of customers. 2.6.2.3 Income Homburg và Giering (2001) has proposed that income plays a vital importance moderator role in the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of customers. 2.7 The research proposal and hypotheses 2.7.1 Mode 1: The relationship between components of destination quality and visitor’s satisfaction and loyalty The study will test the positive impact of the different components of destination quality on the tourist’s satisfaction. At the same time, the study also will test the positive, linear relationship between the different components of the destination quality with visitor’s loyalty. Finally, this study will suggest a positive linear relationship between the tourist’s satisfaction and the components of destination loyalty; intention to WOM has a positive impact on the intention to return to visit. 2.7.2 Model 2: The relationship between the visitor’s satisfaction and loyalty: the role moderate of knowledge of destination, involvement, variety seeking. The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will increase by a moderate impact of destination knowledge and involvement in beach travel while this relationship will be reduced by the impact of varieting seeking. 2.7.3 Model 3: The relationship between visitor’s satisfaction-loyalty: the role moderate of demographic characteristics (age, gender, income) The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will decrease for males than females; for younger people than older people and for people with higher income than people with low incomes. 3.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to present the methodology used in the dissertation process, namely: (1) Research design (research methodolygy, process of conducting research); (2) Building scale; (3) Data analysis (statistical analysis, synthesis comparable, quantitative analysis) with two dedicated software SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 16.0. Finally, this chapter also shows the results of the preliminary assessment scales as prerequisite for the design of the questionnaire which served formal quantitative research on a large scale. 3.2 Research design 3.2.1 Research methodolygy This study has been carried out in two steps: (1) Preliminary research conducted through qualitative methods, while (2) the official research has done by quantitative methods. 3.2.2 Reseach process Research into consideration of the scale construction process based on Churchill (1979) as suggested. 3.2.3 Research sample In this study, in oder to ensure the sample size for research the author balances the sample selected after discussion and review all of the estimated parameters in the model, namely: all indicators used to measure the 52 observed variables (including 05 indicators measuring demographic factors; 02 indicators measuring loyalty behavior; 06 indicators measuring attitudinal loyalty; 08 indicators measuring satisfaction; 21 indicators measuring destination quality; 03 indicators measuring knowledge of destination; 03 indicators measuring involvement; 03 indicators measuring the variety seeking, 01 indicators measuring visitor’s motivation; and 08 research concepts. Based on the measurement indicators, the sample sizes conducted in this study for each destination is 60 * 5 = 300 observations; the total sample size is 900 observations. 3.3 Building scale Table 3.0 The origin of the scale Number of Origin of the scale indicators Behavioural loyalty 02 Chi & Qu (2008); Yoon & Usnal (2005) Attitudinal loyalty 06 Chen và Chen (2010); Chi và Qu (2008); Yoon và Usnal (2005). Satisfaction 08* Chen (2008); Chen và Chen (2010); Chi và Qu (2008); De Rojas và Camerero (2008). Knowledge of destination 03 Baloglu và McCleary (1999) Involvement 03 Homburg và Giering (2001) Variety seeking 03 Barroso và cộng sự (2007) Destination quality 27* Alegre và Garau (2010); Beerli và Martin (2004); Chi và Qu (2008); Truong và King (2009) Tourism motivation 01 Uysal và Hagan (1993) Construct * Some indicators measuring research concept is based on developing expert method Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 9 10 3.4 Data analysis procedures Using SPSS 16.0 to analyze the Cronbach Alpha coefficient for rejecting the indicators which have the correlate with the total is small, and to test Cronbach's Alpha. In addition, SPSS16.0 will also be used to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). At the same time, the thesis uses AMOS 16.0 for Conformatory Facotr Analysis (CFA) in oder to assess the scale before being put into the area of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). 3.5 Results of preliminary quantitative research The objective of preliminary quantitative research is a completed surveys questionnaires which serve official quantitative research. Thus, the preliminary study results allowed the authors to propose a new questionnaire to serve official quantitative research. Table 3.13 Sum up the results of the preliminary scale assessment for research into service officies Construct Numble of indicators Conclusion Behavioural loyalty 02 Continue Attitudinal loyalty 06 Continue Satisfaction 08 Continue Knowledge of destination 03 Continue Involvement 03 Continue Variety seeking 03 Continue Destination quality 21 06 indicators are rejected Chapter 4: THE RESEARCH FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction The goal of this chapter is to present the results of data analysis and testing of hypotheses. First, the characteristics related to demographics of the study sample will be presented to the local destinations. Second, the study will present the results from the ANOVA analysis to test the difference in the average value according to the demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status, educational level and income). Third, the study will present the results of factor analysis and reliability of the measurement scale. Fourth, the study will present the results of testing the components of the proposed model. Finally, the study will explain the results of the impact of abstinence involved in the proposed research model. 