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LE XUAN TRONG (Chu bien) TCr NGOC ANH - LE KIM LONG I I i N A N G CAO NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DUC VIET NAM Lfi XUAN TRQNG (Chu bien) TU NGOC ANH - Lfi KIM LONG Bai tap HOA HOC 10 NANG CAO (Tdi bdn ldn thd tu) N H A X U A T BAN GIAO DUC VI^T NAM Chu thich cac tir viet tat ' dung dich xt xiic tac H2S04d H2SO4 dac dktc dieu kien ti6u chudn 1 long k khf l-l dd rdn hs hoc sinh cht c6ng hoa tri Ban quyen thuoc Nha xuat ban Giao due Viet Nam 01-2010/CXB/640-1485/GD Ma s6: NBOO8T0 PHAN M 6 T : CAU HOI VA BAI TAP ChKcfng 1 NGUYEN TLf BAI ON TAP 1.1. Ne'u chia d6i lien tiep m6t vien bi sSt de'n khi co duoc phan tit nho nha't con mang tinh chat hoa hoc dac trung cua sat, phdn tit nho nha't nay duoc goilagi? 1.2. Cho mot mdu nudc da, ne'u cii chia dOi mdu nu6c da lien tie'p den khi thu duoc phdn tit nho nha't con mang tinh chdt hoa hoc dac trung ciia nudc. Phdn tit nho nhdt nay duoc goi la gi ? 1.3. Trong 0,1 mol mu6'i an co bao nhieu phan tit NaCl ? Mot luong sdt kim loai nguyen chdt chiJa 3,01.10 nguyen tit sat tuong duong vdi bao nhieu mol nguyen tit sdt ? 1.4. d didu kien tieu chudn (dktc) m6t mol khi chie'm m6t thi tich bdng A. 22,4 m l B. 22,4dml Hay chon dap an diing. C. 22,4 c m ^ D. 2,24 cml 1.5. a) M6t nguyen tit cacbon co kh6'i lucmg bdng 1,99.10"^^ kg. Hoi m6t mol nguyen tit cacbon co kh6'i luong bdng bao nhieu gam ? b) M6t mol phan tif C2H5OH co khdi lugfng bdng 46 g. Hoi mot phan tu C2H5OH CO khdi luong bdng bao nhieu gam ? 1.6. Hay xac dinh s6' mol chat co trong : a) 14,2 g khf clo ; b) 10 g canxi cacbonat; c) 16 g Imi huynh ; d) 34 g amoniac. 1.7. Tinh s6 mol HCI cdn thie't d^ phan iing viita dii vdi: a) 20 ml dung dich NaOH 0,1 M ; b) 5,6 g sdt; c) 16 g sdt(III) oxit; d) 9,8 g d6ng(II) hidroxit. 1.8. Cho bie't 6 dilu kien tieu chudn (1 atm va 0°C), kh^i luong rieng cua nito bdng 1,25 g/dm^. Xac dinh phan tif khO'i cua nito. 1.9. Cho khdi luong rieng cua ancol etylic (C2HgOH) long la 0,80 g/cml Thi tich mol cua ancol etylic bdng A. 57,5 c m l B. 5,75 c m l C. 36,80 c m l D. 3,68 c m l Hay chon dap an diing. 1.10. Cho dong khf CO du di qua 7,2 g d6ng(II) oxit nung nong or nhiet dd thfch hop cho de'n phan iing hoan toan thi thu duoc CO2 va d6ng kim loai. Hay : a) Tfnh khdi lugng d6ng thu dugc sau phan iing. b) Tfnh the tfch khf CO (of dktc) da tham gia phan iing. 1.11. Nhiet phan hoan toan 18,8 g mu6'i d6ng(II) nitrat thi thu dugc d6ng(II) oxit, khf NO2 va khf oxi. Tfnh khdi lugng ddng(II) oxit thu dugc. 1.12. Chgn cau diing trong cac cau sau : A. Trong phan ihig hoa hgc sd mol nguyen tit cac nguyen td co mat trong phan ling khdng thay ddi do cac nguyen td dugc bao toan. B. Trong phan iing hoa hgc sd mol nguyen tit cac nguyen td co mat trong phan ling thay doi do cac nguyen td khdng dugc