Tài liệu Analysis of boundary conditions and concept design for port dong lam, thua thien-hue province, vietnam

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"ANALYSIS OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND CONCEPT DESIGN FOR PORT DONG LAM, THUA THIEN-HUE PROVINCE, VIETNAM" Graduation committee: Prof. Ir. H. Ligteringen Delft University of Technology Dr. Ir. J. Van de Graaff Delft University of Technology Ir. D.J.R. Walstra Delft University of Technology Ir. M. Westra Royal Haskoning Ir. T. Elzinga Royal Haskoning Author: W.A.Broersen Date: May - 2010 Port Dong Lam PREFACE What lies in front of you is the result of the Master Thesis, the final step before graduation in Civil Engineering at Delft University of Technology (DUT). This project is about the analysis and modelling of boundary conditions and the conceptual design of Port Dong Lam, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam. The work was executed in cooperation with Royal Haskoning - departments Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Royal Haskoning provided me a working space and put all their information, knowledge and advice at my disposal, for which I am thankful. As well, I want to show my gratefulness to the members of my graduation committee for guiding me during the process: Prof. ir. H. Ligteringen Delft University of Technology, chair Ports & Waterways Dr. ir. J. Van de Graaff Delft University of Technology, chair Coastal Engineering Ir. D.J.R. Walstra Delft University of Technology, chair Coastal Engineering Ir. M. Westra Royal Haskoning (NL), department Coastal & Rivers Ir. T. Elzinga Royal Haskoning (NL), department Maritime Besides I want to thank my overseas supervisors in Vietnam for providing information and advice: Ir. M. Coopman Royal Haskoning (VN), department Maritime Ir. M. Klabbers Royal Haskoning (VN), department Maritime Last but not least I want to show my appreciation to my friends, roommates and fellow students. Special thanks go to my family, Mischa and my close friends Loek, Paul, Cyriel and Jan. Without their support the mountain to climb would have been a few steps higher. At the end of this project I can say that I have really expanded my knowledge and skills, both technically and pragmatically. Moreover, my self-awareness has reached a higher level which is priceless with regard to my future. The struggle to achieve this was tough and I would like to quote a fellow student to describe this journey: 28/05/2010 I MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Laat ik het afstudeerwerk vergelijken met een tocht over de Andes van Chili naar Argentinië. Vooraf lijkt het een prachtig mooie tocht te worden, het begin loopt relaxed, maar er komt ongetwijfeld een pas waar niet overheen te komen is. Dagen van sneeuwstormen en psychologische ellende zorgen ervoor dat we geen steek verder komen. Maar naarmate het berglandschap bekender terrein wordt, worden nieuwe paden zichtbaar. Met de weinige ervaring stuiten we nog op een aantal tegenslagen die we van tevoren niet hadden voorzien, maar omdat we goede bagage hebben en een portie kennis over de elementen lukt het ons met gezond verstand om een weg te banen door de Cordilleras (Andesgebergte). Aangekomen in Argentinië staat vervolgens een vliegtuig klaar, die kun je nemen, naar welke plek op aarde dan ook. Bas van Son (2009) Wouter Broersen 28/05/2010 Delft, 28 mei 2010 II MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam SUMMARY Introduction Dong Lam Cement Factory is developing a new clinker plant in Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam. The clinker has to be exported towards Ho Chi Minh City, where it is grinded into cement and used for the construction industry. For the clinker production coal is needed and has to be imported. To make the in- and export possible a new dedicated seaport is required to allow for 15,000 dwt clinker vessels and 7,000 dwt coal vessels. From the production plant, the clinker bulk is transported to a storage facility by truck. From here the material is transported to the seaport by means of a conveyor belt. The coal is transported by the same modalities but vice versa. In the first phase (up to 2015) about 2 million ton per year bulk material is expected to be handled at this port. In the second phase (2015 - 2035) this amounts about 4 million ton per year of bulk material. Following the increasing demand for concrete, a doubling of the production is expected in 2035. This results in a throughput of almost 8 million ton per year in the third project phase (2035 and up). Objective The objective is to design a port with sufficient capacity to handle the predicted cargo flow and which offers acceptable conditions for the ships to enter. The effective berth and hinterland capacity have to be determined such, that turnaround times are within limits. To create safe conditions, the vessels need to have enough space for manouevring in the wet port area. These manoeuvres can be seriously disturbed by wind, wave, currents and siltation on the long term. To ensure the workability of the port these effects have to be limited. Analysis Port capacity To determine the effective berth capacity the queuing theory is applied. In phase 1 and 2 one clinker and one coal berth satisfy with effective capacities of respectively 700 and 175 t/h respectively. In phase 3 two clinker and two coal berths are needed with the same loading/unloading rates. Clinker is loaded with a radial loader and coal is unloaded with a pneumatic unloader. Boundary conditions To get insight in the environmental boundary conditions, field data is collected and analysed thoroughly. In Vietnam the wind climate is governed by the South-East Asian monsoon system, with a dominant SE direction and strong NNE winds. The wave climate is directly influenced by the wind climate and shows a similar pattern. With regard to extreme conditions, once a year a tropical storm lands in the vicinity of the port site. These storms are accompanied by strong wave conditions, coming from E to SE direction. 28/05/2010 III MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Having frequent waves from the NNE and SE, littoral transport is generated in north- and southward direction. Nevertheless, the northward transport is clearly dominant. Currents are heading SE for most of the time. Port dimensions To reduce the breakwater length, it is decided for the tugs to make fast outside the breakwaters. As a consequence, almost 4% of downtime can be expected, since tugs cannot operate when Hs ≥ 2m. Once the vessel has entered the harbour the stopping manoeuvre can be started, which requires an inner channel length of 290 m. The turning circle allows for the turning manoeuvre for which a radius of 290 m is reserved. In the mooring basin, ships are forced into the right position to make safe berthing possible. This requires a width of 210 m and a quay length of 652 m. Note that these basic dimensions are determined for project phase 3 (4 berths), considering a 15,000 dwt design vessel. Layouts and evaluation Four different layouts are developed for phase 3 of the project. Two of them are dismissed in an early stage, because of unfavourable conditions. The other two layouts – the 'coastal' and 'offshore' alternative, are evaluated with a cost-value approach. In this approach the value of each design is assessed by means of a MCA. The following criteria are taken into consideration: navigation, tranquillity at berth, coastal impact, sedimentation, ease of cargo handling, safety and flexibility. Regarding navigation and wind, wave and current hindrance, no significant differences are found. It turns out that the most important difference is found in the coastal impact. The coastal alternative will cause erosion along 7.5 km of coastline with a maximum retreat of 100 m. Instead, the offshore alternative affects 'only' 3 km with maximum retreat of 70 m. The other element of the cost-value approach is the costs. The investment costs for the coastal alternative are 64.1 M$, which include the dredging works, breakwater and quay construction. The costs for the offshore port amount 77.5 M$, which entails the dredging works, breakwater, jetty quay and trestle construction. The relative low costs for the coastal alternative are achieved by applying the cut-and-fill balance; the dredged sand is used as breakwater foundation. Maintenance dredging costs are 1.75 M$ and 0.9 M$ for respectively the coastal and offshore alternative. To finish the cost-value approach the value/costs ratio is taken for both port layouts. The coastal alternative (1.11) turns out to be a better port layout than the offshore alternative (0.95). Downtime assessment The total downtime amounts 5.4 %, which is entails the following contributions: • • Wave height exceedance tugs: Wind speed exceedance moored vessels 28/05/2010 IV 3.9% 1.5% MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Figure 95: final port design. 