Tài liệu Analysis of job satisfaction level at delta civil construction and industries public company limited

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Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam Southern Luzon State University Republic of Philippines ANALYSIS OF JOB SATISFACTION LEVEL AT DELTA CIVIL CONSTRUCTION AND INDUSTRIES PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED A RESEARCH PAPER PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY, LUCBAN, QUEZON, PHILIPPINESIN COLLABORATION WITH THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY, SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (DO THUY DUNG - LINDA) ii AUGUST, 2013 iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express our most sincere thanks to the Management Board of the Southern Luzon State University, Thai Nguyen University, the teacher, the teacher of the school has helped me facilitate the learning process throughout. I would like to express sincere gratitude and profound Professor Walberto A. Macaraan, enthusiastic teacher who have dedicated guidance, encouragement, spend time and exchange orientation for me during this research. I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Delta Civil Construction and Industries Public Company Limited. The company has helped me research material, through a questionnaire survey. I sincerely thank the Board of the University of Labor and Social affair (ULSA), colleagues in ULSA, classmates DBA1 facilitated enthusiastic help and share my experience to help complete the thesis. Finally, I would like to send the gift to the heart of my family has passed enthusiasm and encouragement to complete my thesis. iv TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..........................................................................................iii LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 1 1.1. Rationale ............................................................................................................ 1 1.2. Background of the company ............................................................................ 2 1.3. Statement of the Problem for the Research Study......................................... 2 1.4. Objectives of the Research Study .................................................................... 3 1.5. Conceptual Framework of the Research Study ............................................. 3 1.6. Scope of the Research Study ............................................................................ 5 1.7. Methodology for the Research Study.............................................................. 5 1.7.1. Primary data ........................................................................................................ 5 1.7.2. Secondary data: ................................................................................................... 5 1.8. The Expected Contributions of the Research Study...................................... 5 1.9. Limitation of the Research Study .................................................................... 6 1.10. Organization of the Research Study ................................................................... 6 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................... 7 2.1. Definitions of Job Satisfaction ......................................................................... 7 2.2. Theories of Job Satisfaction ............................................................................. 8 2.2.1. Locke’s Value Discrepancy Theory.................................................................... 8 2.2.2. Lawler’s Facet Theory ........................................................................................ 9 2.2.3. Work Adjustment Theory ................................................................................. 11 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.3.5. 2.3.6. Factors affect job satisfaction ........................................................................ 13 The nature of jobs ............................................................................................. 14 Salary................................................................................................................. 14 Colleagues ......................................................................................................... 15 Leadership ......................................................................................................... 15 Training opportunities and getting promotion: ................................................. 15 Working environments...................................................................................... 16 2.4. Some research results of job satisfactions of labors. .................................. 16 2.4.1. Andrew ‘S research(2002) ................................................................................ 16 v 2.4.2. Tom’s research (2007) ...................................................................................... 17 2.4.3. Research of Tran Kim Dung and her corporators:............................................ 17 2.4.4. Research of Keith and John .............................................................................. 18 2.5. Research model ............................................................................................... 18 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS ................................................................. 21 3.1. Research design ............................................................................................... 21 3.1.1. Research methods ............................................................................................. 21 3.1.2. Research process ............................................................................................... 22 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. Official research .............................................................................................. 