bao toan. C. Khdi lugng cac nguyen td cd mat trong phan iing thay ddi do cac nguyen td khdng dugc bao toan. D. Sd nguyen tif cac nguyen td cd mat trong phan iing thay ddi do cdc nguyen td' khdng dugc bao toan. Bail T H A N H PHAN NGUYEN iCf 1.13. Sir dung sd lieu cho trong (bang 1.1) SGK, hay tfnh va tra ldi cac cau hoi sau : a) Khdi lugng cua mdt proton bang bao nhieu ldn khdi lugng cua electron ? b) Khdi lugng cua electron bdng bao nhidu phdn khdi lugng cua natron ? c) Nguyen tir heli cd 2 proton, 2 natron va 2 electron. Hoi khdi lugng ciia cac electron chidm bao nhieu % khd'i lugng nguyen tit ? 1.14. Trong 1 kg sdt cd bao nhieu gam electron ? Cho bidt mdt mol nguyen t i sdt CO khdi lugng bdng 55,85 g, mdt nguydn tit sdt cd 26 electron. 1.15. Cho rdng hat nhan nguydn tit va chfnh nguyen tit H cd dang hinh cdu. Hat nhan nguyen tit hidro cd ban kfnh gdn diing bdng 10 nm, ban kfnh nguyen tit H bdng 0,053 nm. a) Hay tfnh va so sanh th^ tfch cua nguyen tit hidro vdi Xhi tfch cua hat nhan nguyen tit hidro. b) Hay tfnh va so sanh khdi lugng rieng cua hat nhan va cua nguyen tit hidro. Cho bie't cdng thiic tfnh thi tfch hinh cdu Id V = ——- trong dd r la ban kfnh hinh cdu. 1.16. Cho bie't lu = 1,6605.10"^'' kg, nguyen tit khdi cua oxi bdng 15,999. Hay tfnh khd'i lugng cua mdt nguydn tii oxi ra kilogam. 1.17. Cho bie't khdi lugng nguydn tit cua C gdp 11,905 ldn khdi lugng nguyen tif cua hidro. Hay tfnh khd'i lugng nguyen tii cua hidro ra u va gam, khi coi khd'i lugng nguyen tit ciia C bdng 12. Bai 2 HAT NHAN NGUYEN T(S NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 1.18. Nguyen td hoa hgc la A. nhiing nguyen tii cd ciing dien tich hat nhan. B. nhiing nguydn tif cd cung sd khd'i. C. nhiing nguyen tif cd ciing sd natron. D. nhihig phan tit cd ciing phan tft khdi. Hay chgn cau dung. 1.19. Chi la mdt nguydn td hod hgc dac bidt cd Z = 82, thudng dugc sit dung di lam tdm chdn phdng xa. Ti le sd ncrtron/sd proton trong nguydn tit chi dugc coi la gidi han bin cua hat nhan. Hay xac dinh ti Id nay trong nguyen tit cua nguyen td chi ddng vi ^°^Pb va suy ra dilu kien bin cua cac hat nhan. 1.20. Tdng sd p, n, e trong nguydn tut cua nguydn td X la 10. Sd khd'i ciia nguyen tit nguyen td X bdng A. 3 B. 4 C. 6 D. 7. Hay chgn gia tri diing. 1.21. Nguydn tft ciia nguyen td X cd tdng sd hat p, n va e bdng 58, s6 hat proton gdn bdng sd hat natron. Tfnh Z va A cua nguydn td X. 1.22. Nguyen tft cfta nguyen td X cd tdng sd hat p, n va e bdng 82, tdng sd hat mang dien nhilu han tdng sd hat khdng mang dien la 22 hat. Xac dinh Z, A va vie't kf hieu nguyen tft cua nguyen td X. 1.23. Cho cac nguyen td X, Y, Z. Tdng sd hat p, n va e trong cac nguyen tft ldn lugt la 16, 58 va 78. Sd natron trong hat nhan va sd hieu nguyen tft cua mdi nguyen td khac nhau khdng qua 1 dan vi. Hay xac dinh cdc nguyen td