Tài liệu Architecture of public service complex in central urban area of hanoi

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION HANOI ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY ------------------------------ TA QUOC THANG ARCHITECTURE OF PUBLIC SERVICE COMPLEX IN CENTRAL URBAN AREA OF HANOI MAJOR: ARCHITECTURE CODE: 62.58.01.02 ARCHITECTURAL DOCTORATE THESIS ABSTRACT HANOI, 2014 The thesis was completed at Hanoi Architectural University. Academic instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arch. Nguyen Hong Thuc Opponent 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr Nguyen Van Dinh Opponent 2: Dr. Nguyen Tien Thuan Opponent 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr Ton That Dai Thesis defenced at University-level Council of thesis judgment: At h Date / /2014 The thesis can be searched at National Library of Vietnam, Library of Hanoi Architectural University. -1- INTRODUCTION 1. Motivation for choosing the thesis topic Around the world, construction of urban public service systems is one of the most basic theories to build all urban areas. These systems are all researched and developed into various kinds of public service centers with various scales: urban areas, cities, districts, wards and residential areas (super large, large, medium, small, super small), depending on the level of service and the size of population. In Vietnam, the system of public service centers established in the French colonial period is still retained and inherited with form of small service named "commodity street" of traditional urban. In Hanoi, the colonial period also developed new public centers of modern style, the new centers were simultaneous with the system of everyday life services with form of "commodity street” operated by local people living in 36-street area (also known as “Old Quarter”), making a unique characteristic of the city. Recently, this system has been overloaded as population of the central urban area has reached over 2.5 million, and also the pressure caused by high-rise office buildings which are increasingly built in the city center. Public service system in Hanoi is being broken and crying for help but there is still no complete solution to reach balance of people life serving network, considering various scales: city, district, residential area, etc. It is currently urgent issue to achieve feasible and convenient planning of architectural construction for serving people everyday life in order to stabilize functions, life and urban order, and to improve living quality. Thus, the selected thesis topic – “Architecture of Public Service Complex in Central Urban Areas of Hanoi” (considering the expanded city center area as researching scope) is significantly urgent, scientific and practical. 2. Research objectives. -2- - Apply the theory of public service complex to build the basic operational structure of public service complex in accordance with the level of population size, function, location specific and appropriate to Hanoi's conditions. - Establish models and organizational solutions in planning architectural space for public service complex to be suitable for the expanded city center of Hanoi. 3. Research subjects and scope. 3.1. Research subjects. The thesis focuses on the study of public service constructions in Hanoi urban center which are put into 7 categories: Category 1: Commerce for Everyday life. Category 2: Health care. Category 3: Spirituality and Culture. Category 4: Entertainment. Category 5: Administrative Services and Public Administration. Category 6: Education. Category 7: ATM, post office, urban transit point, etc. 3.2. Research scope. The thesis selects the expanded inner-city of the central urban area of capital city Hanoi as research scope. 4. Research methods Field survey method Retrospective method (repetitive research) Sociological Investigation method Mapping method Statistical method Analysis-synthesis method Induction method Matrix method Experimental methods 5. Scientific and practical sense of the Thesis -3- - This is the first study of public service complex in the area expansion period of Hanoi; therefore, it will contribute and diversify forms of urban public service arrangement in Vietnam in addition to the traditional ones in urban area. - The thesis identifies and assesses the demands as well as level of public service supply in urban with sociological investigations in a scientific manner, in order to provide a clear overview of the current urban public service system in Hanoi. It also contributes to identifying new public activities through the proposed architectural forms of public service complex, which can be adapted to specific conditions of Hanoi city. 5. Thesis structure The thesis consists of three parts: Introduction, Content, and Conclusion. Content includes 3 chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of urban public services and architecture of public service complex. Chapter 2: Theoretic and practical foundations of spatial organization of public service complexes in the expanded central urban area of Hanoi. Chapter 3: Research results and discussion on spatial organization of public service complexes in Hanoi. List of references Appendix -4- CONTENT Charpter 1: Overview on urban public service and architecture of public service complex. 