28/05/2010 V MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 VI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam CONTENTS PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................ I SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................... III TABLE OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................... XI TABLE OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................XV TABLE OF EQUATIONS ................................................................................................................. XVII 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ 3 1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................. 3 1.1.1 Port location ..................................................................................................................... 4 1.1.2 Metocean conditions ........................................................................................................ 4 1.2 STUDY SCOPE ............................................................................................................................ 5 1.3 STUDY APPROACH AND CONTENTS ................................................................................................. 6 1.3.1 Data collection .................................................................................................................. 6 1.3.2 Modelling .......................................................................................................................... 6 1.3.3 Transport capacities ......................................................................................................... 6 1.3.4 Port dimensions ................................................................................................................ 6 1.3.5 Layout design and concept selection ................................................................................ 6 1.4 MISCELLANEOUS........................................................................................................................ 7 2 ENVIRONMENTAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ............................................................................ 8 2.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................................... 8 2.3 CLIMATE .................................................................................................................................. 8 2.4 TOPOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................ 9 2.5 BATHYMETRY .......................................................................................................................... 10 2.5.1 Cross-shore profile .......................................................................................................... 11 2.6 WATER LEVELS ........................................................................................................................ 12 2.6.1 Tide ................................................................................................................................. 12 2.6.2 Water level setup ............................................................................................................ 13 2.6.3 Sea level rise ................................................................................................................... 18 2.6.4 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 18 2.7 WIND DATA ............................................................................................................................ 19 2.7.1 Background ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.7.2 Normal conditions .......................................................................................................... 20 2.7.3 Extreme conditions ......................................................................................................... 25 2.7.4 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 27 2.8 WAVE DATA OFFSHORE ............................................................................................................. 28 2.8.1 Normal conditions .......................................................................................................... 28 2.8.2 Extreme conditions ......................................................................................................... 34 2.8.3 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 37 2.9 WAVE DATA NEARSHORE ........................................................................................................... 38 2.9.1 Normal conditions .......................................................................................................... 39 2.9.2 Extreme conditions ......................................................................................................... 41 2.9.3 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 46 2.10 CURRENT DATA........................................................................................................................ 48 2.10.1 Wind-driven currents .................................................................................................. 49 2.10.2 Tide driven currents .................................................................................................... 49 28/05/2010 VII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam 2.10.3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 50 2.11 SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS....................................................................................................... 52 2.11.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 54 2.12 COASTAL MORPHOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 55 2.12.1 TUNG (2001) ............................................................................................................... 55 2.12.2 Littoral transport under normal conditions ................................................................ 56 2.12.3 Littoral transport under extreme conditions............................................................... 58 2.13 SOIL CONDITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 62 2.13.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 64 3 TRANSPORT CAPACITY ........................................................................................................... 65 3.1 THROUGHPUT.......................................................................................................................... 65 3.2 OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................... 68 3.3 TRANSPORT CAPACITIES............................................................................................................. 69 3.3.1 Berth assessment ............................................................................................................ 69 3.3.2 Conveyor belt .................................................................................................................. 74 3.3.3 Storage area.................................................................................................................... 75 3.3.4 Road ................................................................................................................................ 78 3.3.5 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 78 4 BASIC PORT DIMENSIONS ...................................................................................................... 79 4.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 79 4.2 NORMAL CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................... 79 4.3 DESIGN VESSEL ........................................................................................................................ 79 4.4 WATER AREA ........................................................................................................................... 80 4.4.1 Approach channel ........................................................................................................... 