Tài liệu Build your own combat robot

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B uild Your Own Combat Robot Pete Miles Tom Carroll McGraw-Hill/Osborne New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-222844-X The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-219464-2. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgrawhill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. 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Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/007222844X For more information about this book, click here. CONTENTS AT A GLANCE 1 Welcome to Competition Robots 1 2 Getting Started 21 3 Robot Locomotion 41 4 Motor Selection and Performance 61 5 It’s All About Power 79 6 Power Transmission: Getting Power to Your Wheels 103 7 Controlling Your Motors 127 8 Remotely Controlling Your Robot 157 9 Robot Material and Construction Techniques 183 10 Weapons Systems for Your Robot 203 11 Autonomous Robots 239 12 Robot Brains 259 13 Robot Sumo 275 14 Real-Life Robots: Lessons from Veteran Builders 305 15 Afterword 329 A Prototyping Electronics 335 B Resources and References 343 C Helpful Formulas 355 Index 358 iii Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. This page intentionally left blank. For more information about this book, click here. Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, INTRODUCTION, 1 XI XIII Welcome to Competition Robots What Is a Robot?, 1 5 Combat Robot Competitions, BattleBots, 5 7 Robot Wars, 9 BotBash, 11 Robotica, 13 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), 14 Robot Soccer, 16 The Scope of This Book, 2 17 Getting Started 21 The Robot Design Approach, 23 The Game of Compromise, Design for Maintenance, Start Building Now, 29 31 33 Testing, Testing, Testing, 34 Top Ten Reasons Why a Robot Fails, Sources of Robot Parts, 34 35 Cost Factors in Large Robot Construction, Safety, Safety in the Use of Shop Tools, Safety with Your Robot, 3 35 36 37 37 Robot Locomotion Robots with Legs, 41 42 Tank Treads: The Power of a Caterpillar Bulldozer in a Robot, Building Tank Treads for a Robot, Wheels: A Tried and True Method of Locomotion, Types of Steering, 47 47 Wheel Configurations, 50 Selecting Wheels for Your Combat Robot, Tires, 45 46 51 53 Mounting and Supporting the Wheels and Axles, Wheel Drive Types, 54 57 Protecting Your Robot’s Wheels, 59 Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. v vi Build Your Own Combat Robot 4 Motor Selection and Performance Electric Motor Basics, Determining the Motor Constants, Power and Heat, Motor Sources, 73 74 Internal Combustion Engines, 5 67 68 High-Performance Motors, Conclusion, 61 62 76 77 It’s All About Power Battery Power Requirements, 79 80 Measuring Current Draw from the Battery, Battery Capacity Basics, 80 83 Preventing Early Battery Death, 84 Sizing for a 6-Minute Run Time, 85 Comparing SLA, NiCad, and NiMH Run-Time Capacities, Electrical Wiring Requirements, Battery Types, 91 92 Sealed Lead Acid, 93 Nickel Cadmium (NiCad), 95 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), Alkaline, 97 98 Lithium Ion, 99 Installing the Batteries: Accessible vs. Nonaccessible, 6 100 Power Transmission: Getting Power to Your Wheels Power Transmission Basics, Torque, Force, 109 109 Mounting the Motors, Methods of Power Transmission, Chain Drive Systems, Chain Sprockets, Flat Belts, 115 117 118 118 Synchronous Belts, V-Belts, 113 114 115 Buying the Chain, Belt Drive Systems, 112 112 Thermal Considerations for the Motor, Gearboxes, 103 106 Location of the Locomotion Components, 119 121 122 Mounting Gear Assemblies, Securing Gears to Shafts, 7 86 122 122 Controlling Your Motors Relay Control, 128 Poles and Throws, 128 127 Contents Current Ratings, 129 How It All Works Together, Variable Speed Control Basics, 132 139 Controlling Speed = Controlling Voltage, Commercial Electronic Speed Controllers, 8 140 143 Remotely Controlling Your Robot Traditional R/C Controls, The R/C Controller’s Interface, The R/C Servo, Control Channels, 157 158 159 160 160 Radio Control Frequencies, 162 AM, FM, PCM, and Radio Interference, Amplitude Modulation, 167 Frequency Modulation, 167 167 Radio Interference and Reliable Control, Radio to Radio Interference, Antennas and Shielding, 170 172 173 Antenna Placement, 174 Innovation First Isaac Robot Controller and Other Radio Modems, Radio Modems, Failsafe Compliance, 9 179 Robot Material and Construction Techniques Metals and Materials, 184 185 General Machining Operations, 193 Tools You Might Need to Construct Robots, Welding, Joining, and Fastening, When in Doubt, Build It Stout, 195 201 Weapons Systems for Your Robot Weapon Strategy and Effectiveness, Ram Bots, 