Tài liệu Assessment of wastewater of da river left bank industrial zone hoa binh city on the 2013 2014 period

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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TRAN THI LAN HUONG TOPIC TITLE: ASSESSMENT ON SITUATION OF WASTEWATER OF DA RIVER LEFT-BANK INDUSTRIAL ZONE, HOA BINH CITY IN THE 2013 – 2014 PERIODS BACHELOR THESIS Study Mode: Full-time Major: Environmental Sciences and Management Faculty: International Training and Development Center Batch: 2010 - 2015 Thai Nguyen, 17/01/2015 i Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry Degree Program Bachelor of Environmental Science and Management Student name Tran Thi Lan Huong Student ID DTN 1053180056 Thesis title Assessment of wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone - Hoa Binh City on the 2013-2014 period Supervisor(s) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Do Thi Lan MA. Truong Thi Anh Tuyet Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone- Hoa Binh City in the 2013-2014 periods. The main focus is in two aspects: to assess the status of wastewater treatment of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone and to propose solutions for decreasing the water pollution. Regarding to the state of wastewater treatment, Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone is a place that has largest amount of wastewater discharge in Hoa Binh City. In the Industrial Zone, a number of companies discharged wastewater directly into Dung stream (flowing to Da River) an extremely large amount of domestic and industrial wastewater, that seriously exceed the permissible standards. Besides, many companies had administrative violations in the discharge of wastewater or did not have enough legal documents following regulation in wastewater management. Currently, Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone starts to build the wastewater treatment system in order to have effective wastewater treatment and simple discharge management. After assessing the situation in the Industrial Zone, the essential solutions are proposed. In term of management, local authorities need to take coercive measures against companies which discharged the untreated or unsatisfactory treated wastewater directly into environment. With technological solution, the Industrial Zone has to select appropriate production technologies, innovative technology of wastewater treatment system. Overall, the options considered and evaluated in the thesis indicated that Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone can implement those options to prevent and manage the quality of wastewater in order to protect environment in a legal, logical and financially practical way. Keywords Number of pages: Date of submission: Industrial Zone, wastewater, treatment, pollution, discharge, industry, domestic, etc. 58 January 15, 2015 ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisors, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Do Thi Lan and MA. Truong Thi Anh Tuyet for their invaluable useful comments, remarks, encouragement and engagement through the learning process of this graduated thesis. I sincerely thank the lecturers who enthusiastically imparted useful knowledge on water treatment during the University program to all class attendants. I also thank the support of Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, the coordinators and program managers for their support and assistance. I am using this opportunity to express my gratitude to my classmates, who supported me throughout this course, by their aspiring guidance, invaluably constructive criticism and friendly advice. I am sincerely grateful to them for sharing their truthful and illuminating views on a number of issues related to my thesis. Also, I like to thank the participants in my survey, who have willingly shared their precious time during the process of interviewing. I would like to thank my loved ones, who have supported me throughout entire process, both by keeping me harmonious and helping me putting pieces together. Thank you all very much! Sincerely yours, iii TABLE OF CONTENT List of Tables........................................................................................................... 1 List of Figures ......................................................................................................... 2 List of Abbreviations .............................................................................................. 3 PART I. INTRODUCTION................................................................................... 4 1.1. Rationale ...................................................................................................... 4 1.2. Definitions ................................................................................................... 5 1.3. Aims of the study ......................................................................................... 5 1.4. Research questions ..................................................................................... 5 1.5. Research significance ................................................................................. 5 1.5.1. Practical significance .............................................................................. 6 1.5.2. Learning and scientific research significance .......................................... 6 1.6. Limitations .................................................................................................. 6 PART 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................... 8 2.1. Theoretical background .............................................................................. 8 2.2. Scientific background .................................................................................. 9 2.2.1. Related definitions ................................................................................... 