va vidt kf hieu cua cac nguyen td. 1.24. Trong day kf hieu cac nguyen tft sau : 14 » 7A; 16t) gtJ; 15p, 7*^; 18pj 56x3 56p gU; 36^; 27^; 17^ 20TT 23T 8*-'; l O " ; 111; IITJT IQK Cac kf hieu nao chi cung mdt nguyen td hoa hgc. Sft dung bang tudn hoan cac nguyen td hod hgc hay xac dinh cac nguyen td da cho. Cho bilt ten ggi cua nguyen td, sd hat n, p, e cdu tao ndn 1 nguyen tft cua cac nguySn td vfta xac dinh. Bai 3 NGUYEN TCT KHOI VA NGUYEN T Q KHOI TRUNG BINH 0 6 N G VI, 1.25. Ddng vi la nhiing A. hgp chdt cd cung dien tfch hat nhan. B. nguyen td cd ciing didn tfch hat nhan. C. nguyen td cd cung sd khd'i A. D. nguyen tft cd ciing dien tfch hat nhan va khac nhau vl sd khd'i. Hay chgn cau dting. 1.26. Trong tu nhien brom cd hai ddng vi bin : 35 Br chidm 50,69% sd nguyen tft 81 va jgBr chidm 49,31% sd' nguyen tft. Hay tim nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua brom. 1.27. Tfnh nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua Ni theo sd khd'i cua cac ddng vi trong tu nhien cua Ni theo sd lieu sau : iNi; > i ; fgNi; ^Ni; f^Ni. 68,27% 26,10% 1,13% 3,59% 0,91% 27 1.28. Mdt nguydn td X cd hai ddng vi vdi ti le sd nguydn tft la —• Hat nhan nguyen tft X cd 35 proton. Trong nguyen tft cua ddng vi thft nhdt cd 44 natron. Sd natron trong nguyen tft cua ddng vi thft hai nhilu hon trong ddng vi thft nhdt la 2 natron. Tfnh nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cfta nguyen tdX(Ax). 1.29. Nguydn td X cd 3 ddng vila Xj chie'm 92,23%, Xj chidm 4,67% va X3 chie'm 3,10%. Tdng sd khd'i cua ba ddng vi bdng 87. Sd natron trong X2 nhilu hon trong Xj mdt hat. Nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua X la Ax = 28,0855. a) Hay tim Xj, X2 va X3. b) Ndu trong X, cd sd natron bdng sd proton. Hay tim sd natron trong nguyen tft cua mdi ddng vi. 1.30. Cho mdt dung dich chfta 8,19 g mudi NaX tac dung vdi mdt lugng du dung dich AgNOj thu dugc 20,09 g kd't tua. a) Tim nguyen tft khdi va ggi tdn X. b) X cd hai ddng vi, gia sft sd nguyen tft cfta ddng vi thft nha't nhilu gdp 3 ldn sd nguyen tft cua ddng vi thft hai. Hat nhan ddng vi thft nha't c6 it hon hat nhan ddng vi thft hai 2 natron. Tim sd khdi cfta mdi ddng vi. 1.31. Cho bidt nguyen tft khd'i trung binh cua iridi la 192,22. Iridi trong tu nhidn cd hai ddng vi la ^77 Ir va ^77 Ir. Hay tfnh phdn tram sd nguydn tft va phdn tram sd mol gdn dung cho hai ddng vi cua iridi. 1.32. Trong tu nhien agon cd 3 loai ddng vi bin vdi ti le % nguydn tft la : ?g^Ar JgAr ^Ar 0,337% 0,063% 99,6% Cho rdng nguydn tft khd'i cua cac ddng vi trung vdi sd' khd'i cua chiing. The tfch cua 20 g agon (d dktc) bdng A. 1,121 d m l B. 1,120 d m l C. 11,2146 d m l D. 11,200 dml Hay chgn phuang an dung. 1.33. Trong tu nhien oxi cd ba ddng v i : ^ | o ; ^gO ; ^gO; Cacbon cd hai ddng vi la: gC ; gC. Hoi cd thd cd bao nhidu loai phan tft khf cacbonic hgp thanh tft cac ddng vi trdn ? Vid't cdng thftc phan tft va tfnh phan tft khdi cfta chiing. 