24 Designing by questions ..................................................................................... 24 Expression and coding scales............................................................................ 24 Evaluating measurement scales ........................................................................ 27 Research design................................................................................................. 29 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS OF RESEARCH............................................................. 30 4.1. Collected data .................................................................................................. 30 4.2. Scale evaluation ............................................................................................... 32 4.1.1. Results of evaluation scale factors affecting job satisfaction in employees in Delta Civil Construction and Industries Public Company Limited. ............ 32 4.2.1. Scales to assess satisfaction .............................................................................. 35 4.3. 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. FACTORS ANALYSIS .................................................................................. 36 Results of factors analysis................................................................................. 36 Naming and explaining factors ......................................................................... 38 Interpretation of results ..................................................................................... 38 4.4. Adjustment model ........................................................................................... 39 4.4.1. Contents of adjusment....................................................................................... 39 4.4.2. Hypothesis for adjustment model ..................................................................... 39 4.5. Testing factors of model ................................................................................. 40 4.5.1. Inspection of the correlation coefficient ........................................................... 40 4.5.2. Regression analysis ........................................................................................... 40 4.6. Testing hypothesis ........................................................................................... 43 4.7. Inspection of the difference in the lwvels of satisfaction according to individual charasteristics................................................................................ 45 vi 4.7.1. Testing the impact of different levels of age toward job satisfaction of employees in Delta Manufacturing and Engineering Joint Stock Company. .......................................................................................................... 47 4.7.2. Testing differences in “ qualifications” toward job satisfaction of employees in Delta Manufacturing and Engineering Joint Stock Company .... 48 4.7.3. Table 4.21: Results of One-Way ANOVA compare levels of job satisfaction according to “ seniority”. ............................................................... 48 4.7.4. Inspection of the different impacts of "departments" toward levels of job satisfaction of the employees in Delta Civil Construction and Industries Public Company Limited.................................................................................... 49 4.8. Statistical results on levels of satisfaction levels of satisfaction in general and groups of factors......................................................................... 50 4.8.1. General satisfaction........................................................................................... 50 4.8.2. Satisfaction in each group element ................................................................... 50 4.8.2.1. Levels of satisfaction factor according to group "colleagues"....................... 50 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................... 56 5.1. A summary of the study.................................................................................. 56 5.2. Summary of research findings ....................................................................... 57 5.3. Some solutions to increase levels of job satisfaction of working staff in delta civil construction and industries public company limited ................. 58 5.3.1. Colleagues issues .............................................................................................. 61 5.3.2. Leadership issues .............................................................................................. 62 5.4. Limitations of the research and next research direction............................. 64 5.4.1 Linitations of the research................................................................................. 64 5.4.2 Next research direction ..................................................................................... 64 BIBLIOGRAPY ......................................................................................................... 66 vii LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1: Mesurement scales and coding measurement scales....................... 25 Table 3.2: Mesurement scales and coding measurement scales....................... 26 Table 4.1: Gender structure ............................................................................... 30 Table 4.2: Age structure .................................................................................... 31 Table 4.3: Structure of qualifications ................................................................ 31 Table 4.4: Seniority structure ............................................................................ 31 Table 4.5: Structure of departments .................................................................. 32 Table 4.6: Cronbach Alpha of scale “ nature of work”.................................... 