80 4.4.2 Turning Circle .................................................................................................................. 85 4.4.3 Mooring Basin ................................................................................................................. 86 4.4.4 Quay length ..................................................................................................................... 86 4.5 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 87 5 ALTERNATIVE LAYOUTS ......................................................................................................... 88 5.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 88 5.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS........................................................................................................... 88 5.3 PORT LAYOUTS......................................................................................................................... 90 5.3.1 Refinement of port layouts ............................................................................................. 91 5.4 MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................... 96 5.4.1 Navigation....................................................................................................................... 97 5.4.2 Tranquility at berth ......................................................................................................... 97 5.4.3 Coastal impact .............................................................................................................. 100 5.4.4 Sedimentation ............................................................................................................... 105 5.4.5 Safety ............................................................................................................................ 108 5.4.6 Flexibility ....................................................................................................................... 109 5.4.7 Result ............................................................................................................................ 109 5.5 CAPITAL COSTS CALCULATION.................................................................................................... 111 5.5.1 Coastal port ................................................................................................................... 111 5.5.2 Offshore port ................................................................................................................. 119 5.6 MAINTENANCE COSTS CALCULATION .......................................................................................... 126 5.6.1 Coastal port ................................................................................................................... 126 5.6.2 Offshore port ................................................................................................................. 126 5.7 COST-VALUE APPROACH .......................................................................................................... 128 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................... 129 28/05/2010 VIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam 6.1 CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................................... 129 6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................................. 130 6.2.1 Data and modelling ...................................................................................................... 130 6.2.2 Port design .................................................................................................................... 130 7 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 131 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 A. MONSOON AND TYPHOON BACKGROUND .......................................................................... 134 A.1 A.2 B. MONSOONS.......................................................................................................................... 134 TYPHOONS ........................................................................................................................... 134 OTHER WIND AND WAVE SOURCES ..................................................................................... 136 B.1 B.2 B.3 C. BOOKS ................................................................................................................................. 131 LECTURE NOTES..................................................................................................................... 131 ARTICLES .............................................................................................................................. 131 OTHER REPORTS .................................................................................................................... 131 MANUALS ............................................................................................................................ 131 WIND DATA FROM CON CO ISLAND ........................................................................................... 136 WAVE DATA FROM CON CO ISLAND ........................................................................................... 137 WAVE DATA FROM GLOBAL WAVE STATISTICS ............................................................................. 138 TYPHOON GENERATED WIND AND WAVES .......................................................................... 138 C.1 WIND .................................................................................................................................. 138 C.2 WAVES ................................................................................................................................ 141 C.2.1 Calculation of maximum wave heights ......................................................................... 141 C.2.2 Calculation of wave heights at port site ....................................................................... 143 C.2.3 Example calculation ...................................................................................................... 146 D. EXTREME VALUE DISTRIBUTIONS ......................................................................................... 149 D.1 D.2 D.3 E. OFFSHORE CURRENTS .......................................................................................................... 155 E.1 E.2 F. EXTREME WIND SPEEDS ........................................................................................................... 149 EXTREME WAVE HEIGHTS – TYPHOON GENERATED ........................................................................ 150 EXTREME WAVE HEIGHTS – MONSOON GENERATED ...................................................................... 152 WIND-DRIVEN ....................................................................................................................... 155 TIDE-DRIVEN ......................................................................................................................... 156 WAVE MODELLING .............................................................................................................. 157 F.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 157 F.2 MODEL SETUP ....................................................................................................................... 157 F.2.1 Land boundary .............................................................................................................. 157 F.2.2 Computational grids ..................................................................................................... 158 F.2.3 Bathymetry ................................................................................................................... 159 F.3 MODEL INPUT ....................................................................................................................... 159 F.3.1 Hydrodynamic boundary conditions ............................................................................. 160 F.3.2 Physical parameters ..................................................................................................... 161 F.3.3 Numerical parameters .................................................................................................. 162 F.4 CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION ................................................................................................. 