1.34. Trong tu nhidn ddng vi j^Cl chidm 24,23 % sd nguydn tft clo. Tinh thdnh phdn phdn tram vl khd'i lugng 17 Cl cd trong HCIO4 (vdi H la ddng vi j H, O la ddng vi ^g O) ? Cho nguyen tft khdi trung binh cua clo bdng 35,5. Bai 4 SL; C H U Y E N DONG COA ELECTRON TRONG NGUYEN TCT. OBITAN NGUYEN TCT 1.35. Hay neu su khdc biet chfnh trong vide md ta chuydn ddng cua cdc electron theo md hinh nguydn tft cu va md hinh hidn dai. 8 1.36. Cac chdm trong hinh anh dam may electron hinh cdu trong nguydn tft hidro (hinh 1.7 SGK) cd phai la hinh anh cfta mdt electron khdng ? Giai thfch. 1.37. Chuydn ddng cfta electron trong nguydn tft hidro cd thd tao ra cdc obitan s vd p trong dilu kidn nao ? Giai thich. 1.38. Phan biet hinh dang va su dinh hudng cfta cac obitan s va p. 1.39. Ban kfnh nguydn tft cfta hidro (0,0529 nm) ldn hon ban kfnh nguyen tft cua heli (0,0128nm) do nguyen nhan gi ? Giai thfch bdng khai niem obitan nguydn tft. 1.40*. Obitan nguydn tft la gi ? Obitan nguyen tft cd gidi han hay khdng ? Bai 5 LUYEN TAP V^ : T H A N H PHAN CAU TAO NGUYEN TCT. KHOI LLTONG CClA NGUYEN TCT. OBITAN NGUYEN TCT 1.41. Tdng sd nguydn tft trong 0,01 mol phan tft mudi amoni nitrat bdng A. 5,418.10^1 B. 5,418.10^\ C. 6,02.10^1 D. 3,01.10^1 Hay chgn dap an dung. 1.42. Nguydn tft la phdn tft nho nhdt cua chdt A. khdng mang didn. B. mang didn tfch duang. C. mang dien tfch am. D. cd thi mang didn hoac khdng mang dien. Hay chgn dap dn dung. 1.43. Sd hidu nguyen tft cho bidt A. sd proton trong hat nhan nguyen tft hay sd don vi dien tfch hat nhan nguyen tft. B. sd electron trong v6 nguyen tft. C. sd thft tu cua nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan. D. tat ca A, B va C. Hay chgn phuang an dung nhdt. 1.44. Cac nguyen td hoa hgc cd ti le sd notron/sd proton ldn han 1,5244 (trong nguydn tft cfta ddng vi ^°^Pb) thudng khdng bin va tu phan huy thanh cac nguyen td khdc. a) Dua vao bang tudn hoan hay xac dinh ti Id sd natron/sd proton cua cac nguyen td cd sd hidu nguyen tft bdng 90, 91, 92. b) Cac nguyen td nay cd bin khdng ? 1.45. Coi nguyen tft flo (^gF) nhu la mdt khd'i cdu cd dudng kfnh bdng 1,00.10"^ nm va hat nhan cd dudng kfnh bdng 1,00.10 nm. Hay tfnh : a) Khd'i lugng hat nhan nguyen tft flo (kg) dua vao bang 1.1 trong SGK. b) Ti le thi tfch cua nguyen tft flo va thi tfch cfta hat nhan. c) Tfnh khd'i lugng rieng cfta hat nhan nguyen tft flo. 1.46. Trong tu nhien silic tdn tai vdi ham lugng cac ddng vi : j4Si la 92,23%, f^Si la 4,67% va Jjsila 3,10%. Tfnh nguydn tft khd'i trung binh cfta silic. Bai 6 LdP VA PHAN L 6 P ELECTRON 1.47. Trong mdt ldp electron cd bao nhidu phan ldp electron ? Hay cho bilt cac kf hidu chi phan ldp electron. 1.48. Cac obitan trong mdt phan ldp khac nhau nhu thd nao ? 