4.2 Sample characteristics 4.2.1 Characteristics of the study area Characteristics of the study area were analyzed under the following perspectives: (1) Beaches tourism resources; (2) The facilities for the development of beaches tourism; (3) Tourism product and tourism business of the three destinations to be selected. 4.2.2 Sample This study is based on collecting randomly samples of domestic visitor’s accessing hotels, restaurants, tourist attractions in three beaches tourism Cities (Nha Trang, Da Nang, Vung Tau). In addition, a number of similarities to the natural conditions of the beach areas in central and south Viet Nam such as blue sea, white sand, sunshine, with beautiful islands are also considered. Direct interviews with 900 visitors (nearly 100 questionnaires with more questions left blank item has been removed). The structure of the sample is distributed as follows: the total 812 repondents includes 57,4% of men; rate of travel of the married participants is over 60%; aged 22 to 35 participating in most beach tourism (39,70%); Nearly 70% of respondents have a university, post graduate, college and high school degree transition activities engaged in the beach; nearly half of the respondents indicated their average income ranging from 5 to 10 million VND/month (average income of individuals in the study sample is 4.35 million VND/month). Distribution of the sample according to the origin of the visitors show that tourists from Ho Chi Minh City account for the highest rate, followed by visitors from Hanoi. Besides noteworthy is that tourists tend to choose the cruise destinations close to where they reside more. Finally, test Skewness and Kurtosis parameters of components age, education level, income per capita shows that the values obtained are less than 1 Thus, the structure of the demographic characteristics responds quite well the distribution of sample preparation. Table 4.2 Sample distribution Area distribution Number of questionnaires obtained Number of questionnaires analysized Number of questionnaires rejected Origin distribution (where the visitor goes) Ha Noi Hai Phong Nghe An Tp. Ho Chi Minh Binh Duong 11 12 Nha Trang 300 279 21 Da Nang 300 281 19 Vung Tau 300 252 48 91 25 12 109 18 134 0 36 78 12 16 19 17 145 44 Can Tho Others Sum 21 24 300 0 40 300 27 32 300 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 4.3 Analysis of the characteristics of research concepts 4.3.1 Behavioural loyalty Table 4.4: Average time return travel X city within 5 years Average time return travel X city within 5 years Indicator Total Average 1 2 3 4 Over 5 time Time Times Times Times Times Respondents 347 194 133 81 77 812 Percentage (%) 42.7 23.9 13.9 10.0 9.5 100 Total time 347 388 339 324 358 1783 2.19 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 Table 4.5: Average number of days of stay in the city of X in the last 5 years Average number of days of stay in the city of X in the last 5 years Indicator 1 (From 1 to 2 days) (1.5) 2 (From 3 to 4 days) (3.5) 3 (From 5 to 6 days) (5.5) Respondents Percentage (%) Total days 4 (Over 7 days) (7) Total Average days 565 206 38 3 69.60 25.70 4.70 0.40 847.50 721 209 21 1798.50 2.21 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 4.3.2 Attitudinal loyalty The results indicate that for the indicator to the visitor’s intention to return to visit the beach city, most travelers intend to return to visit in the range of from 4 points to 7 points, the average score is 5.5. At the same time, this study also considers the average scores of tourists’ reply to intend to suggest for others which ranges from 5.41 to 5.67, on average, over 90% of respondents have a plan to suggest for relatives, friends to visit in the beach city X. 4.3.4 The ANOVA test for the difference values of the loyalty concepts related to demographic characteristics (age, education level, income) The difference is not statistically significant in value mean between the age groups, education levels and income related to behavioural loyalty. The difference is not statistically significant in the value mean of stays between age groups, education levels. The difference is statistically significant at level (p<0.05) of the value mean of the length of stay between those with different incomes. The difference is statistically significant at level (p<0.05) between the age groups and income related to the assessment of the return to visit The difference is not statistically significant in the value mean of attitudinal loyalty among educated groups. 