9 2.2.2. Water quality assessment ......................................................................... 10 2.3. Empirical background ................................................................................ 14 2.3.1. Water resources and situation of water pollution in the world ............... 14 2.3.2. Studies on water quality in Vietnam ......................................................... 15 2.4. Study area review ........................................................................................ 18 2.4.1. Natural and socio-economic conditions of Hoa Binh City ....................... 18 2.4.1.1. Natural conditions ................................................................................ 18 iv 2.4.1.2. Socio-economic conditions .................................................................. 21 2.5. General assessment of review ...................................................................... 25 PART III. METHODS ........................................................................................... 26 3.1. Object and scope of study ............................................................................ 26 3.2. Location and time of study ......................................................................... 26 3.3. Research content .......................................................................................... 26 3.3.1. Basic characteristics of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone – Hoa Binh City ........................................................................................................................... 26 3.3.2. Assessment of current status of water quality of the industry .................. 26 3.3.3. Proposal of a number of solutions to reduce pollution and effects of wastewater to surrounding environment ............................................................ 26 3.4. Research methods ........................................................................................ 27 3.4.1. Secondary data collection method ........................................................... 27 3.4.2. Methods of getting, maintaining and analyzing samples ......................... 27 3.4.3. Question and Interview methods ............................................................... 29 3.4.4. Analyzing, synthesizing and assessing data methods ................................ 29 PART IV. RESULTS ............................................................................................. 30 4.1. Overview of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone .................................... 30 4.1.1. Status of operation and implementation of environmental protection of some companies in Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone ......................................... 30 4.1.2. The situation of wastewater treatment of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone ......................................................................................................................... 38 4.2. Assessment of current situation of water in Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone and surrounding areas .............................................................. 40 4.2.1. Current situation of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone’s wastewater .. 41 4.2.1.1. Situation of wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone in 2013 .................................................................................................................................. 41 v 4.2.1.2. Situation of wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone in 2014 .................................................................................................................................. 43 4.2.2. Assessment of wastewater’s impacts of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone to local people based on survey............................................................................... 48 4.2.2.1. Basic information of investigated subject .......................................... 49 4.2.2.2. Assessment of wastewater’s impacts of the Industrial Zone to local people........................................................................................................................ 49 4.3. Recommendation of solutions to overcome and minimize water pollution of Da River Let-bank Industrial Zone ................................................................. 54 4.3.1. Management solutions ............................................................................. 54 4.3.2. Technological solutions............................................................................ 55 PART V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION .................................................. 60 5.1. Discussion ..................................................................................................... 60 5.2. Conclusion .................................................................................................... 61 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................... 62 APPENDICES......................................................................................................... 65 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Diagram of wastewater treatment technology of Left Side Da River Industrial Zone................................................................................................... ...............39 Figure 2: Concentration of BOD5, COD and TSS in 2013, 2014 in wastewater at discharged point into environment of wastewater treatment plant - Huu Nghi JSC for Agricultural and Forestry Products............................................................ .................44 Figure 3: The concentration of Absorbable Organic Halogens, 2013 and 2014 in wastewater sample at the discharged point into environment of wastewater treatment system , Huu Nghi JSC for Agricultural and Forestry Products ... ...................45 Figure 4: The concentration of BOD5 in 2013 and 2014 in the domestic wastewater sample at the discharged point into environment, R technical research Vietnam Co, Ltd............................................................................................................................. ........47 Figure 5: The concentration of Total Coliform in 2013 and 2014 in domestic wastewater at the discharged point into environment, R technical research Vietnam Co, Ltd ...................................................................................................................... ........48 Figure 6: The proportion of men and women of investigated groups ...................... ........49 Figure 7: The proportion of careers of investigated groups .................................... ........49 Figure 8: Diagram of wastewater treatment technology .......................................... ........57 1 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Distribution of land use in Hoa Binh City in 2014 ................................ ............24 Table 2. Fuel and water consumption of some operating companies in Left Side Da River Industrial Zone.............................................................................................. ..........31 Table 3: Result of analysis of wastewater samples at discharge point into the environment - Huu Nghi JSC for Agricultural and Forestry Products................. ............41 Table 4: Result of analysis of domestic wastewater sample at discharge point - R technical research Vietnam Co, Ltd in 2013 ..................................................... ...............42 Table 5: The result of analysis of industrial wastewater at discharge point into environment - Huu Nghi JSC for Agricultural and Forestry Products................... ..........43 Table 6: The result of analysis of domestic wastewater sample at the discharged point - R technical research Vietnam Co, Ltd in 2014 ......................................... ............46 Table 7: The impact of wastewater of the Industrial Zone to agriculture production and the health of people living around there ........................................................ ............51 2 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AOX : Absorbable Organic Halogens BOD : Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand EPA : Environmental Protection Agency DNRE : Department of Natural Resources and Environment JSC : Joint Stock Company LEP : Law on Environmental Protection MNRE : Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment TSS : Total Suspended Solids VEA : Vietnam Environment Administration 3 PART I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale Environment is a system of natural and artificial material factors which impact on the survival and the development of humans and animals (Environmental Protection Act, 2014). Those factors are considered as basic components of the environment; they formed and developed under the law of nature. One of the most crucial and necessary factors for all life on earth in general and human in particular is water. It does not only affect human’s health, dietary needs, daily activities, but it is also a factor to ensure the prosperity of mankind. Nowadays, the development of science and technology has accelerated the pace of socio-economic development, creating a giant volume of material goods for meeting the growing demands of human. However, the socio-economic development, especially the rapid development of the industry in recent years has discharged a huge amount of wastewater. This is the direct cause of the environmental pollution in general and water quality decline in particular, that makes clean water on Earth become increasingly scarce and exhausted. As a country with a growing economy, Vietnam has become the heavily polluted water on the world. Among them, the Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone which located on Huu Nghi Ward, Hoa Binh City is one of the hot spots of wastewater pollutants, especially industrial wastewater. The Industrial Zone is consisted of many companies operating in different fields such as productions of plastic sheet, insulator, plastic tube with hydrocarbon polymer, 4 silicone rubber; spare parts for cars and motorcycles; automobile engine, sanitary ware products; hardware assessories, barcode printers, beer, sugar, etc. Due to the versatility of the Industrial Zone, wastewater is harmful and impacts on the environment not only the Industry Zone but also surrounding area. Derived from the reality, through the agreement of Dean of Environmental Faculty and International Training and Development Center - Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, the study researched on subject: “Assessment of wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone on the 2013 – 2014 periods”. 1.2. Definitions This study assesses the status of wastewater of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone on the 2013 – 2014 periods in order to determine the impact of wastewater to the environment. Thus, a number of solutions are proposed to mitigate the effects of wastewater to the environment surrounding the Industrial Zone. 1.3. Aims of the study - Learn the basic characteristics of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone - Learn and assess the situation of water quality of the Industrial Zone. - Propose solutions to reduce water pollution of the Industrial Zone. 1.4. Research questions - What is an overview of Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone? - What is current situation of water of the Industrial Zone? - What can human do to reduce water pollution of the Industrial Zone and its impacts to human and environment? 