205 Wedge Bots, 208 Lifter Bots, 210 Launchers, 212 Clamp Bots, 215 Thwack Bots, 217 Overhead Thwack Bots, Spinner Bots, Saw Bots, 220 222 Vertical Spinner, Drum Bots, 224 226 Hammer Bots, 228 193 195 Structural Design for Fastener Placement, 10 183 184 High-Strength Plastics, Metals, 175 178 219 204 203 vii viii Build Your Own Combat Robot Crusher Bots, Spear Bots, 231 233 Closing Remarks on Weapons, 11 236 Autonomous Robots 239 Using Sensors to Allow Your Robot to See, Hear, and Feel, Passive Sensors, Active Sensors, 243 Thermal Sensors, Tilt Sensors, 241 242 246 247 Bump Sensors, 248 Implementing Sensors in Combat Robots, 248 Sensing: It’s a Noisy World Out There, Techniques for Improving Sensor Input, 249 249 Semiautonomous Target and Weapon Tracking, Semiautonomous Weapons, 250 251 Implementing Semiautonomous Target Tracking, 251 Semiautonomous Target Tracking with Constant Standoff Distances, 252 Autonomous Target Tracking, 253 Fully Autonomous Robot Class, More Information, 12 253 257 Robot Brains 259 Microcontroller Basics, Basic Stamp, BrainStem, 266 Handy Board, BotBoard, 260 264 267 267 Other Microcontrollers, 267 Microcontroller Applications, 268 The Robo-Goose, 268 The BrainStem Bug, 270 1BDI, an Autonomous Robot, 271 The Rover, Teleoperated with Feedback, Summary, 13 272 273 Robot Sumo 275 How a Sumo Match Proceeds, The Sumo Ring Specification, Mini Sumo, 278 280 281 Modifying an R/C Servo for Continuous Rotation, Building a Mini Sumo, 284 Mini Sumo Body Assembly, 284 Remote-Control Mini Sumo, 285 Autonomous Mini Sumo, 286 Edge Detector, 286 281 Contents Object Detector, 290 Sensor Integration, 293 Performance Improvements, 297 Various Mini Sumo Robots, 297 International Robot Sumo Class, 299 Motors, 299 Motor Controllers, 299 Ultrasonic Range Detectors, 300 Infrared Range Detectors, 301 Laser Range Finding and Vision Systems, 301 Advanced Software Algorithms, 301 Traction Improvements, 302 Robot Part Suppliers, 302 Annual Robot Sumo Events, 14 303 Real-Life Robots: Lessons from Veteran Builders Ronni Katz—Building Chew Toy, Step 1: Research, 306 Step 2: Conception, 308 Step 3: Building the Bot, 310 Step 4: Creating Weapons and Armor, Final Words, 311 315 Pete Miles—Building Live Wires, 316 Step 1: Making the Sketch, 316 Step 2: Securing the Motors, Step 3: Adding Wheels, 316 317 Step 4: Adding Motor Housings and Controllers, Step 5: Layout and Modeling, Step 6: Scrambling, Step 8: Adding a Weapon, Finally: The Show, 322 324 325 Afterword 329 The Future of Robot Combat, A 317 319 321 Step 7: Building the Frame, 15 330 Prototyping Electronics 335 Breadboarding and Using Prototyping Boards for Electronic Circuits, Wire-Wrapping Prototyping, Soldering for Robots, 337 337 Soldering Printed Circuit Boards, Soldering Wires, 339 Soldering Connectors, Crimp-Style Connectors, Static Sensitivity, 305 306 340 339 339 338 336 ix x Build Your Own Combat Robot B Resources and References Robot Competition Web Sites, Electric Motor Sources, Battery Suppliers, 344 346 Electronic Speed Controller Vendors, Remote Control System Vendors, Mechanical Systems Suppliers, Electronics Suppliers, 347 350 350 Robotics Organizations, 351 Other Robotics Resources, C 346 347 348 Microcontroller Suppliers, Reference Books, 352 Helpful Formulas 355 Chain Drive Centerline Distances, 356 Timing Belt Centerline Distances, 357 V-Belts, 343 344 357 Index 358 Acknowledgments We would like to thank Mike Greene of Robot Science and Technology magazine for putting the team together to write this book. Bob Gross, Andrew Lindsey, Ronni Katz, Carlo Bertocchini, and Steve Richards provided a lot of top-quality support and information, as well. Without their help, the quality of this book would not be where it is now. We would also like to thank Carlo Bertocchini and Grant Imahara for taking time out of their busy schedules to serve as technical editors. They provided valuable comments and insights that vastly improved our work. Mark Setrakian, Peter Abrahamson, Christian Carlberg, Peter Menzel, Larry Barello, Dave Owens, Jamie Hyneman, Vincent Blood, Clare Miles, and Ken Gracey were of great help in providing excellent photos. A special thanks goes to Dave Johnson for his help in interviewing Christian Carlberg, Grant Imahara, Jim Smentowski, Stephen Felk, Donald Hudson, and Jamie Hyneman for the “First Person” stories you’ll find throughout the book. Additional thanks go out to the people at Vantec, Hawker, IFI Robotics, Parallax, Panasonic, National Power Chair, Acroname, Futaba, and Grainger for their technical support and use of some of their photos. Finally, we would like to thank Margie McAneny, Lisa Wolters-Broder, Michael Mueller, and the whole