Tài liệu Báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học improving the safety and quality of vietnamese vegetables through research and capacity building in quality assurance, postharvest management and high technology

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Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development CARD Project Progress Report 004/04VIE: Improving the safety and quality of Vietnamese vegetables through research and capacity building in quality assurance, postharvest management and high technology protected cropping systems MS2: FIRST SIX-MONTHLY REPORT 30 January 2006 1 1. Institute Information Project Name Improving the safety and quality of Vietnamese vegetables through research and capacity building in quality assurance, postharvest management and high technology protected cropping systems. Vietnamese Institution Research Institute of Fruits and Vegetables (RIFAV) Trau Quy, Gia Lam, HANOI Vietnamese Project Team Leader Associate Prof. Dr. Tran Khac Thi Australian Organisation NSW Department of Primary Industries Gosford Horticultural Institute Centre of Excellence in Market Access and Greenhouse Horticulture Incorporating the National Centre for Greenhouse Horticulture Australian Personnel Dr. Vong Nguyen Date commenced 30th September 2005 Completion date (original) 30th September 2007 Completion date (revised) 30th November 2007 (to take into account delay in signing of contracts) 1st Six monthly report Reporting period Contact Officer(s) In Australia: Team Leader Name: Position: Organisation Dr Vong Nguyen Telephone: Special Research Fax: Horticulturist NSW Department of Email: Primary Industries (02)4348 1927 (02)4348 1910 vong.nguyen@dpi.nsw.gov.au In Australia: Administrative contact Name: Position: Organisation Graham Telephone: Denney Administrative officer Fax: NSW Department of Email: Primary Industries graham.denney@dpi.nsw.gov.au In Vietnam Name: Position: Associate Prof Dr Tran Khac Thi Deputy Director Organisation Research Institute of Fruits and Email: Vegetables (RIFAV), Trau Quy, Gia Lam, HANOI Telephone: Fax: 84-4-8276316 84-4-8276148 vrqhn@hn.vnn.vn; tkthi@vnn.vn 2 2. Project Abstract Chemical residues left by fungicides and insecticides are among the major problems causing contamination of vegetables in Vietnam. The development of safe food production methods was fostered by the previous NSW Department of Primary Industries project (CARD-0016; 20012003) but this can only be realised with further research and development. This project will address the issues of food safety and food quality from production to market to encourage the economic viability and sustainability of the Vietnamese vegetable industry. The objectives are to 1) Facilitate the wider implementation and adoption of protected cropping systems of low to medium technology that require fewer chemical inputs through targeted research and extension activities 2) Examine current supply chain constraints and utilise quality assurance principles to implement targeted system improvements and 3) Enhance Vietnamese research, development and extension capacity in the areas of protected cropping systems, postharvest management and quality assurance systems. 3. Executive Summary Project CARD-004/04 VIE “Improving the safety and quality of Vietnamese vegetables” commenced in September 2005. The overall objective of this project is to provide Vietnamese scientists and extension specialists with the training and tools to implement and foster regionally feasible improvements to current vegetable production practices and supply chains. The project is led by the Research Institute of Fruit and Vegetables with Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry and the Institute of Agricultural Sciences for South Vietnam the major Vietnamese project partners. NSW Department of Primary Industries is the Australian partner. The project start date was delayed due to extended contract negotiations until September 2005. Key achievements during this six monthly reporting period include: 1. Project management • CARD contract signed with NSW Department of Primary Industries on 15th August 2006. Vietnamese and Australian team members and roles within the project finalised. • Planning and resource development for training workshops in Vietnam to be held in February 2006 2. Capacity building • In October-November 2005, three Vietnamese scientists visited Australia for a 4 week period to undertake intensive training in agricultural production systems at Gosford Horticultural Institute and Yanco Agricultural Institute. The visit also provided the opportunity to plan the demonstration research trials and the training workshops in Vietnam. 3. Demonstration research trials • Two demonstration research trials have been established at IAS and RIFAV. The objective of these two trials is to investigate the effect of growing media on crop development, yield and quality of greenhouse grown tomato and cucumber. 4. Publication 3 • Three articles in Vietnamese language on safe vegetables production, Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Vietnam joining WTO were published in Vietnamese papers. 