1.5. Research significance 1.5.1. Practical significance 5 Through the study of wastewater situation of the Industrial Zone, it is significant to know strengths, weaknesses, challenges and shortcomings in the wastewater management and treatment in order to find the solutions for environmental protection in accordance with the conditions of the Industrial Zone, allowing better environmental management. 1.5.2. Learning and scientific research significance - Help students apply theory into reality, practice the data synthesis and analysis skills. - To be a favorable condition for acquiring and learning from practical experience. At the same time, enhance practical knowledge; add more materials for learning and researching after graduation. - Strengthen based knowledge and specialized knowledge to serve environmental work. - The success of this study is a basis to improve working methods scientifically and to help students synthesizing and arranging the schedule and timeline reasonable. 1.6. Limitations - Due to limitation of time and resources, this study mainly focuses on the water pollution in Da River Left-bank Industrial Zone. - The survey is examined is relatively small, the findings cannot be generalized to the broader community. - The wastewater data is only taken from 02 companies in the Industrial Zone, it would not achieve absolute accuracy for the Industrial Zone. - The measurement and sampling time is only done 2 times/ year. So, the samples cannot reflect the entire of pollution. 6 - This study solely mentions to the wastewater of the Industrial Zone in short term of the 2013-2014 periods. 7 PART II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Theoretical background - Vietnam’s Strategic Environmental Protection Plan towards 2010 and orientation to 2020, - Environmental Protection Law No. 55/2014/ QH13 passed by the 13th National Assembly on June 23, 2014. - Water Resources Act, June 2012 - Decree No. 120/2008 / ND - CP of the Government dated on December 01, 2008 on the management of river basins. - Decree No. 149/2004 / ND - CP of the Government dated on July 27, 2004 on issuance of permits for water resource exploration, exploitation and use, and discharge of wastewater into water source. - Decision No. 16/2008 / QD – BTNMT dated on December 31, 2008 by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment on the National technical regulations on environment. - Decision No 104/2000 / QD - TTg dated on August 25, 2000 of the Prime Minister on approving the national strategy on water supply and rural sanitation towards 2020. - National technical regulation QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT on surface water quality - National technical regulation QCVN14:2008/BTNMT on domestic wastewater quality 8 - National technical regulation QCVN 12:2008/BTNMT on the effluent of pulp and paper mills - National technical regulation QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT on industrial wastewater quality 2.2. Scientific background 2.2.1. Related definitions - Environment According to term 1- article 3 of the Law on environmental protection (The National Assembly of Vietnam, 2014), environment is defined as “a system of natural and artificial physical factors affecting the existence and development of human beings and creatures”. - Environmental pollution According to term 8 – article 3 of the Law on environmental protection (The National Assembly of Vietnam, 2014), Environmental pollution refers to “the change in the environment components in breach of technical regulations on environment and environmental standards, which can result in adverse impacts on human beings and creatures”. - Water resources According to Jason A. Hubbart and Jacqueline (2013), “Water resources are used in various ways including direct consumption, agricultural irrigation, fisheries, hydropower, industrial production, recreation, navigation, environmental protection, 9 the disposal and treatment of sewage, and industrial effluents. Water has sources and supplies, economic, social, and political characteristics which make it a unique and challenging natural resource to manage.” - Water pollution “Water pollution is a worse change of physical, chemical, and biological properties in water, with the presence of abnormal substances in liquid and solid form, making water become toxic to humans and organisms, and reducing biodiversity in water. In terms of speed and scale of impact, water pollution needs to be concerned more than soil contamination” (Le Van Thien, 2007). - Environmental standards Environmental standards are referred in term 6 – Article 3 of the Law on Environmental protection (The National Assembly of Vietnam, 2014) as“a set of parameters relating to the environmental quality in surrounding areas, amount of contaminants that remain in wastes, technical and managerial requirements which are issued by a competent regulatory authority in the form of a written document that entities involved may choose to follow at their discretion to serve the purpose of environmental protection”. 