Tài liệu Bảng tính cau co calculation (Hỗ trợ tải tài liệu zalo 0587998338)

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CDM Project Office for Danang City PIIP 8th Floor of CIENCO 5 Tower 77 Nguyen Du Street, Hai Chau District, Danang City, Vietnam Tel. 05 11 388 6778 | Fax. 05 11 388 6998 eMail: danangoffice@cdmvietnam.com  DANANG PRIORITY INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT PROJECT- DANANG PIIP PACKAGE: A23+ A24+ B27 -----------------Phase 2- Detailed Design SUBCOMPONENT C57 : CO CO BRIDGE CALCULATION Danang, 29 December 2011 Contents 1. Structural Design Criteria 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 General Design Standards and Codes of Practice Horizontal and Vertical Clearance Materials Loads Load Factors and Combinations Design Considerations / Limit States 1 5 6 7 10 32 36 2. Structural Model 47 3. Seismic Load on Bridge 62 4. Foundation and Pile Design 70 5. Arch Ribs Design 119 6. RC Bracing Design 157 7. Hanger Design 216 8. Deck and Diaphragm Girder Design 220 9. Deck Slab Design 237 10. Tied Beam Design 243 11. Abutment Wall Design 252 Detailed Design of The Co Co Bridge 1. Structural Design Criteria Design Criteria SUBCOMPONENT C –URBAN ROADS AND BRIDGES THE SOUTHERN LINK ROAD : BASIC DESIGN OF THE CO CO BRIDGE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF HIGHWAY BRIDGE 1.1 General This subsection consists of the design requirements for elevated highway bridge structures, including superstructures, substructures and foundations of the Danang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project (DN-PIIP), Danang, Vietnam. The Co Co Bridge, crossing the Co Co river in Cam Le district of Danang City, has a total length of about 90 m. The bridge is designed to serve 4 traffic lanes and pedestrian load in both sides. The minimum requirement for the width of the bridge shall be 2+7.5+7.5+2 =19.0 m when the sidewalk width is 2 m and the roadway width is 15 m. Concrete structure shall be designed for the main construction material of the bridge because it is located near the coastal area so the exposed condition shall be considered as severe environment and the steel structure shall be concerned for the corrosion protection that would require higher construction costs, long term inspection and maintenance. The arch structure shall be proposed in design of this bridge since its architecture produces better visual effects and the aesthetic consideration plays an important role in the plan of the bridge construction because the site is in the development area of the district. INCLINED THROUGH RIGID FRAME TIED CONCRETE ARCH BRIDGE For through rigid frame tied arch bridge, the arch ribs are fixed to form a rigid frame. For a small span bridge, the pier can stand small thrust forces caused by self-weight of the arch but for a large span, the tied bars shall be used to reduce the horizontal force transmitted to the pier and the foundation. The tied cables shall be installed inside the edge tie girders in both side of the bridge. Most of this kind of bridge has single span, however, the details at the joint on the top of the pier is so complicated because the arch ribs, the piers, the crossbeam and tie beams are joined together. The single span of 90 m for the arch bridge shall be proposed. The size of the arch ribs becomes large then they will be located outside the sidewalk to keep the bridge width as per minimum requirement. Two arch ribs are designed to be slightly inclined inward about 10º not only strengthen the out-of-plane stability of the arch structure but also give a good aesthetic appearance. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 1 29 December 2011 Design Criteria Design Outline The bridge structures shall be designed for a minimum service life of 100 years. The design of highway bridges shall satisfy certain criteria as follows: 1) Small deflections and good resilience to dynamic responses to ensure passenger safety and a high level of comfort 2) Low probability of resonance 3) Conceptual simplicity and standardization for ease of construction, schematic quality control, fast track construction and higher maintenance reliability 4) Reduction of environmental noise and vibration impact 5) Limited hours available for inspection, maintenance and repair. In addition, the design works shall have a high aesthetic character as recommended in the following criteria:  The bridge structures shall be proportioned to present an appearance of slenderness  The bridge structures shall be harmonized with the surrounding landscape and visual intrusion shall be reduced as far as practical  All visible longitudinal lines shall be smooth without any appearance of sagging or interruption at piers  Aesthetic and visual continuity shall be maintained within the whole project  The edge to the viaduct (and any features) shall be detailed to a high standard to complement and emphasize the horizontal line. The edge shall be also detailed to avoid water or other unsightly staining.  Exposed pipe work, ducts and cables shall be avoided as far as practical. If unavoidable, they shall be masked by covers in recesses, blended with the background of structure. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 2 29 December 2011 Design Criteria Design Limit States General Each component and connection shall satisfy Equation 1.1 for each limit state, unless otherwise specified. For service and extreme event limit states, resistance factors shall be taken as 1.0, except for bolts, for which the provisions of Art.6.5.5 shall apply. All limit states shall be considered of equal importance.   Q i i i  Rn  Rr (1.1) In which : For loads for which a maximum value of i is appropriate :  i   D R I  0.95 (1.2) For loads for which a minimum value of i is appropriate : i  1  D R I  1 .0 (1.3) where : i = load factor  = resistance factor i = load modifier : a factor relating to ductility, redundancy and operational importance D = a factor relating to ductility (1.0 for all limit states) R = a factor relating to redundancy (1.05 for strength limit state, 1.0 for others) I = a factor relating to operational importance (1.0 for all limit states) Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 3 29 December 2011 Design Criteria The structures shall be designed and checked at every stage of construction until the completion of the bridge for specified limit states to achieve the objectives of constructability, safety and serviceability: 1) Ultimate limit state or strength design shall ensure that strength and stability, both global and local, are provided to resist specified statistically significant load combinations that the viaduct is expected to experience in its design life. 2) Service limit state shall ensure durability and set restrictions on stress, deformations and crack width under regular service conditions. 3) Extreme Event limit state shall be taken to ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood, or when collided by a vessel or vehicle, possibly under scoured conditions. 4) Fatigue limit state guarantees the safety of the structure and limits the crack growth against damage due to repetitive loadings. It ensures the reference stress range is below the truncated limit for different classes of details. Fatigue damage shall be assessed over the designated service life of 100 years. Fatigue design for concrete structures shall be based on ACI 358. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 4 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 1.2 Design Standards and Codes of Practice The bridge structures shall be designed in accordance with all applicable portions of the following standards and codes: Vietnam : 22 TCN 272 – 2005, Bridge Design Standard : TCXDVN 356 – 2005, Design Standard for Reinforced Concrete Structures : TCXDVN 375 – 2006, Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance ACI : ACI 224R-01, Control of Cracking in Concrete Structures : ACI 318-05, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete : ACI 336.3R-93, Design and Construction of Drilled Piers : ACI 341.2R-97, Seismic Analysis and Design of Concrete Bridge Systems : ACI 343-95 (Reapproved 2004), Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures : ACI 358.1R-92 Analysis and Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Guideway Structures : ACI 435R-95 (Reapproved 2000), Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures AASHTO: AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specifications – SI Units (2005 Interim Revisions) 3rd Edition : AASHTO, Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridge, 2nd Edition, 1999 : AASHTO, Guide Specifications, Thermal Effects in Concrete Bridge Superstructures ASCE : ASCE 7-05, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures AISC : American Institute of Steel Construction, Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings, March 9, 2005 ASTM : American Society for Testing and Materials Standards BS : BS 5400, Part 4, Code of Practice for Design of Concrete Bridges Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 5 29 December 2011 Design Criteria PCI : Prestressed Concrete Institute The edition of each standard used shall be that current at the date of signing the Contract. Later editions that become available during the course of the Contract may be used upon receipt of written statement of “No Objection” from owner. In the event of conflicting requirements between the Local Design Specifications and other standards and codes of practice, the Local Design Specifications shall take precedence. For requirements which have not been included in the Design Specifications, the order of code adoption shall follow the sequence of American standards and others. 