162 F.5 MODEL OUTPUT .................................................................................................................... 162 F.5.1 Normal conditions ........................................................................................................ 162 F.5.2 Extreme conditions ....................................................................................................... 165 G. MORPHOLOGICAL MODELLING ............................................................................................ 167 G.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 167 28/05/2010 IX MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam G.2 CERC FORMULA .................................................................................................................... 167 G.2.1 General .......................................................................................................................... 167 G.2.2 Calculation setup........................................................................................................... 169 G.2.3 Calculation of wave parameters ................................................................................... 169 G.2.4 Calculation of shoaling and refraction factors .............................................................. 169 G.2.5 Calculation of sediment transport................................................................................. 170 G.2.6 Calculation input and output ........................................................................................ 170 G.3 MIKE LITPACK – LITDRIFT ................................................................................................... 173 G.3.1 General .......................................................................................................................... 173 G.3.2 Hydrodynamic model .................................................................................................... 173 G.3.3 Sediment transport model ............................................................................................ 173 G.3.4 Model setup .................................................................................................................. 174 G.3.5 Model settings............................................................................................................... 177 G.3.6 Model input ................................................................................................................... 178 G.3.7 Calibration and validation ............................................................................................. 179 G.3.8 Model output ................................................................................................................ 179 G.3.9 Sensitivity analysis ........................................................................................................ 183 G.4 MIKE LITPACK – LITLINE ..................................................................................................... 185 G.4.1 General .......................................................................................................................... 185 G.4.2 Model setup .................................................................................................................. 185 G.4.3 Model input ................................................................................................................... 187 G.4.4 Calibration and validation ............................................................................................. 189 G.4.5 Model output ................................................................................................................ 189 H. CALCULATIONS ON BERTH CAPACITY ................................................................................... 190 H.1 H.2 H.3 I. PHASE 1 ............................................................................................................................... 190 PHASE 2 ............................................................................................................................... 191 PHASE 3 ............................................................................................................................... 192 BREAKWATER CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................. 193 I.1 I.2 J. COASTAL PORT ........................................................................................................................... 193 OFFSHORE PORT ......................................................................................................................... 195 DREDGING COSTS ................................................................................................................ 196 J.1 J.2 J.3 CAPITAL DREDGING COSTS ............................................................................................................ 196 MAINTENANCE DREDGING COSTS – COASTAL PORT ............................................................................ 197 MAINTENANCE DREDGING COSTS – OFFSHORE PORT .......................................................................... 198 28/05/2010 X MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1: planned port site in Google Earth image. .................................................................................................. 3 Figure 2: transport system for clinker export and coal import. ............................................................................... 4 Figure 3: rivers and lagoon system in Thua Thie- Hue province. .............................................................................. 9 Figure 4: bathymetry near Thua Thien-Hue Province obtained from C-map. ........................................................ 10 Figure 5: bathymetry near port site obtained from C-map. ................................................................................... 10 Figure 6: cross-shore C-C' ....................................................................................................................................... 11 Figure 7: different water levels in a mixed tide. ..................................................................................................... 12 Figure 8: measurement of the water level at the project site................................................................................ 13 Figure 9: schematization of wind setup. ................................................................................................................ 15 Figure 10: schematization of the fetch for wind-setup calculation. ....................................................................... 15 Figure 11: schematization of wave setup. .............................................................................................................. 17 Figure 12: calculation of wave setup ...................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 13: extreme water level contributions. ....................................................................................................... 18 Figure 14: Asian summer and winter monsoon system. ........................................................................................ 19 Figure 15: typhoon Cecil, landed in Vietnam at the 15th of October, 1985........................................................... 20 Figure 16: wind climate according to the China Sea Pilot ...................................................................................... 21 Figure 17: NOAA wind roses for the six data locations. ......................................................................................... 22 Figure 18: wind rose (1). ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Figure 19: time series of wind speed in 1998. ........................................................................................................ 24 Figure 20: cumulative exceedance frequency versus wind speed. ........................................................................ 25 Figure 21: top 50 of tropical depressions hitting central Vietnam between 1959 and 2009. ................................ 26 Figure 22: NOAA wave roses for the six data locations. ......................................................................................... 