13 Final, the difference is statistically significant at level (p<0.05) between the age groups, education levels and income related to the assessment of the intention to suggest other people to travel in the city of X. 4.3.5 Visitor’s motivation Table 4.9 Visitor’s motivation to the beach City Chỉ tiêu Visitor’s motivation to the beach City Visit, MICE Visiting Trading Health Others relax relatives and friends Respondents Percentage (%) 448 128 93 95 42 16 55.20 15.80 11.50 10.50 5.20 2.00 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 4.3.6 Visitor’s satisfaction The result findings indicate that tourists are rather satisfied with the beach cities. The average score for the speech ranges from 5.38 to 5.71/7.0. 4.3.7 Knowledge of destination The results findings indicate that tourists’ knowledge of the beach cities are not high. The average score for the speech ranges from 5.19 to 5.31/7.0. 4.3.8 Involvement The result findings indicate that toursists’ involvement with the beach cities are not high. The average score for the speech ranged from 3.93 to 4.30/7.0. 4.3.9 Variety seeking The result findings indicate that tourists often have variety seeking behavior for a new destination. The average score for the speech ranges from 5.44 to 5.52/7.0. 4.3.10 Destination quality The average score for twenties items ranges from 5.06 to 5.95/7.0. 4.4 The research findings for SEM 4.4.1 Preliminary assessment scales by Cronbach alpha 4.4.1.1 Cronbach alpha for scales in the research model The scales have Cronbach alpha coefficient which is quite high, especially small scale is knowledge of destination DK (0.771). The correlation coefficients are greater than 0.30 (as defined by less than 0.30 is turning trash which needs to be removed). Therefore, all the observed variables will be used in the EFA. 4.4.1.2 Cronbach alpha for the destination quality scales The scales have Cronbach alpha coefficient which is high (0.871). The correlation coefficients are greater than 0.30. Therefore, all the observed variables will be used in the EFA. 4.4.2 EFA analysis 4.4.2.1 The result findings of EFA analysiz for scales in the model The result findings of EFA analysis show that six factors are extracted in eigenvalue which is 1.394, and the total extracted variance is 72.388%, with Cronbach alpha coefficients of most of the observed variables being all large scale more satisfactory 0.7. However, to assert the value of the scale is a more stringent application and to ensure that the value of convergence and discrimination of the value scale, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is all essential. 14 Table 4.17 EFA analysis Factors Observed variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 SA1SA8 0.5580.807 INVOL1INVOL3 0.8700.902 WOM1WOM3 0.8540.887 VS1VS3 0.8370.883 RE1RE3 0.7910.850 DK1DK3 0.7640.846 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 4.4.2.2 The result findings of EFA analysiz for destination quality The results of EFA analysis (three times) show that 05 factors are extracted in the eigenvalue which is 1.117 and the total variance extracted high 66.283%. In addition, with Cronbach alpha coefficients of most variables observed in all scales greater than 0.7 are satisfactory. Therefore, there are 18 indicators for 05 components are retained to assess the quality point scale will be used to CFA in order to prove the validity of the scale in a more stringent while ensuring the single, converged values and distinctiveness of the value scale. Table 4.18 EFA analysis Factors Observed variables DQ8DQ14 DQ14DQ17 DQ3DQ6 DQ18DQ20 DQ1DQ2 1 0.6730.741 2 3 4 5 0.6720.790 0.7110.829 0.6050.893 0.7990.835 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 4.4.3 CFA analysis 4.4.3.1 The result findings of CFA analysiz for scales in the model The result findings of CFA analysis indicate that the factor weights of indicators for the concepts are achieving a high level of significance (p <0.001, t > 15, factor loadings from 0.51 to 0.91. Additionally, the scales are achieved composite reliability within the very good reviews CCR> 0.70 and variance extracted values of VE > 0.50. These results conclude that the scale used in the thesis has achieved reliability and the convergent validity. Moreover, the value of Chi - squared = 2.971, degrees of freedom 215 with p <0.001. The indicator measuring relevance also reaches very high values (NFI = 0.937, TLI = 0.945, CFI = 0.957; CMIN/df = 2.971; RMSEA = 0.049) (Browne & Cudek, 1992); demonstrate that the research model with components explaining the visitor’s loyalty is consistent with market data. 4.4.3.2 The result findings of CFA analysis for destination quality The result findings of CFA analysis indicates the factor weights of indicators for the concepts achieve a high level of significance (p <0.001, t > 17, factor loadings from 0.60 to 0.91. Additionally, the scales have achieved composite reliability within the very good reviews CCR> 0.70 and variance extracted values of VE > 0.50. These results concludes that the scale used in the thesis has achieved reliability, and the convergent validity. Moreover, the value of Chi - squared = 2.891, degrees of freedom 80 with p <0.001. The indicator measuring relevance 15 also reaches very high values (NFI = 0.951, TLI = 0.950, CFI = 0.967; CMIN/df = 2.891; RMSEA = 0.048) (Browne & Cudek, 1992); demonstrate that the research model with components explaining the visitor’s loyalty is consistent with market data. 4.4.4 Assessing discriminant validity 4.4.4.1 The result findings of assessing discriminant validity between constructs in the model The estimated results of the structural model indicate a good fit with the data [χ2 (215) = 638.18, p = 0.000; CMIN/df = 2.97, TLI = 0.945, CFI = 0.957, RMSEA = 0.049]. In addition, all correlations are low (less than 0.52); showing the value of the concept of discrimination validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). 