1.3 Horizontal and Vertical Clearance 1.3.1 Navigational This river shall not be in class I to class VI of waterway therefore no requirement for navigational horizontal and vertical clearance shall be applied. However the minimum vertical clearance between highest water level and bridge soffit shall not be less than 500 mm. 1.3.2 Highway 1.3.2.1 Highway Vertical The vertical clearance of highway structures shall be in conformance with the Highway Design Standard TCVN 4054-2005. Possible reduction of vertical clearance, due to settlement of an overpass structure, shall be investigated. If the expected settlement exceeds 25 mm, it shall be added to the specified clearance. The vertical clearance to sign supports and pedestrian overpasses should be 300 mm greater than the highway structure clearance, and the vertical clearance from the roadway to the soffit of bridge structure should not be less than 4750 mm. 1.3.2.2 Highway Horizontal The bridge width shall not be less than that of the approach roadway section, including shoulders or curbs, gutters, and sidewalks. No object on or under a bridge, other than a barrier, should be located closer than 1200 mm to the edge of a designated traffic lane. The inside face of a barrier should not be closer than 600 mm to either the face of the object or the edge of a designated traffic lane. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 6 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 1.4 Materials 1.4.1 Concrete The minimum 28-days concrete cylinder strength test in accordance with ASTM C39-99 for bridge structures shall be as follows: Table 1.4-1: Concrete Strengths Typical Use fc (N/mm2) Ec (kN/mm2) Lean concrete Normal concrete Bored piles, Foundation, Abutment, Deck Slab Bracing Precast Deck Slab, Prestressed Girders, Arch Ribs 15 25 35 20.8 26.9 31.8 50 38.0 These are minimum requirements, however, higher concrete may be used after approval from the engineer. In particular for cast in situ segmental deck, higher concrete strength may be used in order to obtain minimum strength prior to stressing tendons earlier, thus speeding up the construction. 1.4.2 Reinforcing Bars The steel bars for concrete reinforcement shall be in accordance with TCVN 16512008 as follows : 1) CB300-T, fy = 300 N/mm2 for plain round bars of diameter less than 10 mm. 2) CB400-V, fy = 400 N/mm2 for deformed bars of diameter 10 mm (D10) or greater. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 7 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 1.4.3 Prestressing Strands Prestressing strands shall be seven wires low relaxation strands conforming to ASTM A416M, Grade 270. Prestressing strand properties are shown in Table 1.4-2 Table 1.4-2: Properties of Prestressing Strand Nominal dia., mm Nominal mass, kg/m Nominal area, mm2 Breaking strength, kN Yield Strength (MPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Relaxation - 70% UTS - 80% UTS Es, N/mm2 12.7 0.786 100 185 15.24 1.101 140 260.8 90% fpu (1,674) 1,860 2.5% 3.5% 197,000 2.5% 3.5% 197,000 Table 1.4-3: Friction Coefficient for Posttensioning Tendons Values of K and  should be based on experimental data for the materials specified and shall be shown in the contract documents. In the absence of such data, a value within the ranges of K and  as specified in Table 1.4-3 may be used. For tendons confined to a vertical plane,  shall be taken as the sum of the absolute values of angular changes over length x. For tendons curved in three dimensions, the total tridimensional angular change  shall be obtained by vectorially adding the total vertical angular change,  v, and the total horizontal angular change,  h. Effective prestressing force is calculated as: P(x) = P0* e – µ(α+kx) Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 8 29 December 2011 Design Criteria For external tendons the wobble factor is only considered over the embedded sections in the diaphragms and deviators. The wedge draw-in shall be: 5 mm for less than 10 strands 6 mm from 10 strands to 15 strands 8 mm from 15 strands and up Anchorage strength shall not be less than the ultimate tensile load of the prestressing steel to be used, and no harmful deformations shall occur under this load. The ultimate tensile load of the prestressing steel shall be the ultimate tensile strength specified in ASTM multiplied by the sectional area and numbers of the wires, strands or bars. 1.4.4 Prestressing Bars High strength tensile bars shall be ASTM A722-98 Grade 150. Tensile strength of bars shall be at least equal to 1,000 N/mm2 when tested in accordance to AASHTO M215 method. 1.4.5 Prestressing Wires Wire shall be uncoated, stress-relieved, cold-drawn, high-tensile steel wire conforming to ASTM A421-05. 1.4.6 Sheathing for Prestressing Tendons 1) Sheathing for internal tendons shall be formed from thin galvanized steel sheeting. 2) External prestressing shall be protected from corrosion by the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing which shall be continuous between anchorages. 3) The internal cross section area of the sheath shall be at least 2.5 times the strand area. The sheath shall have an external diameter to wall thickness ratio of 21 or less. 4) At deviators, a double sheathing system shall be used. 5) At anchorages, the sheathing shall be a double sheathing system (replaceable system). 6) The radius of curvature of tendon ducts shall not be less than 6000 mm, except in the anchorage areas where 3600 mm may be permitted. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 9 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 7) The inside diameter of ducts shall be at least 6 mm larger than the nominal diameter of single bar or strand tendons. For multiple bar or strand tendons, the inside cross-sectional area of the duct shall be at least 2.0 times the net area of the prestressing steel with one exception: where tendons are to be placed by the pull-through method, the duct area shall be at least 2.5 times the net area of the prestressing steel. 8) The size of ducts shall not exceed 0.4 times the least gross concrete thickness at the duct. 1.5 Loads 1.5.1 Dead Load (D) Dead loads include the weight of the entire structure and all permanently installed elements such as walls and other fixed service equipments. 1) Self Weight (SW). The unit weights in Table 1.5.1-1 shall be used. Table 1.5.1-1: Self Weights Material Steel Cast Iron Aluminium Alloy Timber (untreated) Plain Concrete Reinforced Concrete Soil Water 2) kN/m 76.9 70.6 27.4 7.8 23.5 24.5 17.6 9.8 3 Unit Weight kg/m3 7,850 7,200 2,800 800 2,400 2,500 1,800 1,000 Superimposed Dead Loads (SDL) Superimposed dead loads shall include barriers, hand rails, utilities attached to the structure, wearing surface, future overlays and planned widening. 1.5.2 Transient Loads 1) Standard Vehicle Load (LL) Vehicular live loading on the roadways of bridges, designated HL-93, shall consist of a combination of the: Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 10 29 December 2011 Design Criteria a) Design truck or design tandem The weight and spacing of axles and wheels for the design truck shall be as specified in Figure 1.5.2-1. The spacing of the two 145 kN axles shall be varied between 4300 and 9000 mm to produce extreme force effects. The tire contact area of a wheel consisting of one or two tires shall be assumed to be a single rectangle, whose width of 510 mm and tire length shall be 2.28x10-3(1+IM/100)P where P = 72,500 N for the design truck and 55,000 N for the design tandem. The design tandem shall consist of a pair of 110 kN axles spaced 1200 mm apart. The transverse spacing of wheels shall be taken as 1800 mm. b) Design lane load The design lane load shall consist of a load of 9.3 N/mm uniformly distributed in the longitudinal direction. Transversely, the design lane load shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over a 3000 mm width. The force effects from the design lane load shall not be subjected to a dynamic load allowance. c) Application of design vehicular live load The extreme force effect shall be taken as the larger of the following :  The effect of design tandem combined with design lane load  The effect of one design truck with the variable axle spacing combined with the effect of design lane load  For both negative moment between points of contra flexure under a uniform load on all spans, and reaction at interior piers only, 90 percent of the effect of two design trucks spaced a minimum of 15000 mm between the lead axle of one truck and the rear axle of the other truck, combined with 90 percent of the effect of the design lane load. The distance between the 145 kN axles of each truck shall be taken as 4300 mm. Both the design lanes and the 3000 mm loaded width in each lane shall be positioned to produce extreme force effects. The design truck or tandem shall be positioned transversely such that the center of any wheel load is not closer than:  For the design of the deck overhang – 300 mm from the face of the curb or railing and Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 11 29 December 2011 Design Criteria  For the design of all other components – 600 mm from the edge of design lane d) Loading for Optional Live Load Deflection Evaluation If the Owner invokes the optional live load deflection criteria specified in Article 1.7.4, the deflection should be taken as the larger of:  That resulting from the design truck alone, or  That resulting from 25 percent of the design truck taken together with the design lane load. 3500 Figure 1.5.2-1: Standard Design Truck The live load effects shall be determined by considering each possible combination of number of loaded lanes multiplied by the corresponding factor specified in Table 1.5.2-1. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 12 29 December 2011 Design Criteria Table 1.5.2-1 - Multiple Presence Factors "m” Number of loaded lanes Multiple presence factor “m” 1 1.20 2 1.00 3 0.85 >3 0.65 2) Dynamic Load Allowance (IM) The static effects of the design truck or tandem, other than centrifugal and braking forces, shall be increased by the percentage specified by Table 1.5.2-2 Table 1.5.2-2: Dynamic Load Allowance (Impact) Component Deck Joints – All limit state All other components  Fatigue and fracture limit state  All other limit state IM 75% 15% 25% The impact factor shall be applied to the superstructure, supporting columns, legs of rigid frames and generally those parts of the structure extending down to the main foundation. The impact factor shall not be applied to the following structures: a) Abutments and retaining walls not subjected to vertical reaction from superstructure b) Foundations and footings c) Service walkways Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 13 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 3) Centrifugal Force (CF) The centrifugal effect on live load shall be taken as the product of the axle weights of the design truck or tandem and the factor C, taken as v2 gR C f where v = highway design speed (m/s) f = (4/3) for load combination excluding fatigue = 1.0 for fatigue R = radius of curvature of traffic lane (m) Centrifugal forces shall be applied horizontally at a distance of 1800 mm above the roadway surface. 