29 Figure 23: time series of wave height in 1998........................................................................................................ 30 Figure 24: wave rose (wave height, direction and frequency). .............................................................................. 31 Figure 25: wave rose (wave period, direction and frequency). .............................................................................. 32 Figure 26: wave height versus frequency exceedance. .......................................................................................... 33 Figure 27: Hs - Tp relation. ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Figure 28: severe monsoon event in dec 1998. ..................................................................................................... 36 Figure 29: wave model result for random wave condition. ................................................................................... 38 Figure 30: offshore wave rose with schematized wave directions. Source: NOAA, location 18N;107.5E. ............. 39 Figure 31: nearshore wave rose at 15 m water depth. .......................................................................................... 40 Figure 32: cumulative probability of exceedance versus wave height for offshore and nearshore wave data. .... 41 Figure 33: Typhoon ED (1990) coming from ESE (112.5º) direction and showing the dominant wave front. ........ 43 Figure 34: currents in the South China Sea. Source: UKHO (1978) ........................................................................ 48 Figure 35: locations of current measurements (about 600 m offshore). Source: TEDIPORT. ................................ 49 Figure 36: current rose for vertical 2. Source: local measurement by TEDIPORT. ................................................. 50 Figure 37: hydrographical survey area (drawing scale 1 : 50,000). ........................................................................ 52 Figure 38: bed sample of location MD9. ................................................................................................................ 53 Figure 39: net sediment transports along the coastal barrier from Thuan An inlet to Linh Thai. .......................... 55 Figure 40: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/10 years typhoon condition. ............................. 59 Figure 41: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/50 years typhoon condition. ............................. 59 Figure 42: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/10 years monsoon condition. ............................ 59 Figure 43: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport for 1/50 years monsoon condition. ............................ 59 Figure 44: borehole locations for geotechnical survey. ......................................................................................... 62 Figure 45: geotechnical cross-section indicating four different soil layers. ........................................................... 63 Figure 46: throughput time scheme....................................................................................................................... 65 Figure 47: transport system to and from the new sea port. .................................................................................. 66 Figure 48: schematized port system and the Erlang-k distribution. ....................................................................... 70 Figure 49: example of a portal scraper. ................................................................................................................. 72 28/05/2010 XI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Figure 50: example of a radial loader for clinker loading....................................................................................... 72 Figure 51: example of a continuous unloader for coal unloading.......................................................................... 73 Figure 52: example of a stacker-reclaimer. ............................................................................................................ 73 Figure 53: example of a conveyor belt (non-enclosed). ......................................................................................... 74 Figure 54: triangular shape of storage areas. ........................................................................................................ 75 Figure 55: example of an open storage. ................................................................................................................ 76 Figure 56: example of a covered warehouse. ........................................................................................................ 76 Figure 57: road between production plant and Port Dong Lam. ........................................................................... 78 Figure 58: make fast and pilot boarding outside the breakwater. ......................................................................... 81 Figure 59: increase of drift angle during entering of the port. .............................................................................. 82 Figure 60: basic manoeuvring width of a sailing ship. ........................................................................................... 83 Figure 61: channel depth contributions. ................................................................................................................ 85 Figure 62: required space for operations in mooring basin. .................................................................................. 86 Figure 63: four port layouts. .................................................................................................................................. 91 Figure 64: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport during 1/10 years typhoon......................................... 92 Figure 65: sediment transport during typhoon event - coastal port. .................................................................... 92 Figure 66: sediment transport during monsoon event - coastal port. ................................................................... 93 Figure 67: cross-shore distribution of sediment transport during 1/10 years monsoon. ...................................... 94 Figure 68: sediment transport during monsoon and typhoon events - offshore port. .......................................... 94 Figure 69: diffraction around breakwater head – coastal port. ............................................................................. 98 Figure 70: diffraction around breakwater head – offshore port. ........................................................................... 99 Figure 71: coastal impact - coastal port. .............................................................................................................. 100 Figure 72: coastal erosion - coastal port. ............................................................................................................. 102 Figure 73: coastal impact - offshore port. ............................................................................................................ 103 Figure 74: coastal erosion - offshore port............................................................................................................ 104 Figure 75: siltation areas for coastal port. ........................................................................................................... 105 Figure 76: cross-shore sediment distribution during 1/10 monsoon storm without and with coastline growth. 106 Figure 77: siltation area for offshore port. .......................................................................................................... 108 Figure 78: possible port expansion - coastal port. ............................................................................................... 109 Figure 79: dredging works - coastal port. ............................................................................................................ 111 Figure 80: sand spit and land reclamation – coastal port. ................................................................................... 112 Figure 81: cross-section of sand spit. ................................................................................................................... 112 Figure 82: erosion profile for sandy beaches. ...................................................................................................... 