4. Introduction & Background Project Objective: The previous project AusAID-CARD0016 (2001-2003) demonstrated that a protected cropping system (a net-house) is suitable for the production of safe and good quality vegetables in Vietnam. This demonstration system used local waste coconut fibre (cocopeat) as a growing medium, a suitable alternative to soil in peri urban areas for intensive vegetable production with low chemical inputs. Although the protected cropping system is not necessarily required to reduce chemical inputs into vegetable production, adoption of this technology has the benefit of higher yielding production and ultimately is demonstrated to be safer for workers in terms of a reduced need for pesticides. In such systems use of cocopeat as a plant substrate would also reduce the use of already contaminated agricultural soil and helps to eliminate a waste problem. However, the implementation of “best practice” for the production of safe and high quality vegetables in new growing systems is still a long way off. To successfully address these issues this project will use a multifaceted approach to improve production efficiency; reduce reliance on pesticides; reduce postharvest losses and to utilise quality assurance principles. Objectives of this project are as follows: 1. Facilitate the wider implementation and adoption of protected cropping systems of low to medium technology (greenhouses/nethouses) that require fewer chemical inputs through targeted research and extension activities; 2. Examine current supply chain constraints and utilise quality assurance principles to implement targeted system improvements; 3. Enhance Vietnamese R&D capacity in the areas of protected cropping systems, postharvest management and quality assurance systems. Six scientists from RIFAS, IAS and HUAF that gain experience in Australia will aid the setup of trial sites at their locations in Vietnam. About 300 extension, plant protection officers, traders and key growers from 64 provinces/cities will participate in workshops convened by four Australian project members. Vietnamese professional officers and farmers exposed to training will impact on vegetable horticulture in Vietnam increasing production and safety of quality vegetables to the benefit of all consumers. 4. Establishment a link of researchers/traders/producers/growers to increase the productivity and competitiveness of Vietnamese smallholder agriculture and related rural enterprises Output expected: 1. Visit by 6 Vietnamese scientists to Australia will expand their knowledge in agricultural production systems including greenhouse production, implementing quality management systems, pest & disease management and innovations in supply chain management. 2. A research and demonstration project titled "Evaluation of growing media (including cocopeat) and nutrient solutions for greenhouse vegetables" will be established at each of the RIFAV-Hanoi, HUAF-Hue and IAS-HoChiMinh. A supply chain management strategy will be incorporated. This will allow both Vietnamese and Australian scientists to collaborate in this joint research and demonstration project. Outputs of this research will include the creation of hydroponic systems for tropical areas, determination of suitable nutrient solutions and evaluation of Vietnam’s coir dust. A better understanding of the constraining factors for greenhouse production in the tropics will also be achieved. 4 3. Visit by Australian scientists to Vietnam (Quality Assurance officer, Postharvest officer, Greenhouse specialist) for the presentation with MARD horticultural scientists of workshops on Vegetable Production, Quality Assurance, Post-harvest and Greenhouse management for extension, Plant Protection officers, traders and key growers. A meeting will also be held with Vietnam government representatives to discuss how a quality assurance system could be implemented in the Vietnamese vegetable industry. 4. Institutional capacity building is enhanced by this project with researchers from several Vietnamese institutions working together to increase their knowledge in horticultural production, postharvest and quality assurance systems. 5. Farmers adopting new technology will increase their production quality and output and the ability to increase their income. A better standard of living for families (including women) on farms will result. 6. The concept of a sustainable growing system is integral to this project. Reduced chemical inputs and the use of waste products such as cocopeat reduce the environmental impacts of horticulture and increase the sustainability of production systems. Approach and Strategy This project uses a participatory research approach to foster uptake by both Vietnamese institutions and key stakeholders (farmers, extension agents, supply chain partners). The three pronged approach of: intensive training opportunities for Vietnamese scientists; the establishment of demonstration research trials and the delivery of regional workshops should ensure that the project targets key stakeholders and that the project benefits are widespread. The production of “CLEAN” and “GREEN” vegetables in greenhouses with hydroponic systems, the key research component of this project, should contribute to Vietnam’s ability to achieve their goals in production of safe and high quality vegetables in the future. This project