Tài liệu Bài giảng ô nhiễm môi trường không khí

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Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O nhieãm moâi tröôøng khoâng khí CBGD: ThS. TRAÀN MINH HAÛI TP. HOÀ CHÍ MINH, THAÙNG 05 NAÊM 2006 May 31, 2006 1 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com MOÂI TRÖÔØNG KHOÂNG KHÍ ™Khoâng khí saïch: ¾78,09% tt N2; ¾20,94% tt O2; ¾1-4% tt hôi nöôùc; ¾0,03% tt CO2… May 31, 2006 2 1 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O nhieãm khoâng khí ™laø söï coù maët cuûa caùc chaát trong khí quyeån sinh ra töø hoaït ñoäng cuûa con ngöôøi hoaëc caùc quaù trình töï nhieân vôùi noàng ñoä ñuû lôùn vaø thôøi gian ñuû laâu vaø seõ aûnh höôûng ñeán söï thoaûi maùi, deã chòu, söùc khoeû, lôïi ích cuûa con ngöôøi vaø moâi tröôøng. May 31, 2006 3 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O nhieãm khoâng khí ™O nhieãm khoâng khí laø söï coù maët cuûa caùc chaát trong khí quyeån sinh ra töø hoaït ñoäng cuûa con ngöôøi hoaëc caùc quaù trình töï nhieân vôùi noàng ñoä ñuû lôùn vaø thôøi gian ñuû laâu vaø seõ aûnh höôûng ñeán söï thoaûi maùi, deã chòu, söùc khoeû, lôïi ích cuûa con ngöôøi vaø moâi tröôøng. ™Moâi tröôøng khoâng khí trong nhaø: KK + yeáu toá vi khí haäu T, ϕ, v, böùc xaï. May 31, 2006 4 2 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Indoor Air Pollution Sources Poor location of fresh air intakes may bring in pollutants Gas or oil furnaces produce carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter Many cleaning products and pesticides contain harmful chemicals, fumes may circulate Remodeling and painting can put fumes and particulate matter into circulation Ozone Emitters May 31, 2006 5 Smokers http://glg110.asu.edu Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Heä thoáng oâ nhieãm khoâng khí NGUOÀN O NHIEÃM Giaùm saùt oâ nhieãm Khoáng cheá oâ nhieãm taïi nguoàn Khí quyeån Khoáng cheá oâ nhieãm NGUOÀN TIEÁP NHAÄN May 31, 2006 6 3 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Tuaàn hoaøn cuûa gioù vaän chuyeån chaát oâ nhieãm khoâng khí töø vuøng oâ nhieãm coâng nghieäp naëng ñeán Baéc cöïc laø nôi tích luyõ söông muø. May 31, 2006 7 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn oâ nhieãm khoâng khí ™ Phaân loaïi theo tính chaát söï phaùt thaûi ¾ Nguoàn ñöôøng: ƒ ñöôøng boä; ƒ ñöôøng xe löûa; ƒ ñöôøng thuûy, ƒ ñöôøng haøng khoâng. ¾ Nguoàn ñieåm: ƒ oáng khoùi cuûa caùc nguoàn ñoát rieâng leû, ƒ baõi chaát thaûi,... ¾ Nguoàn vuøng: ƒ khu coâng nghieäp taäp trung, ƒ ñöôøng oâ toâ noäi thaønh, nhaø ga, caûng, saân bay... May 31, 2006 8 4 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn ñieåm http://tammi.tamu.edu/photos/Single%20Stack.JPG May 31, 2006 9 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn ñöôøng ng Vietnam airlines May 31, 2006 10 5 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn vuøng ng May 31, 2006 http://www.saigonesl.com/City_Maps_Collection/pages/HCMC_map_jpg.htm 11 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn vuøng ng Coastal Industrial Zone (Yokohama) © Shinji Tanabe http://web-japan.org/factsheet/pollution/ May 31, 2006 12 6 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn oâ nhieãm khoâng khí ™ Phaân loaïi theo tính chaát nguoàn phaùt sinh NGUOÀN O NHIEÃM KHOÂNG KHÍ Töï nhieân Nuùi löûa Chaùy röøng Gioù Xaùc baõ Phaán hoa Baõo phaân huûy Vi khuaån Nhaân taïo Giao thoâng Nhaø maùy ) 0 May 31, 2006 Nhu caàu caù nhaân v 13 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn töï nhieân Nuùi löûa Chaùy röøng Gioù, baõo Phaân huyû yeám khí töï nhieân caùc chaát höõu cô (xaùc…): NH3, CH4, CO2… ƒ Taùc nhaân sinh hoïc: phaán hoa, vi sinh vaät, coân truøng... ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ May 31, 2006 14 7 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Núi lửa May 31, 2006 15 http://esminfo.prenhall.com/science/geoanimations/animations/35_VolcanicAct.swf Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Flow regimes in volcanic conduits May 31, 2006 16 Oleg Melnik, University of Bristol, 22 to 26 March 2004 8 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nuùi löûa phun ™ SO2, H2S, HF vaø buïi. May 31, 2006 17 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Chaùy röøng ™Chaùy röøng ƒ NOx, SO2, CO, buïi tro. May 31, 2006 18 9 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Nguoàn nhaân taïo ƒ Ñoát nhieân lieäu: buïi vaø CO, SO2, NOx...; ƒ SX coâng nghieäp: buïi, hôi khí ñoäc (SO2, HF, Pb…) ƒ Chaên nuoâi gia suùc: NH3, H2S...; ƒ Thu gom xöû lyù raùc; loø thieâu…: CH4, NH3,…, saûn phaåm chaùy; ƒ Sinh hoaït: chaát taåy, khöû muøi, sôn vecni, keo, nhuoäm, uoán toùc: dung moâi (axeton, formaldehyt…); photocopy: O3; nhaø xe: caùc chaát höõu cô bay hôi, huùt thuoác…) CO, hôi nicotin… May 31, 2006 19 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O NHIEÃM DO GIAO THOÂNG ™Nguyeân nhaân : ‰Löôïïng xe nhieàu, chaát löôïng thaáp ‰Ñöôøng: chaát löôïng keùm ‰Nhieân lieäu: phuï gia ‰Buïi, chì May 31, 2006 20 10 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Ñoát chaùy nhieân lieäu trong ñoäng cô May 31, 2006 21 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O NHIEÃM DO SX COÂNG NGHIEÄP Nguyeân nhaân: ™Quaù trình chaùy ¾ CO, NOx, SO2, khí ñoäc khaùc,… ™Quaù trình bay hôi ¾ Chaát höõu cô bay hôi, daàu moû….. ™Thaûi boû tröïc tieáp ¾ CFCs, khí coù muøi, CH4… May 31, 2006 22 11 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Saûn xuaát coâng nghieäp ™ Saûn xuaát May 31, 2006 23 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Quaù trình chaùy ™ Nguyeân lieäu: chaát chaùy, oxy ™ Nhieät: moài ™ Tieáp xuùc, thôøi gian May 31, 2006 24 12 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com HOW FIRES START ™ Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur: FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they will burn. OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. CHEMICAL REACTION - A chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this rapid oxidation, or burning takes place. Take any one of these factors away, and the fire cannot occur or will be extinguished if it was already burning. May 31, 2006 25 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Noâng nghieäp ™Chaên nuoâi ¾ methane ¾ nitrous oxide May 31, 2006 26 13 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com O nhieãm khoâng khí trong nhaø ™Khoâng khí trong nhaø ñöôïc xem laø khoâng gian trong phoøng khoâng phaûi laø khu vöïc coâng nghieäp maø con ngöôøi soáng ôû ñoù > 1h. ™Goàm: khoâng gian khoân gkhí trong vaên phoøng, phoøng hoïc, xe, trung taâm mua saém, beänh vieän vaø nhaø rieâng. May 31, 2006 27 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com May 31, 2006 28 14 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Chaát oâ nhieãm quan troïng ™ Buïi ñaát ™ Khoùi thuoác ™ Oxyt nitô ™ Formandehyt ™ Taùc nhaân sinh hoïc: Vi khuẩn, Moác, Virut, Chaát thaûi cuûa vaät nuoâi, Ve ™ Giaùn ™ Phấn hoa ™ Caây coû… May 31, 2006 29 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Thuoác laù May 31, 2006 30 15 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Yeáu toá aûnh höôûng chính ñeán khoâng khí trong nhaø ™2 yeáu toá chính: ¾ Khoái löôïng vaø chaát löôïng khoâng khí beân ngoaøi laáy vaøo phoøng (löu löôïng thoâng gioù, sa laéng vaø phaân huûy hoaù hoïc) ¾ Nguoàn phaùt thaûi chaát oâ nhieãm khoâng khí trong phoøng May 31, 2006 31 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Thôøi gian ™Muøa ñoâng 80 - 90% thời gian ôû trong phoøng May 31, 2006 32 16 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Moâi tröôøng khoâng khí xung quanh Ambient air pollution May 31, 2006 33 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com May 31, 2006 34 17 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com May 31, 2006 35 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com 18 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Caùc hoaït ñoäng cuûa con ngöôøi vaø oâ nhieãm moâi tröôøng May 31, 2006 37 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Chaát oâ nhieãm khoâng khí ™ Phaân loaïi döïa vaøo traïng thaùi vaät lí ¾ Raén: ¾ Loûng: ¾ Khí vaø hôi: ¾ Vaät lyù: ™ Döïa vaøo kích thöôùc haït ¾ Phaân töû ¾ Aerosol ™ Phaân loaïi theo söï hình thaønh ¾ Sô caáp ¾ Thöù caáp May 31, 2006 38 19 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Chaát oâ nhieãm khoâng khí ™Phaân loaïi döïa vaøo traïng thaùi vaät lí ¾ Raén: buïi, khoùi...; ¾ Loûng: sol loûng/khí nhö söông muø...; ¾ Khí vaø hôi: COx, NOx, SO2… ¾ Vaät lyù: oàn, nhieät, phoùng xa… May 31, 2006 39 Instructor: MSc. Tran Minh Hai http://environment-safety.com Chaát oâ nhieãm khoâng khí @ Döïa vaøo kích thöôùc haït • Phaân töû (hoãn hôïp khí - hôi) • Aerosol (goàm caùc haït raén, loûng). ¾Buïi thoâ (grit): φ > 75µm; ¾Buïi (dust): φ = 5 – 75µm; ¾Khoùi (smoke): φ = 1 – 5µm; ¾Khoùi mòn (fume): φ < 1µm; ¾Söông (mist), söông giaù (fog): φ < 10µm; ¾Buïi hoâ haáp: φ< 10µm (PM10) May 31, 2006 40 20
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