32 Table 4.7: Cronbach Alpha of scale “salary” .................................................... 33 Table 4.8: Cronbach Alpha of scales “ colleagues” .......................................... 33 Table 4.9: Cronbach Alpha of scales “leaders”................................................. 34 Table 4.10: Cronbach Alpha of scales “training and promotion opportunities”. 34 Table 4.11: Cronbach Alpha of scale “ working environment”.......................... 35 Table 4.12: Cronbach Alpha of scales “satisfaction”.......................................... 35 Table 4.13: Results of step 2 of model.............................................................. 37 Table 4.14: Model summary of method Enter. ................................................... 41 Table 4.15: The regression results using the method Enter. .............................. 41 Tabled 4.16: Results of using the method Enter after removing variables. ......... 42 Table 4.17: Results of Independent t-test Statistics according to groups of genders ............................................................................................. 46 Table 4.18: Results of Independent t-test compare levels of job satisfaction according to genders. ....................................................................... 46 Table 4.19: One-Way ANOVA Results compare levels of job satisfaction according to the age. ........................................................................ 47 Table 4.20: Results of One-Way ANOVA compare job satisfaction according to qualifications................................................................................ 48 Table 4.22: Results of One-Way ANOVA compare levels of job satisfaction according to departments. ................................................................ 49 viii Table 4.23: Results Descriptive statistics overall satisfaction level.................... 50 Table 4.24: Results of research according to levels of satisfaction factor according to group "colleagues" ...................................................... 51 Table 4.25: Results Descriptive statistics of the satisfaction level of "3 colleagues” ....................................................................................... 51 Table 4.26: Results Descriptive statistics of the satisfaction level of the "colleagues 4"................................................................................... 52 Table 4.27:. Results of descriptive statistics of the satisfaction level of "colleagues 1"................................................................................... 52 Table 4.28: Results of statistics describing satisfaction of component “ leadership”........................................................................................ 53 Table 4.29: Results Descriptive statistics of the satisfaction level of "2 colleagues."..54 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Research Framework for this research study ..................................... 4 Figure 2.1 Lawler’s model of job satisfaction and its determinants.................. 10 Figure 2.2 Work adjustment model ................................................................... 12 Graph 2.1 Research model ................................................................................ 19 Graph 3.1 Research process .............................................................................. 23 Graph 4.1 Adjustment model ............................................................................ 39 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale Specific employee attitude relating to job satisfaction is one of the major interests to the field of organizational behavior and the practice of human resource management. Job satisfaction is one of the most researched areas in Industrial and Organizational (I/O) Psychology. It estimated that over 3,000 articles have been written on the topic. The subject has aroused so much interest because of three main reasons. First, it is cultural in the sense that as a nation that values individual freedom, personal growth, and opportunity. For example, in certain European countries, like Germany, Sweden and Holland, there has been a long-standing concern for industrial democracy, in which the feelings of workers are of major importance. However, in some other European countries and in other parts of the world, interest in the quality of work life is emerged (De Wolff & Shimmin, 1976). The second reason for interest in job satisfaction is functional. Some research studies have shown that satisfaction is related to other important variables like absenteeism, turnover, and performance. Though we do not know if job satisfaction has a causal relationship with these variables (for example, if high job satisfaction will cause a worker to be absent less often), we do know that feelings of high job satisfaction are associated with certain levels of these variables. Because the company wants less absenteeism, less turnover and better performance, then increasing job satisfaction might help in meeting these objectives. Finally, there is a historical basis to job satisfaction research. The studies began in the 1920s as research on the effects of work and illumination 2 on productivity, but the emphasis soon shifted to attitudes. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, attention was given to designing jobs that were more satisfying, This early research was the nucleus for current work on changing the environment (design jobs) to improve work life. This is clearly visible that job satisfaction is an important consideration for manager as specific attitude of employees maybe related to critical behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover. The theory and research on job satisfaction can be useful to managers by helping them understand employee attitudes about the workplace. 