team “behind the scenes” at McGraw-Hill/Osborne for their patience and help in putting this book together. Pete adds: I would like to thank my wife, Kristina Lobb Miles, for all of her tireless help. With her brilliant skills in graphics manipulation, she was able to put together most of the artwork and photos. Without her help, this project would not have happened. She is a wonderful person and deserves a lot of credit. Tom Carroll, too, deserves a lot of credit for putting this together. His infinite knowledge of robotics and ability to write lots of information in a very short time period is greatly appreciated. Tom adds: I would like to thank my wife, Sue, for her tireless support and encouragement of my many robotics activities for the past 35 years. She has endured my many trips to all over that took me away from home and my family, watched as various robots grew to completion in my shop, patiently waited as I spent many hours in my office typing away at this book, and listened politely as I talked for hours on end about robots. I would also like to thank Pete Miles for his patience, organization, great knowledge, and tremendous effort at spearheading this project. His wife Kris proved to be a most valuable asset at making the graphics and manuscript flow to perfection. These two are a most incredible team, and without them, this book would have been only a pile of papers scattered on the floor. xi Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. This page intentionally left blank. Introduction Some kids spend their free time playing sports. I spend mine building robots. You may think that this is not a typical hobby for a teenaged girl, and you’re right. I am part of a rapidly-growing community of combat robot builders from all across the U.S., of all ages, and I’m not exactly new to the sport, either. I was at Fort Mason San Francisco in 1994 watching the first robotic combat competition, Robot Wars. I saw my dad win match after match with his flimsy, garage-built aluminum contraption, and beyond all reason of my then seven-year-old brain, I was inspired. The next year, when I was eight, I had a flimsy, garage-built aluminum contraption of my own, and I was ready to roll. Since then I’ve been hooked. Through my few years of experience in the field of robotic combat, I’ve come to realize that the actual battles—the end result of all my hard work—are not the only things that I have to look forward to. Just as important to me are the people and friends involved, the familiar sounds and smells of machine maintenance, the ebb and flow of people excitedly preparing for competition, the long but rewarding hours of taking robots apart and putting them back together again, and the feeling you get when you realize you’ve become a small but integral part of our quirky little robo-community. I hope this book will help you get started in the unique and exiting sport of robot combat. Robot experts clearly explain everything you need to know to build a bot of your own. For anyone thinking of building a robot, I strongly encourage you to give it a try. You may not wind up with the super-heavyweight champ after your first fight, but I guarantee it will be an experience you’ll never forget! Cassidy Wright, builder of Triple Redundancy, Fuzzy Yum Yum, and Chiabot Orinda, California January 2002 Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. xiii This page intentionally left blank. About the Authors A bout the Authors... Pete Miles has been experimenting with robots since the mid 1970s. He used to scavenge every part he could from dumpsters at radio and TV repair shops, and he still uses parts that he collected back then in his current robot projects. After serving in the U.S. Marine Corps as a tank killer, he obtained bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering. He currently works as a senior research engineer, developing advanced machining technologies using 55,000 psi abrasive waterjets for Ormond LLC, in Kent, Washington. As he puts it, “There is not a material in the world a waterjet can not cut, including diamonds.” Miles is currently an active member of the Seattle Robotics Society, the world’s largest robotics club, and was recently appointed to the SRS Board of Directors. He is an avid competitor in autonomous robot sumo, and enjoys building legged robots for various contests to demonstrate that walking robots can be formidable competitors. Tom Carroll has been involved with robotics for more than 40 years. He built his first robot at age 14, and later worked as a robotics engineer on NASA projects with Rockwell International for nearly 30 years. Carroll co-founded the Robotics Society of Southern