1.49. Hay xac dinh sd obitan cfta ldp M. 1.50. Hay xac dinh sd obitan cd trong phan ldp p va phan ldp d. 1.51. Electron 2p thudc vl ldp va phan ldp nao ? Ve hinh dang cua obitan m6 ta electron nay. 10 Bai 7 NANG LapNG C O A CAC ELECTRON TRONG NGUYEN TCT CAU HlNH ELECTRON NGUYEN T Q 1.52. Hay vidt kf hieu dl chi phan ldp electron vdi electron cud'i ciing d : a) Ldp thft 2, phan ldp s va electron la ddc than. b) Ldp thft 2, phan ldp p, d lugng tft thft 2 (tft trai sang) va electron la ddc than. c) Ldp thft 3, phan ldp p, d lugng tft thft 2 (tft trai sang) va electron la cap ddi. 1.53. Hay giai thfch su sdp xdp cdc electron vao cac obitan trong nguyen tft nito (Z = 7) di minh hoa cho cac nguyen If viing bin, nguyen If Pau-li va quy tdc Hun. 1.54. Hay giai thich va so sdnh viec sdp xdp electron vao cac d lugng tft va vao cac obitan theo mftc nang lugng. 1.55. Thd nao la cdu hinh electron ? Phan biet cdu hinh electron va thft tu sdp xdp electron theo mftc nang lugng. Ldy thf du minh hoa. 1.56. Vie't cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cua cac nguyen td sau : gC; gO ; iiNa; 13AI; 17CI; 20^3- 1.57. Sft dung bang tudn hoan, hay xac dinh cac nguyen td va vidt cdu hinh electron nguydn tft dudi dang d lugng tft ndu cho bidt sd electron cfta cac nguyen tft tren tftng ldp nhu sau : a) 2, 2 ; b) 2, 5 ; c) 2, 8, 5 ; d)2, 8, 3 ; d)2, 8 , 7 ; e) 2, 8, 8, 2. 1.58. a) Cdu hinh electron ldp ngoai cung cfta nguyen tft nguyen td' X dugc phan bd nhu sau : n 2s^ 1111 f 2p^ Sd hieu nguyen tft va kf hieu cfta nguyen td X la A. 5, B B.7,N C. 8, O Chgn ddp an dung. D. 9, F. 11 b) Cdu hinh electron ldp ngoai cung cua nguydn tft nguydn td Y dugc phan bd nhu sau : I I ! 3s" , 3p* Sd hidu nguydn tft va kf hidu cua nguydn td' Y la A. 4, Be B. 6, C C. 7, N Chgn dap an dung. D. 16, S. 1.59. Neu khuynh hudng bidn ddi sd electron d ldp ngoai cung cua nguydn tft cac nguyen td hod hgc khi sd hidu nguydn tft tang ddn ? 1.60. Cho cac nguydn td' cd sd hidu nguydn tft tft 1 ddn 36, nguydn tft cua cac nguydn td cd : a) 8 electron d ldp ngoai cung la : A. Ne, Ar, Kr ; B. Ne, Ar, Fe ; C. Ne, Ar, Fe, Kr ; D. Ar, Fe, Kr. Hay chgn dap an dung. b) 2 electron d ldp ngoai cung la : A. He, Be, Mg. B. He, Be, Mg vd 8 nguydn td nhdm B tft Sc ddn Zn (trft Cr va Cu). C. 8 nguydn td nhdm B tft Sc ddn Zn (trft Cr va Cu). D. He, Be, Mg va 10 nguydn td nhdm B tft Sc ddn Zn. Hay chgn dap an dung. 1.61. Hay vid't cdu hinh electron nguydn tft ddy du va cho bidt sd hidu nguyfin tft cfta cac nguydn td cd ldp electron ngoai cung nhu sau : a) 2s' ; b) 2s^ 2p^ c) 2s^ 2p^ ; d) 3s^ 3p* e) 3s^ 3p'^ f) 3s^ 3p^ d)3s' Bai 8 LUY$N TAP CHUONG 1 1.62. Vidt cdu hinh electron nguydn tft cua magie (Z = 12), photpho (Z = 15) vd cho bidt nguydn td nao la kim loai, nguydn td nao la phi kim ? 