1.2. Background of the company Delta Civil Construction & Industries Public Company Limited (DCI) has been established since 1984. It is located at Rojana Industrial Park in Ayutthaya, Thailand. The company provides architecture design and construction consultations and also serves as a main or sub contractor of many civil construction projects. 1.3. Statement of the Problem for the Research Study The researcher has aimed to study different factors behind job satisfaction and use Delta Civil Construction & Industries Public Company Limited (DCI) as a case study. The company is facing a problem about high turnover of employee1. This has led to the management’s concern on labor productivity as it takes sometime for the company to train these workers to achieve their expected level of performance on the job. The causes for labor turnover may result from many reasons both from employees themselves and the organization. From organizational perspective, employee turnover can represent a significant cost in terms of lost recruiting, training, socialization investments, disruption and replacement costs, and a variety of indirect costs. 1 From discussion with Ms. Banyai Utungkas, Vice President of Industrial Relationships, and Ms. Sasinunt Srisala, Personnel Section Manager, in 2000, there were total 2,615 employees, the employee turnover rate was as high as 5.3 percent per month, that was about 125 employees per month. 3 From the theoretical view, factors behind this problem could be satisfaction of employees. The researcher has been informed that no employee attitude survey has been done before by the Human Resource Management of the company. Thus, this research study is designed to identify the factors behind job satisfaction. Moreover, the researcher expects that having this information may allow human management to capitalize on ‘satisfiers’ when planning and updating recruitment and retention programs and thereby to reduce unnecessary fiscal loss. 1.4. Objectives of the Research Study The major objective of the study is to find out different factors behind job satisfaction of employees in Delta Civil Construction & Industries Public Co., Ltd. The following specific objectives will be considered: ♦ To study employees’ job satisfaction level in the company. ♦ To study the different factors that affect to job satisfaction of employees in the company. ♦ To give some useful recommendations to improve employee’s satisfaction in the company. 1.5. Conceptual Framework of the Research Study This research study will include four main parts: The literature review will be undertaken formulate conceptual framework deriving from various the theories of job satisfaction and different factors and components that concern employee’s attitudes. The second part is devoted to the research methodology which includes research design, target population, instrument and scale construction, methods of observation and measurement, and methods of obtaining and analyzing data. 4 By analyzing the data collected from the field, this part is the description of the respondents, results of research study and discussion. The conclusion and recommendations will be given to human resource practitioners for future human resource management and development in the organization. The summary of this study’s Research Framework is presented in Figure 1.1 1. Literature Review 2. Conceptual Framework 3. Data Collection 3.1 Primary Data 3.2 Secondary Data 4. Analysis and discussion 5. Conclusion and Recommendations Figure 1.1 Research Framework for this research study 5 1.6. Scope of the Research Study The study focuses on studying different factors that have impact on employee's job satisfaction level. The main focus of the present study is managerial practice for Human Resource Management. The researcher highlights the significant effect of influences on overall job satisfaction and relationship between job satisfaction level and other variables. Finally, implications of the findings are provided. 1.7. Methodology for the Research Study 1.7.1. Primary data This research study conducts a questionnaire survey to obtain the primary data. 1.7.2. Secondary data: The information has been extracted from the sources such as previous research, newspaper, magazines, journals and internet. 1.8. The Expected Contributions of the Research Study This study is expected to contribute the following: ♦ Knowledge and understanding of the factors, which affect the employee's job satisfaction level of the company, ♦ An understanding of a priority of the significant factors which affect employee's job satisfaction level of the company, and ♦ Knowledge of employee's job satisfaction and result of the research study can be used in the continuous improvement process of management, especially in Human Resource Management, in order to reduce the employee turnover rate and other outputs, which may be caused from employee's satisfaction. 6 1.9. Limitation of the Research Study As we know every study has its own strength and weakness. Also, this research study can not avoid its own limitation. Since this study was conducted only at Delta Civil Construction & Industries Public Company Limited, therefore the findings could be good only for this place because different organizations have different policy, philosophy of thinking and management, including job nature and working environments. Thus the future research could focus on a bigger scale of subjects and cover more companies, which have more a variety of product groups and whole industries, so that the finding of the study can be generalized and widely used in the management areas. In addition, the comparative study between the government sector and private sector can add more interesting knowledge to the human resource management area. 1.10. Organization of the Research Study Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Research Methodology Chapter 4: Finding and Data Analysis Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation 7 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Job satisfaction is one among many important attitudes that influence human behavior in the workplace. It is closely related to organizational commitment. Thus, job satisfaction is one of the major interests to the field of organizational behavior and the practice of human resource management. 