4.4.4.2 The result findings of assessing discriminant validity between destination quality construct The estimated results of the structural model indicate a good fit with the data [χ2 (80) = 231.287, p = 0.000; CMIN/df = 2.891, TLI = 0.950, CFI = 0.967, RMSEA = 0.048]. In addition, all correlations are low (less than 0.48) showing the value of the concept of discrimination validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). 4.4.5 Testing direct effects 4.4.5.1 Model 1: Testing the relationship between destination quality components with visitor’s satisfaction, and destination loyalty components The estimated results of the structural model indicate a good fit with the data [χ2 (281) = 1108.266, p = 0.000; CMIN/df = 3.944<5.0, TLI = 0.902, CFI = 0.922, RMSEA = 0.06] ((Browne & Cudek, 1992). The proposal model, thus, fits the data collected from the market. The results of standardized estimates of parameters and hypothesis are presented in the table 4.26 shows that 13/18 relationships is a statistically significant (p <0.10). Table 4.26 Testing research model 1 Construct Satisfaction Intention Intention to to WOM return to visit H E t H E t H E t Attractive (AT) H1a 0.307 7.16*** H2a 0.112 2.43** H3a 0.050 1.118ns Traffic and safety (TP) People (DP) Lodging, food, travel (HP) H1b 0.014 0.39ns H2b 0.064 1.63* H3b 0.105 2.81** H1c 0.066 1.93* H2c 0.027 0.69ns H3c 0.033 0.935ns H3d 0.256 5.45*** H1e 0.437 1.,94*** H2d 0.256 5.30*** Entertainment H1f 0.227 5.83*** H2e 0.043 1.054ns H3e 0.069 1.81* (ET) Satisfaction H4a 0.144 2.87** H4b 0.280 5.85*** Intention to H5a 0.165 4.19*** WOM R2 0.341 0.125 0.349 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 *** p < 0.001; **p< 0.05; *p<0.10; ns: non significant (H) Hypothesis; (E) Estimate 16 4.4.5.2 Model 2: Testing the role moderate of knowledge of destination, involvement, variety seeking in the relationship between visitor’s satisfaction-loyalty. Table 4.27. Testing the role moderate of knowledge of destination, involvement, variety seeking in the relationship between satisfaction-visitor’s loyalty: Model WOM Estimate Intercept SA DK INVOL VS DK*SA INVOL*SA VS*SA ANOVA Regression Residual Total 4.066 0.140 0.162 0.024 -0.054 0.202 0.029 -0.077 Sum of squares Standard error 0.235 17.302*** 0.063 2.677** 0.031 4.617*** 0.029 0.684ns 0.038 1.512ns 0.005 4.731*** 0.005 0.746ns 0.007 -1.658* F Sig. 97.509 1156.538 1254.047 R2 RE Sig. 9.512 0.000 Estimate 2.243 0.460 0.071 0.066 -0.102 0.086 0.079 -0.122 Sum of squares 311.346 982.407 1293.753 0.083 Standard error Sig. 0.217 10.332*** 0.058 9.666*** 0.029 2.222* 0.027 2.063* 0.035 -3.148** 0.005 2.223* 0.005 2.234* 0.006 -2.877** F Sig. 35.812 0.000 0.234 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 *** p < 0.001; **p< 0.05; *p<0.10; non significant 4.4.5.3 Model 3: Testing the role moderate of demographic characteristics (age, gender, income) in the relationship between visitor’s satisfaction-loyalty. Table 4.28 Testing the role moderate of demographic characteristics (age, gender, income) in the relationship between visitor’s satisfaction-loyalty WOM Model Intercept SA SEX AGE INCOME SA*SEX SA*AGE SA*INCOME ANOVA Regression Residual Total R2 Estimate 4.151 0.188 -0.019 0.143 -0.076 -0.024 0.171 -0.097 Sum of squares 115.788 1182.120 1297.908 RE Sig. Standard error 0.236 17.561*** 0.053 4.336*** 0.086 -0.566ns 0.048 4.197*** 0.059 -2.102* 0.015 -0.646ns 0.008 4.519*** 0.010 -2.673** F 11.250 Sig. 0.000 Estimate 2.389 0.444 -0.003 0.154 -0.152 -0.012 0.182 -0.165 Sum of squares 367.020 953.205 1320.225 Standard error 0.213 0.048 0.078 0.043 0.035 0.014 0.007 0.009 11.235*** 11.474*** -0.923ns 5.035*** -4.387*** -0.350ns 5.393*** -5.095*** F Sig. 44.224 Sig. 0.000 0.081 0.272 Resource: research findings by the author from May to August/2012 *** p < 0.001; **p< 0.01; *p<0.05; non signigicant 17 4.5 Review of the main findings of the thesis 4.5.1 Some prominent characteristics of loyalty destination for beaches cities Firstly, the study results indicate that the average length of stay of tourists in the study sample is 2.19 times/05 years (higher than the results of preliminary studies in Nha Trang city 2.0 times/05 years). The survey results from a sample in three destinations indicate that the overall average length of stay of tourists for 01 day trip is 2.21 days (lower than the preliminary results of research in Nha Trang city is 0.11 days; but higher than the average forecast national average is 0.40 days). In addition, unmarried people often stay lower than the average married. Testing ANOVA also show that people with high incomes usually stays higher for a trip compared to those with low incomes. Second, the study results indicate that the average mean score intention loyalty of visitors is respectively 5.5/7.0 and 5.54/7.0. This is quite high results which show that visitors intend to travel back for the next times. Moreover, the intention to return to visit of the age groups is different. In addition, intention loyalty of high-income tourists is low but their intention to recommend to others is high. Finally, for visitors who have higher education levels, their intention to introduce others to travel to the beaches cities is higher than the other groups. Third, the motivation for relax: the number of tourists come back from 2 or more times 60% compared to the number of times they return for other motivation as well as the length of stay for the purpose of tourism accounts for over 50%. 