12 1.63. Trong sd cdc cdu hinh electron nguyen tft sau, cdu hinh electron nao la cfta nguyen tft oxi (Z = 8). A. Is^ 2s^ 2p^ ; B. Is^ 2s^ 2p'^; C. Is^ 2s^ 2p'^; D. Is^ 2s^ 2p^ Hay chgn phuang an dung. 1.64. Nguyen tft cfta nguyen td P (Z = 15) cd sd electron ddc than bdng A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. D. 4. Hay chgn dap an dung. 1.65. Nguyen tft R mdt di 1 electron tao ra cation R"^ cd cdu hinh electron nguyen tft d phan ldp ngoai cung la 2p . Vidt cdu hinh electron nguyen tft va su phan bd electron theo obitan cfta nguydn tft R. 1.66. Chi dua vdo cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cfta cdc nguyen td cd Z bdng 9, 11, 16 va 20 hay xdc dinh nguyen td nao la kim loai, nguyen td nao la phi kim. 1.67*. Trong phan tft MjX cd tdng sd hat (p, n, e) la 140 hat, trong dd sd hat mang dien nhilu han sd hat khdng mang didn la 44 hat. Sd khd'i cfta nguyen tft M ldn hon sd khd'i cfta nguyen tft X la 23. Tdng sd hat (p, n, e) trong nguyen tft M nhilu hon trong nguyen tft X la 34 hat. Vidt cdu hinh electron cua cac nguyen tft M va X. Vidt cdng thftc phan tft cfta hgp chdt. 1.68*. Hgp chdt Y cd cdng thftc MX2 trong dd M chidm 46,67% vl khd'i lugng. Trong hat nhan M cd sd natron nhilu hon sd proton la 4 hat. Trong hat ' nhan X sd natron bdng sd proton. Tdng sd proton trong MX2 la 58. a) Tim Aj^ va Axb) Xac dinh cdng thftc phan tft cua MX2. 13 Chuang 2 • BANG TUAN HOAN CAC NGUYEN TO HOA HOC VA DINH LUAT TUAN HOAN Bai 9 BANG TUAN HOAN CAC NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 2.1. Hay cho bidt y nghia cua mdt d nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan ? 2.2. Cac nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan dugc xdp theo chiiu tang ddn sd dofn vi didn tfch hat nhan. Thdng thudng nguyen tft khd'i trung binh ciing tang ddn. Tuy nhien cd mdt sd ngoai le : Nguyen td diing trudc cd nguyen tft khd'i trung binh ldn hon nguyen td diing sau. Sft dung bang tudn hoan, hay tim mdt sd nguyen td dac bidt nay. 2.3. Cd thi dinh nghia chu ki theo su thay ddi sd electron dugc khdng ? Giai thfch. 2.4. Sd nguyen td trong cac chu ki cfta bang tudn hoan cd gid'ng nhau khdng ? Ddu hieu nao cho bidt mdt chu ki kdt thuc ? 2.5.' Dua vao cdu hinh electron hay giai thfch vi sao chu ki 3 chi cd 8 nguyen td. 2.6. Khdi cac nguyen td gdm cac nhdm nao ? Khd'i nguyen td cdn cd the dugc ggi la cac nhdm gi ? 2.7. Su phan bd electron theo ldp trong nguyen tft cfta ba nguyen td nhu sau : X : 2 , 8, 1 ; Y : 2, 8, 7 ; Z : 2, 8, 8, 2. Hay xac dinh vi trf cac nguyen td nay trong bang tudn hodn. Bai 10 SL; BIEN 001 TUAN HOAN CAU HINH ELECTRON NGUYEN l(S COA CAC NGUYEN l6 HOA HOC 2.8. Ldm thd nao dl phan bidt cac nguydn td nhdm A va nguydn td nhdm B theo cdu tao ldp vd nguydn tft ? 