2.1. Definitions of Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable attitudes that employees hold about their work. Early definitions (e.g., Blum & Naylor, 1968) emphasized job satisfaction as a general attitude resulting from specific attitudes in three areas: job factor, individual characteristics, and group relationships outside work. Later definitions emphasized the affective, or subjective, nature of these feelings. For example, Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal one makes of his or her job or job experiences. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) defines job satisfaction as a feeling based on the worker’s estimate of the extent to which the work environment fulfills one’s needs. Though job satisfaction has been defined in various ways, the notion of subjective feelings such as ‘liking and disliking’ (Hoppock, 1935) and ‘affective responses’ (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin., 1969) and the existence of needs that have to be fulfilled (e.g., Dawis, 1991; Locke, 1976) run through most of these definitions. Feelings identify satisfaction, and needs explain the process. According to Dawis (1991) and Dawis and Lofquist (1984), the definition of needs takes into account the individual’s requirement for particular reinforcers and the level of significance the individual assigns to 8 each reinforcer. A need is a necessity; it is a lack of something that is useful, required, or desired (Webster’s New World Dictionary or American English, 1994). These needs, inclinations, or tendencies lead to motivation, because they are intrinsic to the different actions we take to secure specific outcomes. These outcomes are important because they affect the organization’s productivity, turnover, and absenteeism. Individual consequences, such as stress and mental health difficulties, affect not only individual employees but also the organization as a whole. 2.2. Theories of Job Satisfaction Several theories have been proposed to explain why people are satisfied with their jobs. However, none of them have garnered a great deal of empirical confirmation, which suggests that job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon with many causal bases and that no one theory has been successful in incorporating all of them. 2.2.1. Locke’s Value Discrepancy Theory Edwin A. Locke (1969, 1967) uses the discrepancy hypothesis in value discrepancy theory. Locke’s basic proposition is that satisfaction with some factors or aspects of the job is the result of a dual judgment. First, a person judges the job factor in terms of its importance. This judgment reflects the intensity of the value relating to the job factor. Second, the person estimates the discrepancy or difference between how much of the factor is desired and how much is reDCIved. Thus, satisfaction with a job factor will depend on the importance of the factors and there is no difference between what is desired of it and what is received. Locke further proposes that a factor’s importance affects the intensity of the reaction to a discrepancy, and there is evidence that this is 9 correct. That is, when a job factor is very important, a discrepancy matters more and leads to greater dissatisfaction than when the factor is not important (McFarlin & Rice, 1992) There is some support for these discrepancy predictions. First, satisfaction is greater when discrepancies are smaller—or when you get what you expect. Second, negative discrepancies or getting less than desired, are associated with dissatisfaction on any job factor. Third, a positive discrepancy can lead to dissatisfaction on some job factors, such as having more contact with customers than desired (Rice, McFarlin, & Bennett,1989). 2.2.2. Lawler’s Facet Theory Lawler (1971)’s facet satisfaction model is a combination of a process theory, an equity theory, and a theory that accounts for individual difference in terms of subjective perception. Facet satisfaction theory accounts for individual differences by emphasizing personal perceptions and subjective beliefs. As shown in Figure 2.1, a person’s job input includes factors such as skills, age, training, and abilities. Perceived job demands influence the person’s feelings about what his or her outcomes should be, compared to the referent other’s inputs and outcomes. This concept is taken directly from equity theory and emphasizes the importance of the way we perceive reality, not reality itself (Lawler, 1973; Milbourn, 1980). The best summary of the model is provided by Lawler (1973, 1991) and Lawler and Rhode (1976, p.30): “Job satisfaction is best thought of as a reaction people have to what happens to them at work.” Each person has his or her own mental map of behaviors to chooses from and outcomes that will satisfy the person’s needs. Thus, organizations should provide employees 10 with rewards that are perceived as having value. Some implications of this model include the following: ♦ People expect that input will be proportionate to output. Accordingly, people with high levels of input should receive greater rewards (such as more money) than people with lower input, or they will be dissatisfied. ♦ Most people believe that the more difficult the (perceived) job demands, the higher the perceived rewards. If this relationship is not satisfactory, the employee will be dissatisfied. Skill Experience Training Effort Age Seniority Education Company loyalty Past performance Present performance Level Difficulty Timespan Amount of responsibility Perceived personal job inputs Perceived inputs and outcomes of referent others Perceived amount that should be received a Perceived job Characteristics Perceived outcomes of referent others Actual outcomes reDCIved A=BÆsatisfaction A>BÆdissatisfaction A - Xem thêm -