113 Figure 83: longitudinal cross-section of the main breakwater (lower picture) and the secondary breakwater (upper picture). .................................................................................................................................................... 114 Figure 84: wave heights and water depths from SWAN model – coastal port. ................................................... 115 Figure 85: cross-section 1 and 2 (founded on sand spit) – coastal port. ............................................................. 116 Figure 86: cross-sections 3 and 4 – coastal port. ................................................................................................. 116 Figure 87: example of a marginal quay. ............................................................................................................... 119 Figure 88: dredging works - offshore port. .......................................................................................................... 120 Figure 89: sand spit - offshore port...................................................................................................................... 120 Figure 90: longitudinal cross-section of offshore breakwater. ............................................................................ 121 Figure 91: wave heights and water depths from SWAN model - offshore port. .................................................. 122 Figure 92: cross-sections 1 and 2 - offshore port................................................................................................. 123 Figure 93: example of a jetty quay, connected to the land by a trestle............................................................... 125 Figure 94: cost estimate offshore port. ............................................................................................................... 125 Figure 95: final port design. ................................................................................................................................. 129 Figure 96: Asian summer and winter monsoon system. ...................................................................................... 134 Figure 97: wind rose. Source: HMS, Con Co Island. ............................................................................................. 136 Figure 98: wave rose. Source: HMS of Con Co Island........................................................................................... 137 Figure 99: tabular wave data from Global Wave Statistics, Northeast direction. ................................................ 138 Figure 100: top 50 of tropical depressions hitting central Vietnam between 1959 and 2009. ............................ 139 Figure 101: dimensions of cyclone winds. ........................................................................................................... 142 28/05/2010 XII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Figure 102: F/R' versus Umax (m/s). .................................................................................................................... 142 Figure 103: ratio of wave height at distant r to wave height at eye radius R. ..................................................... 144 Figure 104: determination of distant r between landfall and port site. ............................................................... 145 Figure 105: definition of X, X' and Y. .................................................................................................................... 145 Figure 106: example calculation: determination of Hr / HR................................................................................. 148 Figure 107: Weibull distribution fitted to wind speeds of 33 m/s and up. .......................................................... 150 Figure 108: distinction between tropical storms and typhoons........................................................................... 151 Figure 109: Weibull distribution fitted to wave heights of 6.61 m and up. ......................................................... 152 Figure 110: Weibull fitted to wave height of 3.3 m and up.................................................................................. 154 Figure 111: currents in the South China Sea. Source: UKHO (1978). ................................................................... 155 Figure 112: computational grids used in the SWAN model.................................................................................. 158 Figure 113: land boundary, computational grid and bathymetry for grid 1. ........................................................ 159 Figure 114: k-factor per wave height and direction. ............................................................................................ 164 Figure 115: grid 2 and its bathymetry. ................................................................................................................. 164 Figure 116: wave attenuation for wave condition 20, grid 2. .............................................................................. 165 Figure 117: grid 1 (most coarse) in modelling of extreme waves. ....................................................................... 166 Figure 118: wave power P per unit beach length (left) and the alongshore component of P (right). .................. 168 Figure 119: linear relation between Sx ( I l ) and P ( Pl ) based on measurements. ............................................ 168 Figure 120: bathymetric survey by TEDIPORT. ..................................................................................................... 175 Figure 121: cross-shore coastal profile. ............................................................................................................... 175 Figure 122: fall velocity by Van Rijn (1984) and Delft Hydraulics. ........................................................................ 177 Figure 123: measured and approximated tidal current velocity. ......................................................................... 179 Figure 124: measured and approximated water level. ........................................................................................ 179 Figure 125: wave height, wave period and sediment transport in 1998.............................................................. 181 Figure 126: wave height, wave period and sediment transport (m3/s) between 1997 and 2009. ...................... 182 Figure 127: accumulated sediment transport (m3) from 1997 to 2009. .............................................................. 183 Figure 128: results of the sensitivity analysis. ...................................................................................................... 184 Figure 129: LITLINE model setup with indicated boundary conditions. ............................................................... 186 Figure 130: offshore port schematization. ........................................................................................................... 187 Figure 131: coastal port schematization. ............................................................................................................. 187 Figure 132: definition of coastline characteristics. .............................................................................................. 188 Figure 133: extended cross-shore profile............................................................................................................. 189 Figure 134: capital dredging costs........................................................................................................................ 196 28/05/2010 XIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 XIV MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam TABLE OF TABLES Table 1: fetch schematization and wind setup calculation. ................................................................................... 16 Table 2: wind speed and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. ........................................ 23 Table 3: typhoon induced wind speeds.................................................................................................................. 27 Table 4: wave height and direction and the corresponding occurrence frequencies. ........................................... 31 Table 5: wave period and direction and the corresponding occurrence frequencies. ........................................... 