14 2.9. Cac nguyen td nhdm A va nhdm B cd cung sd thft tu nhdm cd dac diem gi gid'ng va khac nhau ? Ldy thf du nguyen td C va Ti dl minh hoa. 2.10. Vi trf cua nguyen td trong bang tudn hoan cd lien he gi vdi cdu tao ldp vd nguyen tft cfta nguyen td dd. Giai thfch va neu thf du minh hoa. 2.11. Cho hai nguyen td X va Y d hai d lien tidp trong mdt chu ki cua bang tudn hoan va cd tdng sd proton bdng 27. Hay viet cdu hinh electron nguyen tft va xac dinh vi trf cua chung trong bang tudn hoan. 2.12. Oxit cao nhdt cfta mdt nguydn td nhdm VIA chfta 60 % oxi vl khd'i lugng. Hay xac dinh nguyen td va vidt cdu hinh electron nguyen tft cfta nguyen td dd. 2.13. Trong chu ki 2 sd electron ldp ngoai cung thay ddi nhu thd nao ? 2.14. Hay ndu su bidn ddi tudn hoan cdu hinh electron nguyen tft trong bang tudn hoan. 2.15. Cho hai nguyen td hoa hgc cd cdu hinh electron nguyen tft la : -1- Nguyen tft X : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ + Nguyen tft Y : Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ 3d^ 4s^ a) Hdi chung cd d trong cung mdt nhdm nguyen td khdng ? Hay giai thfch. b) Hai nguyen td nay each nhau bao nhieu nguyen td hoa hgc ? Cd ciing chu ki khdng ? Bai 11 SU BIEN 001 MOT SO OAI LUONG V A T LI C O A C A C NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 2.16. Hay cho bidt dai lugng nao dudi day cfta cac nguyen td bidn ddi tudn hoan theo chiiu tang cfta didn tfch hat nhan : A. Sd ldp electron. B. Sd electron d ldp ngodi cung. C. Nguydn tft khdi. D. Sd electron trong nguydn tft . 15 2.17. Dua trdn cac dft kidn cho dudi day : Nguyen td Na Mg Al Si P S TnguyentftCnm) 0,157 0,136 0,125 0,117 0,110 0,104 Hay giai thfch su bidn ddi ban kfnh nguydn tft cua cdc nguydn td. Cl 0,099 2.18. Bdn kfnh nguyen tft cua cac nguydn td Be, F, Li va Q tang ddn theo thft tu sau: A. Li < Be < F < Cl; B. F < Be < Cl < L i ; C. Be < Li < F < Cl; D. Cl < F < Li < Be. Dua vao sd lidu cho d hinh 2.1 SGK, hay chgn phuang an dung. 2.19. Ban kfnh cac ion cd cung cdu hinh electron ti Id nghich vdi didn tich hat nhan cfta nguydn tft. Cac ion Na , Mg , F , O 'y 'y diu cd cung cdu hinh A electron Is 2s 2p . Sft dung bang tudn hoan xac dinh sd hidu nguydn tft va chgn day cdc ion cd ban kfnh giam ddn : A. Na^ > Mg^"" > F~ > 0^~. B. Mg^^ > Na"" > F" > O^'. C. F" > Na* > Mg^"" > O^". D. 0^~ > F~ > Na"^ > Mg^^ Hay chgn dap an dung. 2.20. Cac nguyen td Na, Mg, Si, C dugc sdp xdp theo chiiu giam ddn nang lugng ion hoa thft nhdt: A. C > S i > M g > N a ; B. Si > C > Mg > Na ; C. C > M g > S i > N a ; D. Si > C > Na> Mg. Dua vao sd lieu cho d bang 2.2 SGK, hay chgn dap an dung. 2.21. Cac nguyen td Mg, Al, B va C dugc sdp xdp theo thft tu tang ddn dd am dien: A. M g < B < A l < C ; B. Mg < Al < B < C ; C. B < Mg < Al < C ; D. Al < B < Mg < C. Dua vao sd lieu cho d bang 2.3 SGK, hay chgn dap an dung. 2.22. Hai nguyen td X va Y d hai nhdm A lien tidp trong bang tudn hodn, X thudc nhdm V. 6 trang thai don chdt X va Y khdng phan ting vdi nhau. Tdng sd proton trong hat nhan X va Y bdng 23. Xdc dinh hai nguydn td va vidt cdu hinh electron nguydn tft cfta chung. 