focuses on reducing chemical inputs into the production system and should lead to more sustainable environmental practices. Methodologies This project will take an integrated research and extension approach with quality assurance, postharvest management and production technologies focussing on the production of safe and high quality vegetables. The project is divided into 3 parts, they are: 1. Part One : Intensive training of Vietnamese horticulturists in Australia; 2. Part Two : Demonstration research trials; and 3. Part Three: Regional extension workshops in Vietnam 5. Progress to Date 5.1 Implementation Highlights i. CARD contract signed: The project contract was officially signed on the 9th August 2005, with the project commencing in September 2005. ii. Training Vietnamese scientists in Australia 1. Three Vietnamese horticultural scientists, who were nominated by the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Affairs, visited Australia from 31st October to 27th November, 2005 for a 4- week course of focussed on the Best practices for vegetable production, Postharvest management skills in supply chain mapping, Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and QA systems (Appendices 1 & 2). 5 At the end of the course, Vietnamese scientists were awarded Certificates in Greenhouse & Hydroponic production, Postharvest Technology, Good Agricultural Practices and Quality Assurance from NSW DPI. 2. During training course establishment of demonstration experimental trials in Vietnam and Scientists from NSW Department of Primary Industries visiting Vietnam were discussed and have been suggested as follows: • Establishment of demonstration experimental trials in Vietnam: An experimental trial in protected cropping for production of safe and high quality vegetables titled “Evaluation of hydroponic systems and growing media for greenhouse vegetables such as cucumber and tomatoes" will be organised at IAS, Hochiminh (Duc Duong, Lam Dong province) and RIFAV, Hanoi using Australian greenhouse and hydroponic technologies in November and December, 2005 (Appendix 3). The aims of this experiment in Year 1 are evaluation of Vietnam’s coir dust and another media in greenhouse systems. Plant growth and yields will be recorded. These demonstrations provide also multiple training and workshops which will be organised in February 2006. • Scientists from NSW DPI visiting Vietnam and Regional workshops: NSW DPI horticultural scientists including Quality Assurance Officer, Mr Joseph Ekman; Postharvest Officer, Dr. Suzie Newman; Greenhouse Physiologist, Dr. Sophie Parks and Project Leader, Dr. Vong Nguyen will visit Vietnam from 8th February, 2005 to: a) assist the Vietnamese Government to develop safe management systems for its vegetable industry, b) organize workshops in two locations (Hanoi and Hochiminh) in Vietnam for training of approximately 100 Extension and Plant Protection horticulturists and approximately 50 vegetable traders and key growers of 34 provinces and cities in north and south Vietnam focussing on Quality Assurance, postharvest management and horticultural “best practice” protected cropping systems. c) inspection of demonstration trials in RIFAV, IAS and Lam Dong province. Due to late commencement in September 2005, the original plan to visit Vietnam was changed to February 2006 instead of November 2005 as planned. iii. Demonstration research trials in Vietnam: A research and demonstration project titled "Evaluation of growing media (including cocopeat) and nutrient solutions for greenhouse vegetables" is established at each of the RIFAV-Hanoi and IAS-HoChiMinh. The aims of this experiment in Year 1 were evaluation of Vietnam’s coir dust in greenhouse systems. • Experimental trial in IAS-Hochiminh: Trial which is randomised block design with 3 replications was organised in Don Duong, Lam Dong province where tomato is the major vegetable crop. Tomatoes (cultivars Manila and 386) and cucumbers were sown on 1 November 2005 on 4 different media from IAS (cocopeat + rice husk + earth worm casting), Cau Vong (cocopeat), Hieu Giang (coffee bean husk+ earth worm casting) and Don Duong (peat + cow manure + chemical NPK). Plant growth and yields will be recorded. • Experimental trial in RIFAV-Hanoi: Trial which is randomised block design with 5 replications was organised in research farm, RIFAV. Tomatoes (cultivar VL2500) and cucumber (cultivar Status) were sown 6 on 25th November and 20th December 2005, respectively on 4 different media including Media 1 (Sugar cane waste + peanut husk+ soybean), Media 2 (Sugar cane waste + peanut husk + peat), Media 3 (Sugar cane waste + peat + volcano rock) and Media 4 (Cocopeat). Plant growth and yields will be recorded. 5.2 Smallholder Benefits Fresh market tomatoes sold in Hochiminh market used to be supplied from Don Duong province of Lam Dong highland. It is about 200km south-north of Hochiminh city. The industry was once destroyed by wilt diseases, particularly Bacterial wilt. However it has recovered thanks to the grafting technique which was introduced in 2002/03 by CARD004/04VIE’s research partner; the Institute of Agricultural Science for South Vietnam. The benefits of grafting are in producing plants with resistance to bacterium and pythium wilts. Freshmarket tomatoes industry in Don Duong now is reaching up to approx. 