1.1. Development history of urban public service on global view Service economy is one of the most important factors to build urban economy. It is visible to realize the critical transforming step of service supply from “self-service economy” into “service economy” in modern urban economy. Accordingly, services are “functionally separated” for various economic sectors, developed into single-function service constructions, centralized in the central areas, forming “service centers”. Under circumstance of land deficiency in most of urban areas, “service centers” tend to develop into “multi-function public service complexes”, concurrently existing with the current single-function service constructions. Diagram 1.1: Transformation of service supply models throughout the phases 1.2. Global overview on architecture of public service complex Over the world, public service complexes have been established mostly in small cities whose population is approximately 30,000 and central area of cities. Forms of public service complex are identified based on: consistency of functions, housing fund, land territory and consuming demand. - In France, Le Corbusier and a number of planners have completed design for housing and public service complexes, each consist of one civil housing construction combined with kindergarten, essential public -5- service store, entertainment area, and release land for trees planting purpose. - Russian Federation has transferred into building the pyramidal constructions in simple shape with main idea of multi-function complex construction. Internationally, there are already standards for public service in accordance with population scale for “city units” of 100,000 – 120,000 people. Table 1.1: International standards for groups of service/120,0000 people No. Name of group International standard 1 Commerce for Everyday life 98210 2 Health care 42900 3 Spirituality and Culture 42950 4 Entertainment 85510 5 Administrative Services and Public 85200 Administration. 6 Education 549600 7 ATM, Post office, Urban transit point, etc. 53000 Table 1.2: Population size with corresponding form of public service center No. Population size Form of public service center 1 50,000 to 120,000 Public service centers 2 30,000 to 50,000 Public service complexes 3 20,000 to 30,000 Public service complexes 4 10,000 to 15,000 Public service complexes 5 < 5,000 Public service complexes 1.3. Overview on current conditions of architecture of public service complex in Vietnam and Hanoi. - Historical city period: Architecture of public service spontaneously developed in the model of “functions mixture”, shown in forms of -6- architecture planning include: “Dinh” (communal house in village), local market, commercial street, etc. - French colonial period: Architecture of public service spontaneously developed in the model of “function separation”, shown in forms of architecture planning include: Street and area, and formation of public centers - Subsidy period: Single-function architectural constructions continued to be developed in model of “function separation” as in French colonial period, while “functions mixture” model was still maintained with forms of commercial street, “dinh”, markets of traditional urban areas. - Architecture of public service constructions in renovation period: Public service construction developed into two trends: Single-function construction and multi-function public service complex. It was necessary to improve theory to develop the type of multi-functional public service complex. - Recent trend of architectural construction of public service complex: New public centers appear, to develop architecture of multi-function public service complex in the centers. - New perspectives for the development of complexes with Vietnamese architectural tradition appear: To inherit versatility of traditional architecture, multi-functional community-oriented lifestyle in Vietnamese traditional urban areas. - Current conditions of planning and architecture of public service construction in Hanoi: Characteristic 1: Old residential areas have public service system which is relatively complete, good facilities, however irrational allocation leads to deficiency of function for the residential areas. -7- Characteristics 2: The land planned for public service was changed in terms of purpose; the service constructions must share facilities and develop spontaneous functions in new urban areas. Characteristics 3: Public service construction has serious shortages in terms of scale, size and form, especially in some suburban areas of Hanoi. Characteristics 4: Public service construction tends to develop towards single-functionality, thus not be used frequently, and also not centralized so that become obsolete, therefore it is essential to develop multi-functional constructions. Characteristics 5: Architecture of public service construction is decentralized and not sufficiently concerned in terms of appearance, therefore urban public service centers have not been established, and not yet create a general urban appearance. - Several examples for Architecture of public service complex recently built in Hanoi. - Formation of situations for appearance of public service complexes: old dormitories (with population of 5,000), new urban areas (with population of 15,000), and recently established complexes (with population of 30,000). - Examples of multi-functional public service complexes in Hanoi include: Royal City, Big C, Times City, etc. 1.5. Situation of research on spatial organization for public service constructions around the world and in Vietnam. Around the world and in Vietnam, there are a great number of studies on spatial organization for public service constructions; however, there are no studies on "Architecture of Public Service Complex". Therefore, the thesis implements research on building and developing public service system in trend of organizing services under two categories A and B in -8- order to form "Public Service Complex" with two main objectives: (1) correspond to the population scale; (2) comply with the conditions of culture, society, and specific lifestyle of urban centers of Hanoi. Chapter 2: Theoretic foundation and practices of spatial organization of public service complex complexes in the expanded inner-city area (a part of the central urban area) of Hanoi. 