16 Bai 12 s a BI^N 061 TINH KIM LOAI TiNH PHI KIM COA CAC NGUYEN TO HOA HOC. DINH LUAT TUAN HOAN 2.23. So sdnh tfnh kim loai cfta cdc cap nguydn td sau vd giai thfch ngdn ggn : a) Kali va natri; b) Natri va nhdm ; c) Nhdm vd kali. 2.24. So sanh tfnh phi kim trong tftng cap nguyen td sau va giai thfch ngdn ggn : a) Cacbon va silic ; b) Clo vd liru huynh ; c) Nita va silic. 2.25. Hoa tri cfta nguydn td' hod hgc la gi ? Hay ndu su bidn ddi hoa tri cfta cac nguydn td hod hgc trong chu ki 2. 2.26. Hay neu su bidn ddi tfnh chdt axit - bazo cua cdc oxit va hidroxit cfta cac nguyen td trong chu ki 3 khi di tft trai sang phai. 2.27. So sdnh tfnh baza cfta cac hidroxit trong mdi day sau va cd giai thfch ngdn ggn : a) Canxi hidroxit, stronti hidroxit, bari hidroxit; b) Natri hidroxit va nhdm hidroxit; c) Canxi hidroxit va xesi hidroxit. 2.28. Hay so sdnh tfnh axit cfta cdc chdt trong mdi day sau va giai thfch ngdn ggn : a) Axit cacbonic va axit silixic ; b) Axit silixic, axit photphoric, axit sunfuric. 2.29. Hay vidt cdc phuang trinh hod hgc cua cdc phan ftng gifta cdc oxit sau vdi nudc (ndu cd) : NajO, SO3, CI2O7, COj, CaO, N2O5 va nhan xet vl tfnh chdt axit - bazo cua san phdm. 2.BT H6AHOCIO.NC-A 17 Bai 13 y NGHTA COA B A N G T U A N HOAN C A C NGUYEN TO HOA HOC 2.30. Cac nguyen td thudc chu ki 2 cd thd tao thanh cation dan nguydn tft : A. Li, Be, B, C va N ; B. Li, Be, C, N va O ; C. Li, B e v a B ; Hay chgn dap an dung. D. N, O, F va Ne. 2.31. Cdc nguydn td thudc chu ki 3 cd thi tao thanh anion don nguyen tft : A. Al, Si, P, S, Cl; B. Si, P, S, Cl; C. P, S,C1; Hay chgn phuang an dung. D. Mg, Si, P, S, CL 2.32. Nguyen td Si cd Z = 14. Cdu hinh electron nguydn tft cua silic la : A. Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ ; B. Is^ 2s^ 2p'' 3s^ 3p^ C. Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ ; D. Is^ 2s2 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ Hay chgn dap an dung. 2.33. ca'u hinh electron nguydn tft cfta sdt: Is^ 2s^ 2p^ 3s^ 3p^ 3d^ 4s^. Sdt d A. d 26, chu ki 4, nhdm VIIIA. C. d 26, chu ki 4, nhdm IIA. Hay chgn phuang an dung. B. d 26, chu ki 4, nhdm VIIIB. D. d 26, chu ki 4, nhdm IIB. 2.34. Nguyen td photpho d d sd 15, chu ki 3, nhdm VA trong bang tudn hoan. Hay neu tdm tdt tfnh chdt hod hgc cua photpho. 2.35. Hay cho bidt y nghia cfta do dm dien va su bidn ddi cfta dd dm didn cac nguyen td trong chu ki 3 va nhdm VIIA. Bai 14 LUYEN TAP CHLTONG 2 2.36. Mdt nguyen td X cd Z = 20. Hay vidt cdu hinh electron cfta X, X^"*". X Id nguyen td gi, thudc chu ki nao, nhdm ndo, la kim loai hay phi kim ? 18 2.BT HOAHOCIO.NC-B
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