4.5.2 Explaining effects of destination quality components, and visitor’s satisfaction on destination loyalty First of all, the highlights of the study results indicate the average score of the evaluation of the destination quality in the three beaches Cities. The study results showe that the overall destination quality is not really high (5.15/7.0). Second, the visitor’s loyalty to the beaches destinations can be explained as follows: Level 1: The results indicate that some components of destination quality have direct and positive impact on the tourists’ intention destination loyalty to different levels. Specifically, component quality food services, accommodation and attraction of the beaches cities play the most important role in introducing other people to travel in the beaches cities. In contrast, component quality services and leisure activities of people in the beaches cities have no statistically significant impact on tourists’ intention to introduce to other visitors. Level 2: The study results indicate that the components of the proposed model explains 34.9% of intention to return to visit. Specifically, the quality of accommodation services, food and entertainment service continue to play an important role in explaining tourists’ intention to return. Meanwhile, the component “cities residents” continues to have no impact on the statistical significance of the intention to return to visit. In addition, satisfaction and intention to recommend to other travelers can also play a role in increasing the intention to return to visit. 4.5.3 Explaining the complex relationship between visitors’satisfaction and loyalty First, the role moderator of knowledge of destination, involvement, variety seeking - Knowledge of destination as moderator, the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will increase by the impact of moderate knowledge of destination. - Involvement as moderator, the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors 18 will increase by the impact of moderate involvement. - Variety seeking as moderator, the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will decrease by the impact of moderate variety seeking. Second, the role moderate of age, income, gender - Gender as moderator, the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors is not differ between males and females - Age as moderator, the study results support the hypothesis and suggest that the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of tourists will increase for older travelers than younger people. - Income as moderator, the study results support the hypothesis and suggest that the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty of visitors will decrease for high-income tourists compared to low-income visitors. 19 Chapter 5: IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction The main purpose of this chapter is based on the findings from that official to conclusions, and suggests some implications. Therefore, the content of this chapter consists of two main parts: First, suggestions for practical business of enterprises, local and national management; Second, the contribution to the theoretical, research methodology and pratical business beach tourism. Finally, the thesis presents the limitations and recommendations for future research. 5.2 Recommendation of policies for management of business tourism The basic objective of the policy implications for business practices of sea travel: - To continuously improve service quality at beach destinations in order to enhance visitor’s satisfaction. - To increase the promotions in order to improve tourists’ knowledge and involvemet in beach travel from which to increase the visitor’s loyalty to the beaches cities. - To encourage visitor’s WOM (attitudinal loyalty) so that other visitors can promote intentions and behavior of returning to beaches cities. - To improve the aware of businesses enterprises about the visitor’s behavior from which offer effective policies to improve the efficiency of business operations. - To suggest the national and local management agencies to create favorable conditions for business activites in the beaches cities. 