32 Table 6: wave steepness' for the different wave climates. .................................................................................... 34 Table 7: typhoon generated extreme waves.......................................................................................................... 35 Table 8: monsoon generated extreme waves. ....................................................................................................... 36 Table 9: wave height and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. ....................................... 41 Table 10: calculation of typhoon wave periods under extreme conditions. .......................................................... 42 Table 11: offshore typhoon conditions for wave model. ....................................................................................... 43 Table 12: nearshore typhoon wave conditions for structural design..................................................................... 44 Table 13: nearshore typhoon wave conditions for littoral transport calculation................................................... 44 Table 14: calculation of monsoon wave periods under extreme conditions. ........................................................ 45 Table 15: offshore monsoon conditions for wave model....................................................................................... 45 Table 16: nearshore monsoon wave conditions. ................................................................................................... 45 Table 17: current velocity and the occurrence frequency (%) in vertical 2. Source: TEDIPORT. ............................ 50 Table 18: sediment characteristics for MD1 to MD17. .......................................................................................... 53 Table 19: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year by CERC formula. ........................................................ 57 Table 20: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year as calculated by LITPACK ............................................ 58 Table 21: input for typhoon induced sediment transport. ..................................................................................... 58 Table 22: input for monsoon induced sediment transport. ................................................................................... 60 Table 23: determination of coal volume. ............................................................................................................... 67 Table 24: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 1. ................................................ 70 Table 25: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 2. ................................................ 71 Table 26: occupancy, mean waiting time and mean turnaround time in Phase 3. ................................................ 71 Table 27: required storage areas for clinker storage facility. ................................................................................. 77 Table 28: required storage areas for coal storage facility. ..................................................................................... 77 Table 29: required number of berths, transport and storage capacities. .............................................................. 78 Table 30: characteristics of clinker and coal vessels. ............................................................................................. 80 Table 31: calculation results of channel width. ...................................................................................................... 83 Table 32: calculation results of channel depth....................................................................................................... 84 Table 33: calculation result for inner channel depth. ............................................................................................ 85 Table 34: summary of water area dimensions. ...................................................................................................... 87 Table 35: determination of weight factors............................................................................................................. 96 Table 36: wave diffraction factors for coastal port. ............................................................................................... 98 Table 37: wave diffraction factors for offshore port. ............................................................................................. 99 Table 38: coastline growth in time for coastal port. ............................................................................................ 101 Table 39: coastline growth in time for offshore port. .......................................................................................... 102 Table 40: MCA result. ........................................................................................................................................... 110 Table 41: calculation of sand spit volume. ........................................................................................................... 112 Table 42: required volumes of concrete and natural rock – coastal port. ........................................................... 117 Table 43: material availability and costs. ............................................................................................................. 117 Table 44: placing and total costs per m3.............................................................................................................. 118 Table 45: Costs of Xbloc armour units.................................................................................................................. 118 Table 46: Total costs of breakwaters – coastal port............................................................................................. 118 Table 47: cost estimate coastal port. ................................................................................................................... 119 Table 48: total costs of breakwater - offshore port. ............................................................................................ 124 Table 49: NPV maintenance dredging operations - coastal port. ......................................................................... 126 28/05/2010 XV MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam Table 50: NPV maintenance dredging operations - offshore port. ...................................................................... 127 Table 51: Cost-Value Approach............................................................................................................................ 128 Table 52: wind speed and direction with corresponding occurrence frequencies. ............................................. 136 Table 53: wave height and direction and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence. ................................... 137 Table 54: top 50 typhoons between 1959 – 2009 and corresponding wind speeds............................................ 140 Table 55: top 50 typhoons and corresponding wave heights. ............................................................................. 143 Table 56: distant r, ratio r/R, ratio Hr/HR, Hs;max and Hs; max_site. ................................................................. 146 Table 57: example calculation: characteristics of typhoon Xangsane.................................................................. 147 Table 58: example calculation: results for typhoon Xangsane............................................................................. 147 Table 59: example calculation: actual wave height Hs;site (in m) ....................................................................... 148 Table 60: top 10 monsoon storms in terms of wave height. ............................................................................... 153 Table 61: example of a SWAN wavecon file......................................................................................................... 160 Table 62: SWAN input and output for offshore - nearshore wave translation .................................................... 161 Table 63: extreme offshore wave condition. ....................................................................................................... 161 Table 64: offshore - nearshore wave translation in normal conditions. .............................................................. 