California in 1978 and is now active in the Seattle Robotics Society. He designed robots for the International Space Station, to explore the surface of other planets and to assist astronauts in space. He founded Universal Robot Systems to design and build robots for such feature films as Revenge of the Nerds and Buck Rodgers in the 25th Century. He is presently a novel and technical writer, and spends much of his time developing a truly functional personal robot to assist the “forgotten generation,” the elderly, and give them pride in independent living. Carroll moved from Long Beach, California, several years ago and now lives in the Pacific Northwest, on Orcas Island off Washington’s coast. Tom enjoys kayaking, hiking, and traveling with his wife. A bout the Contributors... Bob Gross became involved with robotics in 1978 by building a working facsimile of R2D2. For fun, he has built winning autonomous robots for sumo, maze, navigation, wandering, and combat. Later, he produced three autonomous museum robots that would fetch balls, go to various colored columns, or allow teleoperated control. By day, Gross works as a rocket scientist and has a small company that focuses on various aspects of robotics, including machine vision. Dave Johnson is a technology writer and scuba divemaster. The author of 18 books, Johnson covers popular technology like mobile gadgets, photography, digital music, and robotics. He’s also an award-winning wildlife photographer and the author of The Wild Cookie, an interactive kids’ story on CD-ROM. xv xvi Build Your Own Combat Robot Ronni Katz is an adjunct professor of computer science at DeVry College of Technology in North Brunswick, New Jersey. She was an original member of “Team Spike” at the first Robot Wars competition and has helped design and build combat robots that have won and placed highly at numerous competitions. Katz is a proud member of the Society Of Robotic Combat and produced the 1998 nonprofit instructional video Introduction to Robotic Combat, which helped many beginners get their start in the world of sport robotics. Katz writes fiction under the pen name of Ron Karren and has been published in numerous fanzines. Her first military technothriller novel, Wing Commander, can be found at bookstores nationwide. You can visit Katz online at QuestPress.com for news of her future publications. Andrew Lindsey has been competing in robotic combat since 1996. In addition to competing in all three major televised robotics competitions, he was one of four combat judges at the November 2000 BattleBots event. Lindsey lives in New Jersey and designs fiberoptic interface electronics for a living. He competes regularly in the North East Robo-Conflict events in the New Jersey/Pennsylvania area. Steve Richards has been fascinated by the prospect of fully-autonomous robotics since his childhood. He founded and runs the robotics company Acroname, Inc. in an effort to advance robotics through information, parts, and a robotics community. When he isn’t milling, coding, wiring, or ranting about robotics, he also enjoys running. He lives in Boulder, Colorado, with his wife, Karen. Richards admits that the only truly successful autonomous creation he has been involved with is his daughter, Annie. Cassidy Wright has been involved with robotic combat since 1994. She built her first bot when she was just eight years old. She is a teenager now, and the builder of Triple Redundancy, Fuzzy Yum Yum, and Chiabot. A bout the Technical Editors... Carlo Bertocchini has been building competitive robots since 1993, and he worked as a mechanical engineer until 2001. Now he divides his time between competing in BattleBots matches and running his company, RobotBooks.com. He is the designer and builder of Biohazard, the world’s most successful combat robot. You can learn more about his robots at www.robotbooks.com/biohazard.htm. Bertocchini lives in Belmont, California, with his wife, Carol. Grant Imahara is an animatronics engineer and modelmaker for George Lucas’ Industrial Light & Magic in Marin County, California. He specializes in electronics and radio control at the ILM Model Shop and has installed electronics in R2D2 units for Star Wars: Episodes 1 and 2, and the famous Energizer Bunny. For fun, Grant competes in BattleBots with his robot Deadblow, which set a record for the most number of hits in the first season of the show. Grant lives in a loft in Oakland, California, where he also works on his robot in his spare time. This page intentionally left blank. chapter 1 Welcome to Competition Robots Copyright 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use.
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