5.2.1 Recommendation for tourism enterprises The study results indicate that the quality of tourism services is considered as one of the basic factors affecting the satisfaction and loyalty of tourists to destinations. Further, the quality of tourism services (component of destination quality) will also contribute to the sustainable development of local tourism perspectives, and as well as create added value and competitive advantage for Vietnam’s beach tourism. In this study, the thesis shows only the quality components of lodging, food, and tour services have the greatest impact on satisfaction and loyalty of visitors to the destination, while the attractive component of the beaches cites is the second level of influence. In this case, the senses from domestic tourists should be by tourism enterprises. Specifically, in terms of investors (business) the attractiveness promoted by beaches cities is a prerequisite to attract investment in developing their business. While for visitors, today the creating high quality of beach destinations is “not high” and “uniform”. As results, the positive effect of them on the satisfaction and loyalty to tourist destinations is reduced. Investment in food, accommodation and tour services plays the main role in contributing the satisfaction and loyalty. So, tourism enterprises should: First, focus on research and classify tourist market as prerequisite for the construction of visitor data. Currently, besides classifying visitors based on the demographic characteristics of the traditional approach is the effort to continue to use such as age, gender, income, education level; the research conducted to classify tourists according to the following forms of business should be noted: (1) Classification in the form of travel: travel alone; travel with family and friends; travel agencies or organizations; (2) Classification of travelers based on geographical location (nationality, place of birth or current residence); (3) Classification of visitors based on the family life cycle: young singles, young couples, families with childrens under 7 years of age, families with children of school age, families with adult children a family with children living away from home (still working), families with children living away from home (retired), 20 singles (retired); (4) Classification of travellers based on psychological (introvert) and (extrovert); In particular, classification of visitors based on behavioral factors (eg, demand characteristics, preferences, push motivation, pull motivation, loyalty…). The classification ways will play a very important role in construction of data, business policies for each different object tourists in the future. Second, improve the quality of business services. For each business, building activities should have purpose to improve the quality of services so as to increase the experience of visitors in activities in each company (for example, the promotion is well done by travel agencies, assist visitors to access information on the tour, the tour consulting services, tour operations set, transportation, tour guide at the destination, while for accommodation and food businesses the experience quality must be reflected through higher customer perceived by the criteria (the high reliability of service, level of responsive service; empathy; extents of easy of access to services and the good of tangible component). This is particularly necessary for visitors to participate in tourism activities of the company. Third, improve the quality of human resources in the tourism enterprise. Human resources is considered as an important factor in improving the quality of service of each enterprise. These are basic components which make up “software” in providing tourism services at the destination. In particular, improve the quality of human resources for businesses to pay attention to these knowledge, skills, attitudes, and good health perspective. 5.2.2 Recommendation for local tourism management agencies Every year, the loacal tourism management agencies should have projects/research on specific consumer behavior, and factors affecting consumer behavior in tourism. In particular, research is needed to regularly monitor the service providers in destinations thereby to detect any difference in the service provider activity and propose recommendations necessary to improve service quality and contribute to bring more practical benefits for visitors. Second, in order to extend the length of stay of tourists, the local tourism agencies and enterprises need to understand the characteristics of each target tourists and needs, and their preference; group visitors are married or high-income people with long stays, the need to develop further what services to keep them longer, increasing their spending. While unmarried tourists should find out why they stay low? Do they have other motives in tourism?... Third, to achieve the goal of increasing visitor’s loyalty (attitudinal loyalty), local managers and enterprises should understand the demographic characteristics of tourists. Accordingly, young travelers often prefer to explore new things and have new experience, to seek more attractiveness at the time on their travel. Thus, the assessment of their intention loyalty at this time may be different from their expected future. In this case, the basic policy is here not only to provide good service at the destination, but also to enhance the promotion and introduction of new tourism services in order to encourage tourists to have plans to return to vistit and also recommend to others. Visitors who have higher levels of education or higher income, which is subject to the “prestige” should introduce to others traveling. Destination policies are needed to care for them as loyal customers, with incentives. Local tourism management agencies shoul pay attention to what factor customers interested such as the quality of food services, accommodation, tour, shopping. As a result, it is neccessary to invest in infrastructure, and planning of hotels, restaurants more rationally. At the same time, open procurement