4,000 5,000ha, employing a large number of people, particularly women. A plastic house with drip irrigation systems which was built in November 2005 as part of this project could provide another new technology, bringing benefits to the smallholders in the area. It should be noted that greenhouse tomato is a new industry for the Don Duong area. 5.3 Capacity Building Three Vietnamese horticulturists who were invited to Australia in November 2005 have increased their understanding of modern horticulture through four weeks training in Australia, enhancing their capacity for developing the Vietnamese rural horticultural industry. 5.4 Publicity Three articles in Vietnamese language on safe vegetables production, Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Vietnam joining WTO were published in Vietnamese papers. They were: 1. Nguyen Quoc Vong, 2005. Lam gi de co mot tam “ho chieu” cho rau qua Viet nam ? (How to get a “visa” for Vietnamese vegetables?) Khoa Hoc & Đoi Song (Science & Life). Vol. 59 25 July 2005. Page 6. In Vietnamese. 2. Nguyen Quoc Vong, 2005. Nhung thach thuc moi cua nong nghiep Vietnam (Good Agricultural Practices: New challenges ahead for Vietnamese agricultural industry). Saigon Economy Times (Thoi Bao Kinh Te Saigon). Vol. 22 September 2005. Pages 37-38. In Vietnamese. 3. Nguyen Quoc Vong, 2005. Rau qua Dalat can co tam “visa” GAP de gia nhap WTO (Dalat vegetables need a “visa” GAP for joining WTO). Lam Dong Cuoi Tuan (The Lam Dong Weekend). So 2579, 23 December 2005. Page 3 & 7. In Vietnamese. 5.5 Project Management • CARD contract signed with NSW Department of Primary Industries on 15th August 2006. • Vietnamese and Australian team members and roles within the project finalised. • Three Vietnamese scientists visited Australia in October-November 2005 for a 4 week period to undertake intensive training in agricultural production systems. • Two demonstration research trials have been established at IAS and RIFAV. The objective of these two trials is to investigate the effect of growing media on crop development, yield and quality of greenhouse grown tomato and cucumber. 7 • Planning and resource development for training workshops in Vietnam to be held in February 2006 6. Report on Cross-Cutting Issues 6.1 Environment Experimental trials in Hanoi and Hochiminh which focused on 4 -5 uncontaminated media would bring benefits to food safety for Vietnamese horticultural industry. There is great concern of safety in vegetables in Vietnam due to chemical left in the soil from fungicides, insecticides, heavy metal and mycotoxins. 6.2 Gender and Social Issues Introduction of grafting technique, greenhouse horticulture, uncontaminated media and drop irrigation systems have helped local Hanoi and Don Duong areas, contributing more job to the local community, particularly women 7. Implementation & Sustainability Issues 7.1 Issues and Constraints Extended contract negotiations have delayed the implementation of this project. Due to the seasonality of project activities this has caused substantial delays in project activities. This may lead to the need to renegotiate some of the project milestones over the next few months. 7.2 Options Nil 7.3 Sustainability 8. Next Critical Steps Project’s activities in the next six months are as follows: 1. Two workshops on Quality Assurance, Postharvest and horticultural “Good Agricultural Practice” protected cropping systems in Hanoi and Hochiminh to be held in February 2006; 2. Evaluation of Vietnamese cocopeat is investigated in Gosford Horticultural Institute, Australia; 3. Experimental trials of greenhouse tomatoes and cucumber to be organised in Hanoi and Hue; 4. Australian Project Leader visiting Vietnam for evaluating of Year 1 and developing program for remaining workshops in Hue and Can Tho. 9. Conclusion The project which commenced in September 2005 - 8 months later than the original proposed plan of January 2005 - is going well without any problem. Key achievements during this six monthly reporting period include: 8 1. Project management • CARD contract signed with NSW Department of Primary Industries on 15th August 2006. Vietnamese and Australian team members and roles within the project finalised. • Planning and resource development for training workshops in Vietnam to be held in February 2006 2. Capacity building • In October-November 2005, three Vietnamese scientists visited Australia for a 4 week period to undertake intensive training in agricultural production systems at Gosford Horticultural Institute and Yanco Agricultural Institute. The visit also provided the opportunity to plan the demonstration research trials and the training workshops in Vietnam. 3. Demonstration research trials • Two demonstration research trials have been established at IAS and RIFAV. The objective of these two trials is to investigate the effect of growing media on crop development, yield and quality of greenhouse grown tomato and cucumber. 4. Publication • Three articles in Vietnamese language on safe vegetables production, Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Vietnam joining WTO were published in Vietnamese papers. 9
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