2.1. Methodology and Research Methods Diagram 2.1 Methodology and Research Methods 2.2. Theories on development public service in urban areas - Organization of urban public service system – impacts: + Natural geographical factor + Population factor + Residential network allocation + Urban economic factors + Technical infrastructure + Social factors -9- + Relation between demand of population and time budget of individuals Diagram 2.2 Relation between demand of population and time budget of individuals + Investment in facilities constructions for public services + Influence of technology advances - Structure of urban public service system - Basic components of public service structure Structure of serving systems Resource needs Flow served Service facilities Diagram 2.3 Basic components of public service structure - Time allocation for public services Diagram 2.4 Time allocation for public services -10- - Allocation of basic service groups in urban areas (3 groups) Satisfaction A.Activites service with less time for living needs - Commercial life - Food - Public utilities - Administration - Finance B.Activites service in free time for physical needs, spiritual needs - Arts and culture - Sport - Recreation, Travel inform ation Traffic C.Ballance biological, Social for people - Health Care - Education - Recreation, Travel Diagram 2.5 Basic service groups 2.3. Legal bases in development of urban public service construction - Calculation basis in terms of scale and functions for service system in accordance with international standards: Calculation basis, Criteria. - Legal basis in development of planning and architecture of urban public service construction in Vietnam: With a population under 100,000, Vietnam Construction Standards just have regulations applied for urban areas with 2 population sizes, namely 4,000 and 50,000. Vietnam Construction Standards have no regulations for forms of service construction, thus numerous unsolved problems occur, standards for public service construction has shortage compared to international condition, therefore need to use international standards to make calculation for public service complexes. 2.4. Foundation for spatial organization of public service complex in Hanoi 2.4.1. Rationale for spatial organization of public service complex in Hanoi -11- - Classification of public service complexes - Classification in terms of size of served population (4 types) + Public service complexes serving for population in range of: From 2,000 to 5,000 people From 10,000 to 15,000 people From 20,000 to 30,000 people From 30,000 to 50,000 - Classification in terms of location specifications (3 types) + Public service complexes in old residential areas + Public service complexes in new residential areas + Public service complexes in suburban and rural areas - Classification in terms of function of complex (5 types) Serving content Main function of complex Commercial life Commercial life every day Health care Cultural and spiritual Entertainment Administration Cultural and spiritual, Entertainment Multi function (all function) Education Education Bus stop, Atm… Commercial center Diagram 2.6 Function groups of public service complex - Components of urban public service system Activities of public service system in the expanded inner-city area under two categories A and B: -12- Table 2.1 Activities of public service under two categories A and B No. Category A No. Category B 1 Small commercial business 1 Health care 2 Food for society 2 Elder and disabled care 3 Service for everyday life 3 Education demands 4 Public utilities 4 Physical exercise, Sport and Entertainment 5 Administration 5 Weekend tourism 6 Credit and financial services 6 Cultural performance Scopes of service classification in terms of population size: 1. Group of residential system with population in range of 50,000 – 120,000 2. Group of residential system with population in range of 30,00050,000 3. Group of residential system with population in range of 20,00030,000 4. Group of residential system with population in range of 10,000 15,000 5. Group of residential system with population up to 5,000 Structure of public service system in the expanded inner-city area Territorial planning functional dependence - Activities - Working - Rest - Service Urban planning functional component - Living region - Rest region - downtown - industrial region structure planning - Trafic planning - zoning - zoning districts - Central planning - residential areas planning - Rest areas planning Diagram 2.6 Planning structure of the expanded inner-city area -13- Basic structures for spatial organization of public service complexes: - Small scale: Centralization, alignment - Medium scale: Centralization, alignment, group, alignment – group - Large and super large scale: Centralization, alignment, group, alignment – group, net, combination 2.4.2. Practical foundation for development of public service complex in Hanoi - Sociological inquiry on residential needs: Demands of people have not been fully satisfied yet concerning service groups. People have high demand in three main service groups: + Demands for everyday life needs and commerce + Demands for spirituality, culture and entertainment + Combined demands for: commerce, culture, heath care, education - Natural climatic conditions - Socio-cultural lifestyle conditions + Social conditions: population statistics of wards, communes of Hoang Mai and Thanh Tri districts found that most districts have ward/commune(s) in 3 population sizes, of those: 7 ward/commune(s) with population less than 10,000, 12 ward ward/commune(s) with population in range of 10,000 – 20,000, and 10 ward/commune(s) with population in range of 20,000 – 30,000. + Cultural and lifestyle conditions: Trend of community-oriented lifestyle in close relation with nature of people; existing “small commerce” manner, routine of everyday shopping at markets; life activities of people in close relation with multi-function space in tradition. + Economic – technical conditions: Restructuring of the economy towards gradually reducing the proportion of agriculture, forestry, aquaculture sectors and