4) Braking Force (BR) The braking force shall be taken as :  25 percent of the axle weights of the design truck or design tandem or, The braking force shall be placed in all design lanes which are carrying traffic headed in the same direction. These forces shall be applied horizontally at a distance of 1800 mm above the roadway surface in either longitudinal direction to cause extreme force effect. The multiple presence factors specified in Table 1.5.2-1 shall apply. 5) Pedestrian Loads (PL) Pedestrian load of 3.6x10-3 MPa shall be applied to all sidewalks wider than 600 mm and considered simultaneously with the vehicular design live load. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 14 29 December 2011 Design Criteria 6) Wind Load (WS and WL) Wind loads shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed to the area exposed to the wind. The exposed area shall be the sum of areas of all components including floor system and railing as seen in elevation taken perpendicular to the assumed wind direction. This direction shall be varied to determine the extreme force effect in the structure or in its components. The design wind velocity, V, shall be determined from: V = VB S where: VB = basic 3 second gust wind velocity with 100 year return period appropriate to the Wind Zone in which the bridge is located, as specified in Table 1.5.2-3 S = correction factor for upwind terrain and deck height, as specified in Table 1.5.2-4 Table 1.5.2-3 - Values of VB for Wind Zones in Vietnam Wind zone according to TCVN 2737 – 1995 VB (m/s) I 38 II 45 III 53 IV 59 For calculating wind loads during erection, the values of VB from Table 1.5.2-3 may be multiplied by 0.85. In this project, wind zone III shall be applied for Danang area. Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 15 29 December 2011 Design Criteria Table 1.5.2-4 - Values of S Height of bridge deck above surrounding ground or water level (m) Open country or open water Wooded country or built-up areas, with trees or buildings up to a maximum height of about 10m Built-up areas with buildings predominantly over 10m high 10 1.09 1.00 0.81 20 1.14 1.06 0.89 30 1.17 1.10 0.94 40 1.20 1.13 0.98 50 1.21 1.16 1.01 6.1) Wind Pressure on Structure (WS) 6.1.1 Transverse Wind Load (PD) The transverse wind load, PD, shall be taken as acting horizontally at the centroids of the appropriate areas, and shall be calculated as: PD = 0.0006 V2 At Cd  1.8 At (kN) where: V = design wind velocity determined from Equation 3.8.1.1-1 (m/s) At = area of the structure or element for calculation of transverse wind load (m2) Cd = drag coefficient specified in Figure 1.5.2-2 The area of the structure or element under consideration, At, shall be the solid area in normal projected elevation, without live load, subject to the following provisions:  For superstructures with solid parapets, the area of superstructure shall include the area of the solid windward parapet, but the effect of the leeward parapet need not be considered.  For superstructures with open parapets, the total load shall be the sum of the loads for the superstructure, the windward parapet and the leeward Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 16 29 December 2011 Design Criteria parapet considered separately. Where there are more than two parapets, only those two having the greatest unshielded effect shall be considered.  For truss girder superstructures, the wind force shall be calculated for each component separately, both windward and leeward, without considering shielding.  For piers, shielding shall not be considered. The drag coefficient, Cd, shall be calculated according to the following methods:  For superstructures with solid elevation, of conventional construction with bluff edges and without aerodynamically significant re-entrant angles, Cd shall be derived from Figure 1.5.2-2, where: b = overall width of bridge between outer faces of parapets (mm) d = depth of superstructure, including solid parapets if applicable (mm)  For truss girder superstructures, parapets and substructures, the wind force shall be calculated for each component separately using the values of Cd from TCVN 2737 – 1995, Table 6, or from any other recognized source approved by the Owner.  For all other superstructures, Cd shall be determined by wind tunnel testing. Figure 1.5.2-2 – Drag Coefficient Cd for Superstructures with Solid Elevation Danang PIIP : Component C – Urban Roads and Bridges Detailed Design for the Construction of the Southern Link Road International Inc.(USA) 17 29 December 2011
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