services, entertainment for tourists with the slogan “please-please guests to go” rather than the status of “unsettled, slash cut” as a service to peak season. Beach tourism destinations should announce a clear message, impressive and comprehensive information for travelers before, during, and after each trip. Good information that visitors get from point is the “catalyst” to help them close to beach tourism destination Each beach tourism destination needs to have innovative solutions to innovating and finding ways to improve service quality, if not the similarity affects simultaneously on all three perspectives: (1) Varieting seeking (the finding for more new attractive destination); (2) Reducing the competitiveness of each destination; and (3) Difficulty in building the beach brand Vietnam in the mind of domestic tourists. There should be intereste in promoting forms of tourism image in order to provide various knowledge about destinations and increase the interest/attention to beach tourism of domestic tourists. This can be seen as an important contributing factor to attract and retain domestic tourists before the “unsettled” by the other attractive destinations at domestic and abroad. Visitors could only good WOM when they are really pleased with the tourism service provider. A defect in any support activity will make the service gap between customer’s expectations for service beneficiaries increase and so hard to ensure the provision of timely, true nature quality and customer satisfaction. Local tourism management shoul build a strong brand in the tourism village in Vietnam and internationally. Speaking to the cruise visitors will make them think of Nha Trang, Da Nang, Vung Tau is a destination “Unique - Safe - Civilized - Friendly”. Finally, the internet nowadays is a powerful tool for supporting WOM Online. People always meet, talk, comment on all matters of life rather than an individual approach as traditional methods. The tourism industry in the beaches Cities should use the Internet as a powerful tool to increase knowledge of many destinations from which to comment on the quality of tourism but not limite to time and space. 5.2.3 Recommendation for national tourism management agency First, for the resource management of beach tourism perspective, the Government should adopt policies to build and preserve the cultural value of coastal fishermen, development of reserves and marine protected areas such as beach Bay, resolute handling of the organization/individual emissions causing environmental pollution beach tourism, development of handicraft products of local coastal tourism ... Second, for the transport system development perspective, the Government should invest and upgrade the transport system in order to ensure convenience, comfortable and safety for visitors when in traffic and connecting marine tourism destination together. Third, for the people factor in the city's marine tourism perspective, the Gorvement should have specific policies in education, advocacy and timely regular role, the position of the beach and tourism for sustainable development of communities. At the same time, there should be policies to expand job training for people traveling along the coastal city to help them understand and participate directly in beach tourism activities. There should be policy support through preferential loans, technical assistance, find output is from the tourist market to help the locals solve coastal problems in production and business activities and actively participate in the development of marine tourism in a sustainable way. Finally, at the national level, the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism shoul better understand consumer behavior of tourists from which to develop appropriate marketing strategies to build tourists’ loyalty to Vietnam beach tourism in particular, and Vietnam's tourism image in general. 21 22 5.3 New contributions to the theoretical, methodological, and managerial aspects 5.3.1 New conclusion, recommendations from the research findings New contributions to the theoretical aspect: Based on the theory of consumer behavior, tourist’s loyalty in the tourism sector, this doctoral thesis has focused on clarifying the theoretical basis of visitor loyalty, and the factors that influence loyalty as a basis for offering three new researches, namely: (1) Establishing the need to access quality beach tourism destination in view of the components (elements) as well as the degree of their influence on different satisfaction, and loyalty of visitors at the beach tourism destination. (2) The components of the attitude strength (destination knowledge, involvement in beach tourism, variety seeking of tourists) moderate affect (example, the relationship between satisfaction and tourist’s loyalty to beach destinations to increase or decrease various). (3) The components of the demographic characteristics (age and income) moderate affect (example, the relationship between satisfaction and tourist’s loyalty to beach destinations to increase or decrease various). New contributions to methodological: doctoral thesis has applied research methodology by combining the qualitative and quantitative method (multivariate research model that takes into account mediator and moderator variables), with techniques to handle data at the AMOS software for research into the beach tourism in Vietnam. 