increasing the proportion of service sector; -14- growth of service sector has been steady over the past 10 years; service sector accounts for a high proportion of the economic structure and offers the highest contribution to GDP growth compared to the other areas. + Specific conditions for spatial development in accordance with urban planning of the expanded inner-city area: Characteristic 1: Large urban scale, high population density Characteristic 2: Urban area has potential development for commercial streets Characteristic 3: Formation of public service complexes Characteristic 4: Formation of district centers Characteristic 5: Formation of financial, cultural, commercial centers 2.5. Requirements for spatial organization of public service complex - Factor of planning and location selection for complexes - Requirements for network organization of complexes in accordance with population size - Requirements for operational organization of complexes - Requirements for functions of complexes - Requirements for spatial organization and architectural aesthetics of complexes - Requirements for technical conditions, structure, materials and equipment for complexes Chapter 3: Research results and discussion on architectural spatial organization of public service complex in Hanoi 3.1. Recommendation for conceptions and general principles Conceptions on spatial development of public service complex - Service system is one of the critical factors of urban economy. It is necessary to established service system as an independent planned structure system. -15- - Indentifying and assessing demands for public services of people and deficiency of land, form of complex should be selected. - Public service system should be established in form of public service complex - Recommendation for functions of public service complex by identifying new public activities in urban area. - Recommend that architectural form of public service complex to be included in regulation of urban development of Hanoi. General principles for spatial organization of public service complex - Maintain current spatial public service organization, “compress” additional service functions - Renovate current spatial public service organization, provide additional service functions - Select location and construct new public service complex 3.2. Recommendation on basic structures of public service complex in accordance with the expanded inner-city - Structure forms of public service complex in terms of population size: + Small-size public service complex: population less than 5,000 + Medium-size public service complex: population in range of 10,000 – 15,000 + Large-size public service complex: population in range of 20,000 – 30,000 + Super large-size public service complex: population in range of 30,000 – 50,000 - Structure forms of public service complex in terms of location + Public service complex in center of old residential areas + Public service complex in center of new urban areas + Public service complex in suburban and neighborhood areas -16- - Structure forms of public service complex in terms of function + Public service complex for everyday life commerce + Public service complex for spirituality, culture and entertainment + Public service complex for multi-function + Complex for education and training + Commercial complex at high-rise buildings of the city 3.3. Recommendation on directing solution groups for planning and architecture of public service complex the expanded inner-city 3.3.1. Directing principles - Directing principle in accordance with urban construction planning - Principle of spatial organization in accordance with population size Diagram 3.1 Network organization of public service complex in accordance with population size - Principles of spatial organization in terms of function Diagram 3.2 Commercial complexes for essential demands in alignment form Diagram3.3 Spiritual, cultural, entertainment complexes in centralization form -17- Public service complexes for essential demands apply structure of alignment and group Spiritual, cultural, entertainment public service complexes apply structure of centralization and group Multi-functional complexes apply Diagram 3.4 Multi-functional public service complexes in alignment – group structure of: alignment – group, group, centralization form - Directing principle of spatial organization and architectural aesthetics + Develop aesthetics values of traditional architecture + Develop values of modern architecture - Directing principles for technique, structure, materials and equipment 3.3.2. Solution groups for spatial organization of public service complex Principles Solutions Solution for spatial organization Maintain old service building Maintain , improvem ent old service building Mixed all function in a building Improvement old service building Used commercial streets Used the community in new urban zone Used the park in new urban zone Used ground floor of high-rise buildings New constrution Location selection and New constrution Used space between village and urban Used space near major road village Buid new contruction in areas far from central Diagram 3.5 Solution groups for spatial organization of public service complex -18- Table 3.1 Possibility of application of solutions for public service complex Comm ercial comple x Cutural and entertainment complex Multifunctional complex < 5,000 < 15,000 ○ ○◙ ○ ○◙ ○ ◙ < 30,000 < 50,000 ◙● ◙● ◙● ◙● ◙● ● Education complex ● ● Citi Com plex ● Addition as per planning structure of the expanded inner-city Residential area New urban area, normal ward Large ward District Note: ○: Maintain; ◙: Renovate; ●: Newly construct Solution group for maintenance and architectural renovation for public service construction, creating public service complex for areas with deficiency in land + Solution 1: Completely cover all functions in 01 public service complex
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