2.2.2. Water quality assessment Water quality is assessed based on the following indicators: * Physical indicators 10 - Temperature: Temperature impacts both the chemical and biological characteristics of surface water. It affects the dissolve oxygen level in the water, photosynthesis of aquatic plants, metabolic rates of aquatic organisms, and the sensitivity of these organisms to pollution, parasites and disease (Center for Educational Technologies, n.d) - pH: As one of the criteria to be checked for water quality and wastewater, pH value allows determine appropriate treatment method or adjust the amount of chemicals in wastewater treatment process using biological methods. The change in the pH value of water can lead to changes in the composition of the substance in water, or promote and prevent chemical and biological reactions happened in the water (Advanced Chemical Systems, n.d). - Color: The color of water is created due to impurities in the water, such as organic matter, inorganic ions, some aquatic species, etc. and can greatly affect the value of sense when using water. (Pham Song, 2013) - Turbidity: Turbidity of water is level of preventing light penetrate across the water. The turbidity of the water can be caused by many types of dissolve substances from colloidal-particle-sized types to suspensions, sandy sediment particles and microorganisms. It also contains many chemical components as inorganic, organic, etc. High level of turbidity indicates high level of water contamination. (USGS, n.d) - Solids concentration: Solids affect water quality for domestic use and production, hinder or consume more chemicals in the process. Solids in water is caused by inorganic substances in soluble or insoluble form as emulsified soil and organic 11 matter, synthetic organic compounds such as micro-organisms, fertilizers and industrial wastes. (Filter and Separation, n.d). * Chemical indicators - Iron Iron is essential micronutrient atom for human’s body to build hemoglobin structure. Thus, the content of 0.3mg iron / liter is defined as allowed level for drinking water. Over that limitation, iron can cause a negative impact (Hellawell, J.M, 1989). Iron has typical smell when exposed to air. It precipitates to form Fe (III) hydrate and makes water color become red brick, creating a bad impression to the user. Also for this reason, water with iron cannot be used for a number of industries requiring high quality as silk, textile, food, pharmaceutical, etc. Precipitation of iron deposition narrows useful saving of water pipe in distribution network (Hellawell, J.M, 1989). - Nitrite – Nitrogen (NO2-N) Nitrite is an intermediate stage in the nitrogen cycle due to the decomposition of the organic protein. Because of the transformation between different levels of nitrogen forms, trace nitrite is used to evaluate the organic pollution. Nitrite exists also in the treatment system or distribution system due to microbes’ activity. In addition, nitrite is also used in water supply sector as a corrosion inhibitor. In water, nitrite should not exceed 0.1 mg / liter. (NORWECO, n.d) - Nitrate - Nitrogen (NO3-N) Nitrate is the highest stage of oxidation in the nitrogen cycle and is the final stage in the process of biological oxidation. On the surface layer of water, nitrate is commonly in the form of trace, but sometimes in shallow groundwater, it has high level of 12 content. If children drink water that has too much nitrate, they can have hemochromatosis. Thus, in domestic use water, level of nitrate does not exceed 6 mg / liter (Hellawell, J.M, 1989). - Ammonia (N-NH4+) Ammonia is contaminant to water. The presence of ammonia in surface water or groundwater derived from the organic decomposition by micro-organisms in anaerobic conditions. That is a substance used in the disinfection stage of water, it is used as antibacterial chemicals to produce residual chlorine which lengthen time of bactericidal effects when water flows in the pipeline. (Le Van Khoa, Nguyen Xuan Quynh & Nguyen Quoc Viet, 2013). - Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Dissolved oxygen in natural water and wastewater depends on physical-chemical conditions and biological activities of the micro-organisms. The determination of concentration of dissolved oxygen is a means to control the pollution caused by human activities and examine the consequences of wastewater treatment (NORWECO, n.d) - Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Indicator of chemical oxygen demand is used to fully assess the amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter in the wastewater. In order to determine this indicator, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is used to complete oxidation of organic matter, then quantitative methods and formulas are applied to determine the amount of COD. (Le Van Khoa, Nguyen Xuan Quynh & Nguyen Quoc Viet, 2013). - Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) Biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of oxygen needed for microbial oxidation of organic matter in a defined time period, is denoted by BOD and is calculated in 13 mg/l. BOD indicator reflects the level of organic pollution of wastewater. The greater the BOD of wastewater (or water source), the higher contaminated level and vice versa (Hellawell, J.M, 1989). * Microbiological indicators - Fecal coliform Coliform organisms group is widely used as indicator of fecal contamination, characterized by the ability to ferment lactose in culture environment at 35-37 o C with the formation of aldehydes acid and gases within 48 hours (Ashbolt, N., Grabow, W., & Snozzi, M, n.d) - Escherichia Coli (E.Coli) Escherichia coli, commonly known as E. coli or colon bacilli, usually lives in the intestines of human and some animals. E. coli always presents in feces of human, animals and birds in large numbers. The exceeded presence of E. coli proves pollution on this indicator. That is considered an indicator reflecting the viability of pathogenic microorganisms in gut such as diarrhea, dysentery, etc. (Ashbolt, N., Grabow, W., & Snozzi, M, n.d) 2.3. Empirical background 2.3.1. Water resources and situation of water pollution in the world Water pollution is alarming problem in the world today, especially in developed countries. Therefore, the research of current state of water is carried out in many countries, the results showed that: In Europe Rivers, nitrate salt concentration exceeds 2.5 times over the permitted standards (100 mg), while phosphate concentration is 2.5 times higher than the 14
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