5.3.2 New conclusions, and recommendations from the research findings For the tourism enterprise: The quality of accommodation, restaurant, and tour sevices has the greatest influence on the satisfaction and loyalty of tourists to Vietnam beach destinations; meanwhile tourism resources which play an important role in increasing the attractiveness of beach tourism destinations occupy the second place. Therefore, tourism enterprises need to: (1) Focus on the study and classification of visitors premise customer data to build the cruise; (2) Improve the quality of business services to meet the needs of each target group visitors; (3) Improve the quality of human resources in the tourism enterprises themselves. For tourism management agencies of the local beach tourism: First, policies should be developed for tourism services, and care policy for “loyalty of visitors” in order to increase the loyalty of the group of tourists such as: married; high income; higher levels of education; over 50 years old. Second, there is the further development of new tourism services, continuous improvement of services to “entice” young unmarried visitors to make them loyal to destination. Third, increase investment in improving the quality of accommodation facilities, restaurant, Tour, shopping, and entertainment facilities from which to build and promote the brand image of beach tourism. This will contribute to increasing knowledge, and the involvement of tourists with services such as beach tourism destination “Unique - Safe Civilized - Friendly". For tourism management agencies at the national level: (1) First, policies should be preserve and conserve the cultural value of coastal fishermen, conservation and development beaches bays, beach protected areas associated with the maintenance of the beach ecological environment; (2) policy development of transportation system for safe destination associated with inter-regional, inter-disciplinary; (3) policies should educate, and communicate about the role and position of beaches, marine economics, marine tourism to local communities. 5.4 Limitations and suggestions for future research First, this study is based on collection of random access to domestic tourists in hotels, restaurants, and beach destinations. In fact, different tourists have different feelings about destination quality, in other words, they are not uniform and therefore are more limited in generalizing research results. Future studies should be repeated in different areas such as: Ha Long; Sam Son; Cua Lo; Thien Cam; Nhat Le; Cua Tung; An agreement; Lang; My Khe; Cua Dai; Tam Thanh; Quy Nhon; Tuy Hoa; Ninh Chu; Ca Na; Mui Ne - Hon Rom, ...) with the sample size, better representation, investigating the same object perception tourist destination to compare and improve the overall results. Second, this study is based on collection of domestic tourists. Therefore, further research direction is to consider also and international visitors to choose the sampling method or according to the data based on the probability of visiting tourists in destinations surveyed and the audience travel to different tourist destinations in the typical beach Vietnam. Third, this study is based on cross data so that the causal effects in the model can not be generalized. Future research should further examine some of the different concepts to test more fully the relationship between the concepts of cause and effect in the model. Fourth, although the research has integrated some factors of consumer behavior in tourism but still lacks many different components. Thus, future research model should integrate theoretical concepts of attitude strength such as ambivalence (conflict of her/him when choosing to travel), the uncertainty in choosing to travel to test them in a multivariate model with a key relationship between satisfaction and loyalty intentions destination. Finally, this study combines qualitative research methods and quantitative research for concept development scale studies. However, the study lacks a method considered expert in forming policy recommendations. So, to get a more comprehensive view of policy recommendations for business units and management of the tourism industry in order to build loyalty of visitors to beach tourism Vietnam, future studies should implement qualitative research methods through consultations collecting additional experts, tourism manager for the proposed policy. 23 24 CONCLUSION Visitor’s loyalty to destinations will contribute significantly to the profitability of tourism businesses and the sustainable development of tourism at the destinations. So, building travelers’s loyalty for beach tourism in the context of the current competition is a very urgent requirement. Through analysis and evaluation, the thesis clarifies the determinants of tourist’s loyalty for beach tourism destinations, as well as the degree of customer’s loyalty to beach tourism destination (typically obtained through three beaches Cities: Nha Trang, Da Nang, and Vung Tau) so as to propose three recommendations for tourism businesses, ten recommendations for the local tourism industry and four recommendations for tourism management at the national level in order to build visitor’s loyalty to beach tourism to meet the demand for sustainable development of Vietnam’s beach tourism.
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