163 Table 65: extreme offshore and nearshore condition. ........................................................................................ 165 Table 66: wave height versus period and the corresponding occurrence frequency. ......................................... 171 Table 67: Kr versus wave height and wave period. .............................................................................................. 171 Table 68: Ksh versus wave height and wave period. ........................................................................................... 171 Table 69: nb versus wave height and wave direction. ......................................................................................... 172 Table 70: cb versus wave height and wave direction. ......................................................................................... 172 Table 71: wave height and period and the corresponding littoral transport. ...................................................... 172 Table 72: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year calculated by CERC formula. .................................... 173 Table 73: result of sediment transport for one random event. ........................................................................... 181 Table 74: total littoral transport per year and per 12 year as calculated by LITPACK .......................................... 183 Table 75: berth calculation phase 1. .................................................................................................................... 190 Table 76: berth calculation phase 2. .................................................................................................................... 191 Table 77: berth calculation phase 3. .................................................................................................................... 192 Table 78: breakwater calculation – coastal port. ................................................................................................. 194 Table 79: breakwater calculation – offshore port................................................................................................ 195 Table 80: maintenance dredging costs - coastal port. ......................................................................................... 197 Table 81: maintenance dredging costs - offshore port. ....................................................................................... 198 28/05/2010 XVI MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam TABLE OF EQUATIONS Equation 1:water level rise due to low atmospheric pressure. .............................................................................. 14 Equation 2: calculation of wind shear stress and water level gradient. ................................................................. 15 Equation 3: Hs - Tm relationship. ........................................................................................................................... 34 Equation 4: CERC formula. ..................................................................................................................................... 56 Equation 5: basic sediment transport formula....................................................................................................... 57 Equation 6: formula to calculate v_eff. .................................................................................................................. 82 Equation 7: formula to calculate channel width. ................................................................................................... 83 Equation 8: formula to calculate channel depth. ................................................................................................... 84 Equation 9: calculation of quay length for one berth. ........................................................................................... 86 Equation 10: calculation of sedimentation volume. ............................................................................................ 107 Equation 11: calculation of PV (Present Value). ................................................................................................... 126 Equation 12: Bretschneider equation for maximum wind speed (m/s) in tropical depressions. ......................... 138 Equation 13: calculation of effective radius. ........................................................................................................ 141 Equation 14: Young's equation. ........................................................................................................................... 141 Equation 15: JONSWAP relationship. ................................................................................................................... 141 Equation 16: example calculation: effective radius. ............................................................................................ 147 Equation 17: example calculation: equivalent fetch. ........................................................................................... 147 Equation 18: example calculation: wave height Hs;max (in m)............................................................................ 147 Equation 19: calculation of the probability of exceedance of U10 for the peak-over-threshold approach. ........ 149 Equation 20: Calculation of U10 from Weibull equation. .................................................................................... 150 Equation 21: requirement for deep water wave conditions. ............................................................................... 166 Equation 22: basic CERC formula. ........................................................................................................................ 168 Equation 23: explicit CERC formula ...................................................................................................................... 168 Equation 24: calculation L0. ................................................................................................................................. 169 Equation 25: calculation L. ................................................................................................................................... 169 Equation 26: calculation k. ................................................................................................................................... 169 Equation 27: calculation c. ................................................................................................................................... 169 Equation 28: Snel's Law and calculation of phi_b. ............................................................................................... 170 Equation 29: refraction factor. ............................................................................................................................. 170 Equation 30: conservation of energy in waves. ................................................................................................... 170 Equation 31: shoaling factor. ............................................................................................................................... 170 Equation 32: calculation Sx. ................................................................................................................................. 170 Equation 33: calculation dimensionless bed shear stress. ................................................................................... 174 Equation 34: vertical turbulent diffusion equation. ............................................................................................. 174 Equation 35: suspended sediment transport. ...................................................................................................... 174 Equation 36: calculation of fall velocity. .............................................................................................................. 176 Equation 37: calculation of kinematic viscosity.................................................................................................... 176 Equation 38: continuity equation for sediment. .................................................................................................. 185 28/05/2010 XVII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen Port Dong Lam 28/05/2010 XVIII MSc Thesis – W.A. Broersen
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